Acute selective bioactivity of grape seed proanthocyanidins on enteroendocrine secretions in the gastrointestinal tract
Background : Enteroendocrine cells respond to food components by secreting an array of hormones that regulate several functions. We have previously shown that grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPE) modulate GLP-1 levels.
Objective : To deepen on the knowledge of the mechanisms used by GSPE to increase GLP-1, and extend it to its role at modulation of other enterohormones.
Design : We used an ex vivo system to test direct modulation of enterohormones; STC-1 cells to test pure phenolic compounds; and rats to test the effects at different gastrointestinal segments.
Results : GSPE compounds act at several locations along the gastrointestinal tract modulating enterohormone secretion depending on the feeding condition. GSPE directly promotes GLP-1 secretion in the ileum, while unabsorbed/metabolized forms do so in the colon. Such stimulation requires the presence of glucose. GSPE enhanced GIP and reduced CCK secretion; gallic acid could be partly responsible for this effect.
Conclusions : The activity of GSPE modulating enterohormone secretion may help to explain its effects on metabolism. GSPE acts through several mechanisms; its compounds and their metabolites are GLP-1 secretagogues in ileum and colon, respectively. In vivo GLP-1 secretion might also be mediated by indirect pathways involving modulation of other enterohormones that in turn regulate GLP-1 release.