Food & Nutrition Research 2020-04-06T13:23:17-07:00 The Food & Nutrition Research Editorial Team Open Journal Systems <p>As one of the first Open Access journals in its field,&nbsp;<em>Food &amp; Nutrition Research&nbsp;</em>offers an important forum for researchers&nbsp;to exchange the latest results from research on human nutrition broadly and food-related nutrition in particular. The&nbsp;Journal&nbsp;is widely indexed and has an&nbsp;<strong>Impact Factor of 2.553 (2018).</strong></p> A 12-week, randomized, double-blind study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of liver function after using fermented ginseng powder (GBCK25) 2020-04-06T13:23:17-07:00 Su-Jin Jung Ji-Hyun Hwang Soo-Hyun Park Eun-Kyung Choi Ki-Chan Ha Hyang-Im Baek Dong-Gue Shin Jeong-Hun Seo Soo-Wan Chae <p><strong>Background</strong>: Recently, clinical research has suggested that red ginseng components play a role in liver protection and combating fatigue. However, fermented ginseng has not been analyzed for liver-protective or anti-fatigue effects.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: This study evaluates the positive effects of fermented ginseng powder (GBCK25) on liver function.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Ninety participants with elevated alanine aminotransferase levels (35 ≤ ALT ≤1 05 IU/L) were randomized to one of three groups. The participants were treated with GBCK25 tablets at a dose of 500 mg/ day (high dose), 125 mg/day (low dose), or placebo group daily for 12 weeks. The primary outcomes included changes in ALT and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels. The secondary outcomes included changes in aspartate amino-transferase (AST), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), multidimensional fatigue scale, lipid profile, and antioxidant markers.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: In male subjects, after 12 weeks of low-dose GBCK25 (125 mg) supplementation, the GGT (P = 0.036) and hs-CRP (P = 0.021) levels decreased significantly more than those in the placebo group. High-dose GBCK25 (500 mg) supplementation significantly decreased the fatigue score compared with the placebo group. There were no clinically significant differences between the groups when studying any safety parameter.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Our results suggest that GBCK25 supplementation has beneficial effects on liver function. Trial registration: This study was registered at Clinical (NCT03260543).</p> 2020-04-06T13:19:10-07:00 Copyright (c) A novel exopolysaccharide produced by <em>Lactobacillus coryniformis</em> NA-3 exhibits antioxidant and biofilm-inhibiting properties <em>in vitro</em> 2020-04-03T12:42:35-07:00 Xiaoqing Xu Qing Peng Yuwei Zhang Dandan Tian Pengbo Zhang Ying Huang Lan Ma Yu Qiao Bo Shi <p><strong>Background</strong>: Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) secreted from lactic acid bacteria are carbohydrate polymers with reported biological activities. In this study, we extracted and characterized the composition as well as antioxidant and biofilm-inhibitory properties of EPS from Lactobacillus coryniformis NA-3 isolated from northeast Chinese sauerkraut (Suan Cai).</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Lactobacillus coryniformis NA-3 was identified with 16S rDNA amplification and Neighbor Joining (NJ) phylogenetic analysis. EPS derived from Lactobacillus coryniformis NA-3 (EPS-NA3) was analyzed, including compositions by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), functional groups by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and glycosidic bond configuration by Hydrogen-1 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR). Antioxidant activity of EPS was evaluated with hydroxyl and superoxide radical-scavenging. Anti-biofilm activities of EPS-NA3 were checked through inhibition and dispersion.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The monosaccharide composition of EPS included α-rhamnose, α-mannose, α-galactose, and α-glucose in a ratio of 2.6:1.0:5.0:3.3. The free radical-scavenging abilities of EPS-NA3 were 37.77% ± 1.56% and 78.87% ± 3.07% on hydroxyl and superoxide reactive oxygen species respectively. Moreover, EPS-NA3 attenuated the formation of Bacillus cereus and Salmonella typhimurium biofilms by inhibition ratios of approximately 80% and 40% respectively. Additionally, treatment with EPS-NA3 dispersed established biofilms of B. cereus and S. typhimurium by approximately 90% and 20% respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: These results suggest that EPS-NA3 may be developed as antioxidant and anti-biofilm agents for industrial and clinical applications due to its capacity of scavenging free radicals, inhibition of bacterial biofilm formation, and dispersion of established biofilms.</p> 2020-04-03T12:41:34-07:00 Copyright (c) <em>Camellia</em> cake extracts reduce burn injury through suppressing inflammatory responses and enhancing collagen synthesis 2020-03-16T03:39:59-07:00 Yuxia Liu Xiaomei Xiao Luling Ji Lu Xie Suzhen Wu Zhiping Liu <p><strong>Background</strong>: Burn injury accidents happen in our daily life, and the burn mortality is especially high in the low-to-middle-income countries. Camellia cake extracts (CCEs) are compound extracts from Camellia cake, and the major ingredients in CCEs may have antimicrobial, anti-oxidative, and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the effects of CCEs on burn inflammation and injury remain unknown.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: This study is to investigate the effects of CCEs in burn injury and explore its mechanism.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: First, CCEs were identified to mainly contain camelliaside A and B using Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer (UHPLC-TOF-MS) method. Second, the CCEs’ effect on burn was tested. Burn was induced by boiling water in mice, and then CCEs (30, 50, and 100 mg/mL) were applied on the damaged skin at 3, 7, and 14 days after burn induction.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The results showed that CCEs protected the skin from burn-induced inflammation and enhanced the wound healing in a dose-dependent manner. CCEs decreased the expression levels of various cytokines including IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, MCP-1, TGF-β, and IL-10, as well as inflammatory related factors iNOS. Moreover, CCEs increased the levels of collagens, including the mRNA of COLα-1 and COL-3, and inhibited the mRNA of MMP-1 and TIMP-1, and increased the collagen staining. CCEs also reversed the impairment of activity levels of anti-oxidative enzymes. Furthermore, CCEs suppressed the gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in LPS-stimulated human skin keratinocyte, possibly through inhibiting NF-κB signaling pathway. In addition, toxicological safety experiments on CCEs showed that the oral median lethal dose (LD50) was 2,000 mg/kg, the percutaneous LD50 was greater than 2,000 mg/kg, and CCEs did not cause gene mutation.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: CCEs exert a potent anti-inflammatory effect against burn damage in mice. And toxicological safety experiments suggest that CCEs are safe for usage.</p> 2020-03-06T14:08:21-08:00 Copyright (c) White sweet potato ameliorates hyperglycemia and regenerates pancreatic islets in diabetic mice 2020-03-02T13:11:57-08:00 Chun-Kuang Shih Chiao-Ming Chen Viola Varga Liang-Chen Shih Peng-Ru Chen Shu-Fang Lo Lie-Fen Shyur Sing-Chung Li <p><strong>Background</strong>: White sweet potato (WSP) has many potential beneficial effects on metabolic control and on diabetes- related insulin resistance. The antihyperglycemic effects of Tainung No. 10 (TNG10), a variety of WSP in Taiwan, warrant investigation.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To investigate the antidiabetic activity of WSP (Ipomoea batatas L. TNG10) and the mechanisms for interventions using whole leaves or tubers of WSP in diabetic mice.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: Mice were co-administered with streptozotocin and nicotinamide to induce diabetes and then treated with an experimental diet including either 10% WSP tuber (10%-T) and 30% WSP tuber (30%-T) or 0.5% WSP leaf (0.5%-L) and 5% WSP leaf (5%-L). After 8 weeks’ treatment, their plasma glycemic parameters, lipid profiles, and inflammatory marker were analyzed. Their pancreases were removed for histopathologic image analysis; proteins were also extracted from their muscles for phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The 30%-T or 5%-L mice had lower plasma glucose, insulin, glucose area under the curve (AUC), homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), alanine transaminase, triglyceride, and tumor necrosis factor alpha levels. In all diabetic mice, their Langerhans’s area was reduced by 60%; however, after 30% WSP-T or 5% WSP-L diets, the mice demonstrated significant restoration of the Langerhans’s areas (approximately 30%). Only in 5%-L mice, slightly increased expression of insulin-signaling pathway-related proteins, phosphorylated insulin receptor and protein kinase B and membrane glucose transporter 4 was noted.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: WSP has antihyperglycemic effects by inducing pancreatic islet regeneration and insulin resistance amelioration. Therefore, WSP has potential applications in dietary diabetes management.</p> 2020-03-02T13:11:09-08:00 Copyright (c) The effects of diet on levels of physical activity during winter in forensic inpatients – A randomized controlled trial 2020-02-21T13:14:02-08:00 Anita L. Hansen Gina Ambroziak David Thornton Lisbeth Dahl Bjørn Grung <p><strong>Background</strong>: Fish consumption has been shown to have beneficial effects on biological and subjective measures of health and well-being. However, little is known about the effects of fish consumption at the behavioral level.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The primary aim of this study was to investigate the influence of diet on behavior such as physical activity during winter in forensic inpatients. The secondary aim was to investigate the relationship between vitamin D status and physical activity.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: Eighty-one male forensic inpatients participated in this study. Participants were randomized into two different diet groups: a Fish group receiving fatty fish three times per week and a Control group receiving an alternative meal (e.g. chicken, pork, and beef); while the Fish group received their fish, the Control group received an alternate meal, but with the same nutritional value as their habitual diet. The duration of the food intervention was 6 months.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The results revealed that the Fish group had a regular pattern of physical activity throughout the intervention period. The participants in the Control group showed a more irregular pattern of physical activity in addition to a significant reduction in physical activity over time.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Behavior such as physical activity during winter seemed to be influenced by the diet.</p> 2020-02-21T13:03:32-08:00 Copyright (c) Capsaicin has an anti-obesity effect through alterations in gut microbiota populations and short-chain fatty acid concentrations 2020-02-19T13:58:12-08:00 Yuanwei Wang Cheng Tang Yong Tang Haiyan Yin Xiong Liu <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The present study investigated whether CAP exerted its anti-obesity effect through changes in the composition of gut microbiota and SCFAs, and whether the TRPV1 contributes to CAP’s effects against obesity in HFD-fed mice.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: C57BL/6J (TRPV1+/+) and B6.129X1-Trpv1tm1Jul/J (TRPV1-/-) mice were respectively divided into three groups (n = 6),that is SLD, HFD-fed, and CAP (2 mg/kg, po) +HFD fed and were administered respective treatment for 12 weeks.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: We observed significantly lower weight gain and food intake, triglyceride, cholesterol, glucose, and insulin levels in HFD+CAP-fed TRPV1knockout (KO) mice compared to the HFD-fed KO mice, though this effect was more obvious in wild-type (WT) mice. CAP increased the numbers of Akkermansia, Prevotella, Bacteroides, Odoribacter, Allobaculum, Coprococcus, and S24-7, and reduced the numbers of Desulfovibrio, Escherichia, Helicobacter, and Sutterella in the HFD+CAP-fed WT and KO mice compared with HFD-fed WT and KO mice. CAP increased the relative abundances of SCFAs producing the bacterial species, which increased intestinal acetate and propionate concentrations, which were beneficial in prevention and treatment of obesity.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Results from our study indicate that the reduced food intake and anti-obesity effect of CAP had been observed regardless of TRPV1 channel activation, and which is mediated by changes in the gut microbiota populations and SCFAs concentrations.</p> 2020-02-19T13:45:05-08:00 Copyright (c) Associations between breastfeeding mode and duration and food neophobia in toddlerhood: A cross-sectional study among Norwegian toddlers 2020-02-14T13:18:44-08:00 Nina Cecilie Øverby Eli Anne Myrvoll Blomkvist Elisabet Rudjord Hillesund <p><strong>Background</strong>: Research on the association between breastfeeding duration and food neophobia is inconclusive. Breastfeeding and measures to reduce food neophobia are highly recommended to ensure a healthy diet early in life.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between breastfeeding duration and food neophobia in young Norwegian children.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: Participants (n = 246) were recruited through kindergartens in four Norwegian counties in 2017. The parents of 1-year-olds filled in questionnaires, including standardized questions on breastfeeding and food neophobia. Cross-sectional results are presented. Comparisons of child neophobia score at 16 months of age according to breastfeeding status at various timepoints during infancy were explored in linear regression models adjusted for maternal education and parental food neophobia.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Still being breastfed at 12 months and being exclusively breastfed at 5 months were independently associated with slightly higher food neophobia score at the mean age of 16 months compared to shorter duration of breastfeeding. We found no other associations between breastfeeding duration and child food neophobia.</p> <p><strong>Discussion</strong>: Our study adds to the somewhat scarce literature regarding associations between breastfeeding mode and duration and later food neophobia; some literature shows protective relations between breastfeeding and food fussiness, and others report opposite or null findings.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: We found that both being breastfed at 12 months and being exclusively breastfed at 5 months were independently associated with slightly higher food neophobia score at the mean age of 16 months compared to shorter duration of breastfeeding. As the data are derived from a cross-sectional study, these findings should be interpreted with caution.</p> 2020-02-14T13:18:09-08:00 Copyright (c) Purple sweet potato color protects against hepatocyte apoptosis through Sirt1 activation in high-fat-diet-treated mice 2020-02-04T13:45:22-08:00 Weitong Su Cheng Zhang Feng Chen Junwen Sui Jiaqi Lu Qingqing Wang Qun Shan Guihong Zheng Jun Lu Chunhui Sun Shaohua Fan Dongmei Wu Zifeng Zhang Yuanlin Zheng <p><strong>Background</strong>: Recent evidence indicates that the inhibition of hepatocyte apoptosis is possible to develop a potential therapeutic strategy for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Our previous work suggested that purple sweet potato color (PSPC), a class of naturally occurring anthocyanins, effectively improved many features of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD. However, whether PSPC ameliorates HFD-induced hepatocyte apoptosis has never been investigated.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: Here we investigated the effects of PSPC on HFD-induced hepatic apoptosis and the mechanisms underlying these effects.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: Mice were divided into four groups: Control group, HFD group, HFD + PSPC group and PSPC group. PSPC was administered by daily oral gavage at doses of 700 mg/kg/day for 20 weeks. EX-527 (a SirT1-selective inhibitor) and Sirt1 siRNA were used to demonstrate the Sirt1 dependence of PSPC-mediated effects on apoptotic and survival signaling pathways in vivo and in vitro.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Our results showed that PSPC reduced body weights, hepatic triglyceride contents, histopathological lesions and serum ALT levels in a mouse model of NAFLD induced by HFD. Furthermore, PSPC attenuated HFD-induced hepatocyte apoptosis ratio from 7.27 ± 0.92% to 1.79 ± 0.27% in mouse livers, which is insignificant compared with that of controls. Moreover, PSPC activated Sirt1 by boosting NAD+ level in HFD-treated mouse livers. Furthermore, PSPC promoted Sirt1-dependent suppression of P53-mediated apoptotic signaling and activation of Akt survival signaling pathway in HFD-treated mouse livers, which was confirmed by EX527 treatment. Moreover, Sirt1 knockdown abolished these ameliorative effects of PSPC on apoptosis and P53 acetylation and protein expression in PA-treated L02 cells. Ultimately, PSPC reduced Caspase-3 activation and Bax level, and elevated the Bcl-2 level in HFD-treated mouse livers.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: PSPC protected against HFD-induced hepatic apoptosis by promoting Sirt1- dependent inhibition of p53-apoptotic pathway and facilitation of Akt survival pathway. This study indicates that PSPC is a candidate for nutritional intervention of NAFLD.</p> 2020-02-04T13:41:41-08:00 Copyright (c) Long-term caloric restriction activates the myocardial SIRT1/ AMPK/PGC-1α pathway in C57BL/6J male mice 2020-01-29T02:35:41-08:00 Lina Ma Rong Wang Hongjuan Wang Yaxin Zhang Zhiwei Zhao <p><strong>Background</strong>: Caloric restriction (CR) can help in improving heart function. There is as yet no consensus on the mechanism of the effect of CR. Silent mating-type information regulation 1 (SIRT1), adenosine monophosphate- activated protein kinase (AMPK), and mTOR are key players in metabolic stress management. We aimed to explore the effect of CR on the myocardial SIRT1/AMPK/mTOR pathway in mice.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Thirty-six 6-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into three groups: normal control group (NC group, n = 12), high-energy group (HE group, n = 12) and CR group (n = 12) according to different diets. After 11 months, western blot was used to examine proteins such as p-AMPK, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), SIRT1, and p-mTOR, whereas real-time PCR was used to examine the expression of AMPK, PGC-1α, and SIRT1 transcripts.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Compared to the HE group, the CR group displayed increased expression of myocardial p-AMPK protein, SIRT1 protein and mRNA, and PGC-1a mRNA. However, no difference was observed in the expression of p-mTOR protein and mTOR mRNA in the myocardium among the three groups.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: CR improves the SIRT1/AMPK/PGC-1α pathway in mice myocardium with no effect on the mTOR pathway.</p> 2020-01-29T02:35:10-08:00 Copyright (c) Prediction model of artificial neural network for the risk of hyperuricemia incorporating dietary risk factors in a Chinese adult study 2020-01-20T13:54:09-08:00 Jie Zeng Junguo Zhang Ziyi Li Tianwang Li Guowei Li <p><strong>Background</strong>: Risk of hyperuricemia (HU) has been shown to be strongly associated with dietary factors. However, there is scarce evidence on prediction models incorporating dietary factors to estimate the risk of HU.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The aim of this study was to develop a prediction model to predict the risk of HU in Chinese adults based on dietary information.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: Our study was based on a cross-sectional survey, which recruited 1,488 community residents aged 18 to 60 years in Beijing from October 2010 to January 2011. The eligible participants were randomly divided into a training set (n<sub>1</sub> = 992) and a validation set (n<sub>2</sub> = 496) in the ratio of 2:1. We developed the prediction model in three stages. We first used a logistic regression model (LRM) based on the training set to select a set of dietary risk factors which were related to the risk of HU. Artificial neural network (ANN) was then used to construct the prediction model using the training set. Finally, we used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to assess the accuracy of the prediction model using training and validation sets.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: In the training set, the mean age of participants with and without HU was 39.3 (standard deviation [SD]: 9.65) and 38.2 (SD: 9.38) years, respectively. Patients with HU consisted of 101 males (77.7%) and 29 females (22.3%). The LRM found that food frequency (vegetables [odds ratio (OR) = 0.73], meat [0.72], eggs [0.80], plant oil [0.78], tea [0.51], eating habits (breakfast [OR = 1.28]), and the salty cooking style (OR = 1.33) were associated with risk of HU. In the ANN analysis, we selected a three-layer back propagation neural network (BPNN) model with 14, 3, and 1 neuron in the input, hidden, and output layers, respectively, as the best prediction model. The areas under the ROC of the training and validation sets were 0.827 and 0.814, respectively. HU would occur when the incidence probability is greater than 0.128. The indicators of accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and Yuden Index suggested that the ANN model in our study is successful and valuable.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: This study suggests that the ANN model could be used to predict the risk of HU in Chinese adults. Further prospective studies are needed to improve the accuracy and to generalize the use of model.</p> 2020-01-20T13:53:40-08:00 Copyright (c) Resveratrol-induced brown fat-like phenotype in 3T3-L1 adipocytes partly via mTOR pathway 2020-01-17T06:53:47-08:00 Weiyao Liao Zihui Liu Xiaohan Yin Xinjie Zheng Qingrong Li Hongmin Zhang Lin Zheng Xiang Feng <p><strong>Background</strong>: Browning of white adipose tissues (WAT) is recognized as a novel way to combat obesity and its related comorbidities. Thus, a lot of dietary agents contributing to browning of WAT have been identified.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: In this study, we try to explore the mechanism of the browning of WAT induced by resveratrol (Res) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: The levels of cell viability and lipid accumulation were evaluated under different concentrations of Res. Cell signaling pathway analysis was performed to investigate the possible mechanisms of the WAT browning effect of Res in 3T3-L1 cells.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: We found that Res induced the brown fat-like phenotype by activating protein expressions of brown adipocyte-specific markers, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ), peroxisome proliferator- activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α), and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). Besides, Res reduced lipid accumulation, as shown by Oil Red O staining. The increased small lipid droplets implied that Res-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes had some features of brown adipocytes. The brown fat-like phenotype in 3T3-L1 adipocytes induced by Res was possibly mediated by activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), as brown adipocyte-specific markers were decreased by rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTOR and the MHY1485 treatment, an activator of mTOR, showed the similar effect of Res on browning markers.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Res induced brown-like adipocyte phenotype in 3T3-L1 adipocytes partly via mTOR pathway, which provided new insights into the utilization of Res to prevent obesity and related comorbidities.</p> 2020-01-14T00:00:00-08:00 Copyright (c) Groundnut spread likability, sensory properties, and intent to pay for quality certification 2020-01-17T06:56:10-08:00 Ozgur Kaya Wojciech J. Florkowski Daniel Sarpong Manjeet S. Chinnan Anna V. A. Ressurrecion <p>Quality-certified, nutritious novel groundnut spread has great commercialization possibilities due to evolving urban lifestyles in Africa, but lack of information about likability, sensory attributes, and consumer safety awareness is a severe barrier for small enterprises. This paper examines a novel groundnut spread, made of sorted kernels deemed free of aflatoxin, intended for use on bread in a fashion similar to groundnut paste or groundnut butter, but with modified sensory characteristics. In particular, it seeks to measure the effects of sensory attributes of the novel spread on the intent to pay for safety certification and the role of consumer awareness of aflatoxin. A novel spread was prepared with groundnut paste from sorted kernels (to eliminate the risk of aflatoxin contamination) and cocoa. Adults intercepted at Ghana’s International Fair in 2012 volunteered to sample the spread and complete a questionnaire. Results from a tasting panel of untrained participants established that sensory attributes and panellist characteristics are relevant to the intent to pay for quality certification. Spread likability, aroma, education, knowledge about aflatoxin, packaging and being married were identified as major factors increasing the probability of intent to pay for quality certification whereas young age and the presence of children in a household lowered the probability. Results also identified income, education level, and having young children at home as increasing the chances of knowing about aflatoxin. Groundnut paste available in Ghana is often contaminated by aflatoxin as it is in other countries in the region and consumers cannot visually assess paste quality. Under the circumstances, quality certification is necessary.</p> 2020-01-09T00:00:00-08:00 Copyright (c) Insufficient iodine status in pregnant women as a consequence of dietary changes 2020-01-17T06:57:56-08:00 Solveig Adalsteinsdottir Ellen Alma Tryggvadottir Laufey Hrolfsdottir Thorhallur I. Halldorsson Bryndis Eva Birgisdottir Ingibjorg Th. Hreidarsdottir Hildur Hardardottir Petra Arohonka Iris Erlund Ingibjorg Gunnarsdottir <p><strong>Background</strong>: Historically, Iceland has been an iodine-sufficient nation due to notably high fish and milk consumption. Recent data suggest that the intake of these important dietary sources of iodine has decreased considerably.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To evaluate the iodine status of pregnant women in Iceland and to determine dietary factors associated with risk for deficiency.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Subjects were women (<em>n</em> = 983; 73% of the eligible sample) attending their first ultrasound appointment in gestational weeks 11–14 in the period October 2017–March 2018. Spot urine samples were collected for assessment of urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and creatinine. The ratio of iodine to creatinine (I/Cr) was calculated. Median UIC was compared with the optimal range of 150–249 μg/L defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). Diet was assessed using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), which provided information on main dietary sources of iodine in the population studied (dairy and fish).</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The median UIC (95% confidence interval (CI)) and I/Cr of the study population was 89 μg/L (42, 141) and 100 (94, 108) μg/g, respectively. UIC increased with higher frequency of dairy intake, ranging from median UIC of 55 (35, 79) μg/L for women consuming dairy products &lt;1 time per week to 124 (98, 151) μg/L in the group consuming dairy &gt;2 times per day (P for trend &lt;0.001). A small group of women reporting complete avoidance of fish (<em>n</em> = 18) had UIC of 50 (21, 123) μg/L and significantly lower I/Cr compared with those who did not report avoidance of fish (58 (34, 134) μg/g vs. 100 (94, 108) μg/g, <em>P</em> = 0.041). Women taking supplements containing iodine (<em>n</em> = 34, 3.5%) had significantly higher UIC compared with those who did not take supplements (141 (77, 263) μg/L vs. 87 (82, 94), <em>P</em> = 0.037).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: For the first time, insufficient iodine status is being observed in an Icelandic population. There is an urgent need for a public health action aiming at improving iodine status of women of childbearing age in Iceland.</p> 2020-01-06T00:00:00-08:00 Copyright (c)