The impact of vitamin D supplement intake on vascular endothelial function; a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Aim: to systematically review and conduct a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials investigating the impact of vitamin D supplementation on endothelial function.
Method: We searched PubMed-Medline, SCOPUS, Web of Science and Google Scholar (until June 2016) to detect prospective studies evaluating the impact of vitamin D supplementation on endothelial function indexes. We used random effects models (using DerSimonian-Laird method) and generic inverse variance methods to synthesize quantitative data. We used the leave-one-out method for sensitivity analysis. To quantitatively assess the heterogeneity we used the I 2 index. Systematic review registration: CRD42016039329.
Results: From a total of 213 entries identified, 12 studies were appropriate for inclusion into the final analysis. The meta-analysis indicated a significant enhancement in flow-mediated dilation (FMD) following D supplementation (vitamin D intervention group versus control group 1.27 %, (95% CI 0.20 to 2.34, N = 11 arms, heterogeneity p = 0.054; I 2 51.2 %). These findings were robust in sensitivity analyses.
Conclusions: This meta-analysis suggested that vitamin D supplementation may improve endothelial function. Randomized control trials with a longer-term follow-up are warranted to clarify the existing controversies and shed light on the potential underlying mechanisms.
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