Food & Nutrition Research 2020-11-16T14:16:58-08:00 The Food & Nutrition Research Editorial Team Open Journal Systems <p>As one of the first Open Access journals in its field,&nbsp;<em>Food &amp; Nutrition Research&nbsp;</em>(FNR) offers an important forum for researchers to exchange the latest results from research on human nutrition broadly and food-related nutrition in particular. FNR is widely indexed by relevant services and databases, including PubMed Central/PubMed, Scopus, Science Citation Index, with an&nbsp;<strong>Impact Factor of 3.647 (2019)</strong>.</p> Dietary carbohydrate intake in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetes control: a cross-sectional study 2020-11-16T14:16:58-08:00 Muneera Q Al-Mssallem Ali Al-Qarni Mohammed Al-Jamaan <p><strong>Background</strong>: Food intake has important implications for patients with type 2 diabetes.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: Similarly, in other crop species, this observational study aimed to assess dietary carbohydrate (CHO) and non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) intake and examine their association with glycemic control among Saudi patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: We investigated dietary intake in 404 patients (207 males and 197 females) with T2DM between November 2018 and March 2019. Dietary intake was assessed by face-to-face interviews using a validated dietary questionnaire.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The results revealed that dietary CHO intake (67% of energy) exceeded the recommended daily intake, and white rice (Basmati rice) was the major contributor to CHO intake. However, the dietary NSP intake was lower than recommended, and it was negatively associated with HbA<sub>1c</sub> levels.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: This cross-sectional study showed that dietary CHO intake was high among Saudi patients with type 2 diabetes, and that their daily intake of NSPs was correlated with a lower level of HbA<sub>1c</sub>. Dietary advice should be given for patients with diabetes to reduce their intake of starchy food such as rice.</p> 2020-11-16T14:16:38-08:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Muneera Q Al-Mssallem, Ali Al-Qarni, Mohammed Al-Jamaan Green tea leaf powder prevents dyslipidemia in high-fat diet-fed mice by modulating gut microbiota 2020-11-16T14:04:25-08:00 Jin Wang Ping Li Shuang Liu Bowei Zhang Yaozhong Hu Hui Ma Shuo Wang <p><strong>Background</strong>: In the past, most researchers paid more attention to the biological activity of tea infusion and tea polyphenols; however, the prebiotic role of tea leaf powder is still unknown. Green tea leaf powder is rich in dietary fiber and is suggested to be beneficial for human health. Only limited studies have looked at the effects of tea leaf powder (which mainly contains tea dietary fiber) on gut microbiota and health.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The purpose of our study was to determine the effects of green tea leaf powder in preventing hyperlipidemia and to understand its potential lipid-lowering mechanism.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: Mice in three treatment groups were fed high-fat diets (HFDs) by administering either 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 g/kg•d dietary fiber-enriched green tea leaf powder of low, medium, or high, respectively, for 12 weeks. Serum biochemical analyses and mRNA gene expression levels of related energy and lipid metabolism biomarkers from the liver were investigated. In addition, 16S rRNA cecal microbiota and fecal short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were tested.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Green tea leaf powder reduced body weight and total cholesterol of HFD-fed mice in a dose-dependent manner. Green tea leaf powder also increased satiety hormone secretion and reduced systemic inflammation of HFD-fed mice. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses reconfirmed that green tea leaf powder prevented dyslipidemia by enhancing hepatic mRNA expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, cholesterol 7a-hydroxylase, and Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette transporter A1 and decreasing the expression of fatty acid synthase, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c, and liver X receptor. Green tea leaf powder promoted the growth of Blautia, Oscillibacter, Ruminiclostridium, Alloprevotella, and Butyrivibrio and inhibited the growth of Erysipelatoclostridium, Desulfovibrio, and Candidatus_Saccharimonas in the cecum of HFD-fed mice.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: In summary, our results indicate that green tea leaf powder improves lipid metabolism of HFDfed mice in a dose-dependent manner. The potential mechanism involves a synergistic role in reprogramming gut microbiota, increasing satiety hormone secretion, and reducing systemic inflammation.</p> 2020-11-16T14:03:41-08:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Jin Wang, Ping Li, Shuang Liu, Bowei Zhang, Yaozhong Hu, Hui Ma, Shuo Wang <em>Acremonium terricola</em> culture plays anti-inflammatory and antioxidant roles by modulating MAPK signaling pathways in rats with lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis 2020-11-13T13:31:11-08:00 Yang Li Xin Jiang Hongjian Xu Jingyi Lv Guangning Zhang Xiujing Dou Yonggen Zhang Xiaoxiang Li <p><strong>Background</strong>: As a major disease affecting dairy cow production worldwide, bovine mastitis is caused by a variety of pathogenic microorganisms that eventually cause mammary gland inflammation. Acremonium terricola culture (ATC) is a new type of affordable feed additive produced by the solid fermentation of A. terricola isolated from Cordyceps gunnii and exerted its anti-inflammatory effect.</p> <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: To evaluate the protective effects of ATC on mastitis and investigate its active mechanism, a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced rat mastitis model was used in two experiments.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: In Experiment 1, a total of 40 female Sprague–Dawley rats were used to determine the optimal supplementary dose of ATC via gavage trial. In Experiment 2, we examined the effects of an optimal dose of ATC on LPS-induced mastitis in rats.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The results of Experiment 1 showed that administration of ATC improved growth performance and antioxidant functions in the serum and the liver, as well as immunoglobulin A, G, and M levels in rat serum, and it decreased the content of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, triglyceride, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and serum urea nitrogen in rat serum; a dosage of 250–1,250 mg/kg/day was shown to be high enough to be effective. The results of Experiment 2 indicated that ATC can relieve the inflammatory reaction of mammary glands in rats, and the LPS-induced expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and inducible nitric oxide synthase significantly decreased after ATC treatment. Moreover, our results demonstrated that ATC markedly enhanced the activity of antioxidase in this rat mastitis model. The results of Western blot analysis revealed that ATC could suppress the expression of toll-like receptor 4, phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and activity of c-Jun N-terminal kinase in the LPS-stimulated mastitis model.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Taken together, ATC was shown to exert its anti-inflammatory effect by blocking mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. These results demonstrate that ATC exerts anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects in mastitis prevention.</p> 2020-11-13T12:56:00-08:00 Copyright (c) Bile salt hydrolase-overexpressing <em>Lactobacillus </em>strains can improve hepatic lipid accumulation <em>in vitro</em> in an NAFLD cell model 2020-11-13T13:31:13-08:00 Wenli Huang Guangqiang Wang Yongjun Xia Zhiqiang Xiong Lianzhong Ai <p><strong>Background</strong>: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes a range of liver diseases that occur in the absence of significant alcohol consumption. The probiotic bacterial strains <em>Lactobacillus</em> casei LC2W, which overexpresses the bile salt hydrolase (BSH) gene (referred to as pWQH01), and <em>Lactobacillus plantarum</em> AR113, which exhibits high BSH activity, have been shown to improve hepatic lipid accumulation and may lower cholesterol levels <em>in vivo</em>. These effects may be BSH-dependent, as <em>L. casei</em> LC2W without BSH activity did not exert these beneficial effects.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: This study aimed to investigate the effects of <em>Lactobacillus</em> with high BSH activity on cholesterol accumulation and lipid metabolism abnormalities in oleic acid (OA)- and cholesterol-induced HepG2 cell models, and to determine the mechanism underlying the effects.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: A HepG2 cell model of OA-induced steatosis and cholesterol-induced cholesterol accumulation was developed. OA- and cholesterol-treated HepG2 cells were incubated with <em>L. plantarum</em> AR113, <em>L. casei</em> LC2W or <em>L. case</em>i pWQH01 for 6 h at 37°C with 5% CO2. Subsequently, a series of indicators and gene expressions were analysed.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Both <em>L. plantarum</em> AR113 and <em>L. casei</em> pWQH01 significantly reduced lipid accumulation, total cholesterol (TC) levels and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) mRNA expression relative to the control group, whereas L. casei LC2W had no similar effect. Additionally, exposure to <em>L. plantarum</em> AR113 or <em>L. casei</em> pWQH01 significantly reduced the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c), Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) andsignificantly increased the expression of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Both<em> L. plantarum</em> AR113 and <em>L. casei</em> pWQH01 appear to improve steatosis <em>in vitro</em> in a BSH-dependent manner.</p> 2020-11-12T14:10:07-08:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Guangqiang Wang, Yongjun Xia, Lianzhong Ai Apoptosis induction activity of polysaccharide from <em>Lentinus edodes</em> in H22-bearing mice through ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway and inhibition of tubulin polymerization 2020-10-21T11:07:28-07:00 Qilin Zhang Zhaosong Du Yu Zhang Ziming Zheng Qiang Li Kaiping Wang <p><strong>Background</strong>: <em>Lentinus edodes</em> is a medicinal mushroom widely used in Asian countries for protecting people against some types of cancer and other diseases.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The objective of the present study was to investigate the direct antiproliferation activity and the antitumor mechanisms of water-extracted polysaccharide (WEP1) purified from <em>L. edodes</em> in H22 cells and H22-bearing mice.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: The extraction, isolation, purification, and structure determination of the water-soluted L. edodes polysaccharide WEP1 were performed. The growth inhibitory effects of WEP1 on H22 cells and H22-bearing mice were determined by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-Yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT) method and animal studies. Flow cytometry, scanning electron microscopy, and laser scanning confocal microscopy were used to observe the morphological characteristics of apoptotic cells. The levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected by flow cytometry using 2’,7’-dichlorofluorescein-3’,6’-diacetate (DCFH-DA). Western blot was used to determine the expressions of cell cycle proteins and apoptosis-related proteins.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Results showed that WEP1 with a molecular weight of 662.1 kDa exhibited direct antiproliferation activity on H22 cells in a dose-dependent manner. <em>In vivo</em>, WEP1 significantly inhibited the growth of tumor at different doses (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) and the inhibition rates were 28.27, 35.17, and 51.72%, respectively. Furthermore, morphological changes of apoptosis and ROS overproduction were observed in H22 cells by WEP1 treatment. Cell cycle assay and western blot analyses indicated that the apoptosis induction activity of WEP1 was associated with arresting cell cycle at G2/M phase and activating mitochondrial-apoptotic pathway. Besides, WEP1 disrupted the microtubule network accompanied by alteration of cellular morphology.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Results suggested that the antitumor mechanisms of WEP1 might be related to arresting cell cycle at G2/M phase, inhibiting tubulin polymerization and inducing mitochondrial apoptosis. Therefore, WEP1 possibly could be used as a promising functional food for preventing or treating liver cancer.</p> 2020-10-21T11:06:53-07:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Qilin Zhang, Zhaosong Du, Yu Zhang, Ziming Zheng, Qiang Li, Kaiping Wang Antipostmenopausal effects of <em>Stauntonia hexaphylla</em> and <em>Vaccinium bracteatum</em> fruit combination in estrogen-deficient rats 2020-10-15T12:45:19-07:00 Gyuok Lee Jawon Shin Ara Jo Sojeong Lm Mi-Ri Kim Yunhee Shoi Hyojeong Yun Donghyuck Bae Jaeyong Kim Chul-yung Choi <p><strong>Background</strong>: Climacterium is a series of physical and mental symptoms occurring in women and men due to decreased levels of sex hormones. Women lose the ability to become pregnant due to decreased ovarian estrogen production; the initial symptom being hot flushes. In addition, urogenital atrophy, sexual dysfunction, mood changes, and osteoporosis occur. Extracts of<em> Stauntonia hexaphylla</em> (SH) and <em>Vaccinium bracteatum</em> (VB) fruits, with a wide range of biological activities, are widely used in traditional herbal medicine.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The purpose of this study was to investigate the mitigation of menopausal symptoms, such as hot flushes and postmenopausal osteoporosis after combinatorial treatment with SH and VB (SHVB) of ovariectomized (OVX) rats.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: We measured the bone regenerative effect of SHVB on receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (NF- κB) ligand-induced osteoclast differentiation <em>in vitro</em> and on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis<em> in vivo</em>. We investigated the effect of SHVB in a rat model of menopausal hot flushes, in which the tail skin temperature increases following ovariectomy-induced rapid decline in estrogen levels.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: SHVB inhibited osteoclast formation and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity in primary mouse bone marrow-derived cells. In an estrogen deficiency-induced rat model, measurement of serum bone turnover factors showed that treatment with SHVB lowered the increased bone turnover. Additionally, SHVB decreased OVX-induced bone loss of the total femur. SHVB inhibited osteoclast differentiation, prevented bone mass reduction, and improved trabecular bone structure and biochemical markers in OVX-induced osteoporosis. In addition, administration of SHVB significantly ameliorated the changes in skin temperature in OVX rats.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: SHVB improved the symptoms of menopause. These results provide the foundation for developing SHVB as a natural substance to replace hormones in the future.</p> 2020-10-15T12:44:28-07:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Gyuok Lee, Jawon Shin, Ara Jo, Sojeong Lm, Mi-Ri Kim, Yunhee Shoi, Hyojeong Yun, Donghyuck Bae, Jaeyong Kim, Chul-yung Choi Associations between parental food choice motives, health-promoting feeding practices, and infants’ fruit and vegetable intakes: the Food4toddlers study 2020-10-12T14:32:21-07:00 Margrethe Røed Frøydis Nordgård Vik Elisabet Rudjord Hillesund Wendy Van Lippevelde Nina Cecilie Øverby <p><strong>Objective</strong>: This study aimed to assess the associations between parental food choice motives and infants’ fruit and vegetable intakes and to examine whether parental feeding practices mediated these associations.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: A total of 298 parents participated in the Norwegian Food4toddlers study. Before the child’s first birthday (mean age = 10.9 months), the parents completed an online baseline questionnaire. Five parental food choice motives were assessed: health, convenience, sensory appeal, price, and familiarity. Infants’ fruit and vegetable intakes and three health-promoting feeding practices were also assessed. For each food choice motive and its relation to fruit or vegetable intake, three single mediation models were conducted. Mediation effects were examined using MacKinnon’s product of coefficients procedure, and bootstrap confidence intervals (CIs) were used for inferential testing.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Higher scores on the motive of health were positively associated with infants’ vegetable intake (τ = 0.394, P &lt; 0.001). No other significant associations were found between food choice motives and fruit or vegetable intake. The feeding practice of shaping a healthy environment mediated the relationships between health motive and both fruit (αβ = 0.067, CI: 0.001–0.146) and vegetable (αβ = 0.105, CI: 0.042–0.186) intakes. The feeding practice of encouraging balance and variety mediated the relationships between health motive and vegetable (αβ = 0.085, CI: 0.030–0.150) intake and between sensory appeal motive and vegetable intake (αβ = 0.047, CI: 0.005–0.103).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: High levels of parental health motive are associated with higher infant vegetable intake. Our study contributes to understand the structure of parental feeding behaviors that may have implication for nutrition interventions targeting parents.</p> 2020-10-12T14:31:33-07:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Margrethe Røed, Frøydis Nordgård Vik, Elisabet Rudjord Hillesund, Wendy Van Lippevelde, Nina Cecilie Øverby Red rice<em> koji</em> extract alleviates hyperglycemia by increasing glucose uptake and glucose transporter type 4 levels in skeletal muscle in two diabetic mouse models 2020-10-09T13:13:31-07:00 Takakazu Yagi Koji Ataka Kai-Chun Cheng Hajime Suzuki Keizaburo Ogata Yumiko Yoshizaki Kazunori Takamine Ikuo Kato Shouichi Miyawaki Akio Inui Akihiro Asakawa <p><strong>Background</strong>: Red rice <em>koji</em> (RRK), prepared by growing Monascus species on steamed rice, has been reported to lower blood glucose levels in diabetic animal models. However, the action mechanism is not yet completely understood.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The objective of this study was to examine the mechanism underlying the hypoglycemic action of RRK extract in two diabetic animal models: the insulin-deficiency mice, where the insulin deficiency was induced by streptozotocin (STZ), and insulin-resistance mice, where the insulin resistance was induced by a high-fat diet (HFD).</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: Low (12.5 mg/kg body weight [BW]) and high (50.0 mg/kg BW) doses of RRK extract were orally administered to the mice for 10 successive days (0.25 mL/day/mouse). The protein expression levels of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) in the skeletal muscle and glucose transporter type 2 (GLUT2) in the liver were measured. Blood glucose (BG) levels of STZ-treated mice in insulin tolerance test (ITT) and BG and insulin levels of HFD-fed mice in intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) were investigated.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: In the STZ-treated mice, oral administration of RRK extract lowered BG levels and food intake but increased plasma 1,5-anhydroglucitol level. Moreover, the RRK extract lowered the BG levels of STZ-treated mice as measured by ITT. In the HFD-fed mice, we confirmed that the orally administered RRK extract lowered the BG and the homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance. Furthermore, the RRK extract lowered the BG and insulin levels of HFD-fed mice in IPGTT. Regarding the protein levels of GLUT, the orally administered RRK extract increased the GLUT4 level in the skeletal muscle; however, the RRK extract did not alter the GLUT2 level in the liver of either the STZ-treated or the HFD-fed mice.</p> 2020-10-09T13:12:47-07:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Takakazu Yagi, Koji Ataka, Kai-Chun Cheng, Hajime Suzuki, Keizaburo Ogata, Yumiko Yoshizaki, Kazunori Takamine, Ikuo Kato, Shouichi Miyawaki, Akio Inui, Akihiro Asakawa Effects of paprika carotenoid supplementation on bone turnover in postmenopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, placebocontrolled, parallel-group comparison study 2020-10-05T14:41:15-07:00 Naofumi Umigai Yusuke Kozai Tadahiro Saito Tsuyoshi Takara <p><strong>Background</strong>: Paprika (<em>Capsicum annuum L.</em>) is a good source of carotenoids, including capsanthin, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, and zeaxanthin. Several epidemiological studies have shown a beneficial association of intake of these carotenoids or their blood concentration with bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk. However, little information is available regarding the effect of intake of these carotenoids on bone metabolism in postmenopausal women.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of paprika carotenoid extract (PCE) on bone turnover in healthy, postmenopausal women.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group comparison study. One hundred participants were randomly assigned to PCE or placebo groups. Each group was given a 20 mg PCE (equivalent to 1.4 mg of carotenoids) a day or a placebo for 24 weeks. We measured bone resorption markers (tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b [TRACP-5b] and serum type I collagen cross-linked N-telopeptide [sNTX]) at 12 and 24 weeks and bone formation markers (bone alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin) at 24 weeks.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The percentage decrease of TRACP-5b at 24 weeks was significantly higher for PCE than the placebo. There were no significant differences in sNTX or bone formation markers, although PCE decreased each marker compared with the placebo.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Our findings suggest that PCE supplementation suppresses bone resorption and contributes to maintaining bone quality in postmenopausal women.</p> 2020-10-05T14:40:47-07:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Naofumi Umigai, Yusuke Kozai, Tadahiro Saito, Tsuyoshi Takara Maternal green tea extract intake during lactation attenuates hepatic lipid accumulation in adult male rats exposed to a continuous high-fat diet from the foetal period 2020-10-05T14:27:52-07:00 Shojiro Yamasaki Goh Kimura Kazunari Koizumi Ning Dai Rahel Ketema Tomomi Tomihara Yukako Ueno Yuki Ohno Shin Sato Masaaki Kurasaki Toshiyuki Hosokawa Takeshi Saito <p><strong>Background</strong>: Maternal lipid intake in the early postnatal period has a long-term effect on the possibility of fatty liver formation in children; besides, the importance of lipid consumption during lactation for children’s health has been suggested. Green tea extract (GTE) contains abundant catechins, and it has been reported to improve lipid metabolism and prevent fatty liver.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of maternal GTE intake during lactation on hepatic lipid accumulation in adult male rats exposed to a continuous high-fat (HF) diet from the foetal period.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Pregnant Wistar rats received diets containing 13% (control-fat, CON) or 45% (high-fat, HF) fat. CON-fed mothers received the same diet during lactation, whereas HF-fed mothers received either HF diet alone or HF diet supplemented with 0.24% GTE. At weaning, male offspring were divided into three groups, i.e. CON/CON/CON, HF/HF/HF (HF-offspring) or HF/HF+GTE/HF (GTE-offspring), and were fed until 51 weeks.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: A significant hepatic triglyceride (Tg) accumulation was observed in the HF-offspring when compared with the other offspring. This is presumed to be caused by the promotion of Tg synthesis derived from exogenous fatty acid due to a significant increase in diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 and a decrease in Tg expenditure caused by decreasing microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP) and long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase. On the other hand, attenuated hepatic Tg accumulation was observed in the GTE-offspring. The levels of the hepatic lipid metabolism-related enzymes were improved to the same level as the CON-offspring, and particularly, MTTP was significantly increased as compared with the HF-offspring.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: This study indicates the potential protective effects of maternal GTE intake during lactation on HF diet-induced hepatic lipid accumulation in adult male rat offspring and the possible underlying mechanisms.</p> 2020-10-05T14:27:23-07:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Shojiro Yamasaki, Goh Kimura, Kazunari Koizumi, Ning Dai, Rahel Ketema, Tomomi Tomihara, Yukako Ueno, Yuki Ohno, Shin Sato, Masaaki Kurasaki, Toshiyuki Hosokawa, Takeshi Saito Paeoniflorin attenuates gestational diabetes via Akt/mTOR pathway in a rat model 2020-10-02T00:00:51-07:00 Yonghua Zhang Yulin Liang Huiqiao Liu Ying Huang Hongmei Li Bo Chen <p><strong>Background</strong>: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a type of diabetes associated with pregnancy and may impose risks on both mother and fetus. Akt paeoniflorin was shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperglycemia properties and has a potential ability to suppress mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. The current study aimed to study the effect of paeoniflorin on GDM maternal, fetal, and placental characteristics <em>in vivo</em>.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced gestational diabetes rat model was used in our study. The expression levels of phosphorylation (p-) and total protein expression levels of protein kinase B (Akt), mTOR, serum/ glucocorticoid regulated kinase 1 (SGK1), and eIF4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) in the placenta were determined by Western blot assay. The blood glucose, insulin, and leptin levels were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: We found that placental Akt/mTOR signaling was substantially upregulated in GDM patients compared with healthy donors. Paeoniflorin administration alleviates the dysregulation of blood glucose, leptin, and insulin levels in both maternal and fetal GDM rats. Paeoniflorin treatment suppressed the overactivation of Akt/mTOR signaling in placental tissues. More importantly, administration of paeoniflorin was beneficial for normalization of fetal size and body weight in the GDM rats.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Our study suggested that application of paeoniflorin may serve as a potential therapeutical strategy for patients with GDM.</p> 2020-10-01T23:58:41-07:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Yonghua Zhang , Yulin Liang , Huiqiao Liu , Ying Huang , Hongmei Li, Bo Chen Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside inhibits epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and migration and invasion of breast cancer cells by upregulating KLF4 2020-09-28T14:16:43-07:00 Dahu Chen Mei Yuan Qin Ye Xing Wang Jing Xu Guangyi Shi Zhaodi Hu <p><strong>Background</strong>: Anthocyanins (ACNs) are capable of suppressing breast cancer growth; however, investigation on the effect and mechanism of ACNs on epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and cell migration and invasion in breast cancer cells is limited. A complete understanding of those properties may provide useful information on of how to use these natural compounds for cancer prevention and treatment.</p> <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: The aim of this work was to investigate the role of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (Cy3G), one of the most widely distributed ACNs in edible fruits, in the EMT process, and cell migration and invasion of breast cancer cells, and its underlying molecular mechanisms of how Cy3G establishes these functional roles in these cells.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells were treated with Cy3G (20 μM) for 24 h, and then the cells were used for cell migration and invasion assay. Western blotting, luciferase assay, ubiquitination assay, gene knockdown, and cycloheximide chase assay were performed to analyze the molecular mechanisms of Cy3G in suppressing EMT, and cell migration and invasion.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Cy3G inhibited the EMT process in these cells and significantly suppressed the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells (P ≤ 0.05) by upregulating Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) expression at protein level. KLF4 knockdown in MDA-MB-231 cells did not reveal any change in EMT marker expression, and cell migration and invasion upon treatment with Cy3G (P ≥ 0.05), which strongly indicated that the effects of Cy3G were mediated by KLF4. Furthermore, we determined that Cy3G indirectly upregulated KLF4 expression by downregulating FBXO32, which is the E3 ligase of KLF4.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Cy3G is a potential anticancer reagent as it can inhibit EMT and breast cancer cell migration and invasion by upregulating KLF4.</p> 2020-09-28T14:16:07-07:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Dahu Chen, Mei Yuan, Qin Ye, Xing Wang, Jing Xu, Guangyi Shi, Zhaodi Hu Cross-sectional analysis of the health profile and dietary intake of a sample of Canadian adults diagnosed with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease 2020-09-18T13:18:11-07:00 Michelle L. Aktary Lindsay K. Eller Alissa C. Nicolucci Raylene A. Reimer <p><strong>Background</strong>: Dietary intake is an important factor in the development and management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, optimal dietary composition remains unclear. Moreover, there is minimal evidence on the relationship between dietary intake and markers of liver health in Canadian adults diagnosed with NAFLD.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The aim of this study is to characterize the dietary intake of a sample of Canadian adults diagnosed with NAFLD and examine the correlations with markers of liver health. Design: Forty-two adults recruited from the community and hepatology clinics in Calgary, Canada from 2016 to 2019 completed a 3-day food record. Anthropometrics, blood biomarkers, liver stiffness (FibroScan), and liver fat (magnetic resonance imaging) were measured. Nutrient intake was compared with the data from the 2004 and 2015 Canadian Community Health Surveys. Relationships were assessed using Pearson’s correlation and regression analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Relative to Canadian dietary recommendations, participants consumed lower magnesium, fiber, calcium, vitamin D, and vitamin E, and higher cholesterol, saturated fat, total fat, fructose, iron, vitamin B12, selenium, phosphorus, and sodium. Compared with the national average, participants consumed more energy, fiber, sodium, total fat, and saturated fat. Systolic blood pressure (<em>P</em> = 0.012), serum α-2 macroglobulin (<em>P</em> = 0.008), carbohydrate (<em>P</em> = 0.022), total fat (P = 0.029), and saturated fat intakes (P = 0.029) were associated with FibroScan scores. Liver fat was correlated with serum triglycerides (<em>P</em> &lt; 0.001), trunk fat (<em>P</em> = 0.029), added sugar (<em>P</em> = 0.042), phosphorus (<em>P</em> = 0.017), and magnesium intake (<em>P</em> = 0.013). In females, selenium intake was associated with liver fat (<em>P</em> = 0.015) and FibroScan score (<em>P</em> = 0.05), while in males, liver fat was associated with trunk fat (<em>P</em> = 0.004), body weight (P = 0.004), high-density lipoprotein (<em>P</em> &lt; 0.001), and fructose intake (<em>P</em> = 0.037). Regression analysis showed that increasing magnesium intake corresponds to a decrease in liver fat.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Despite the higher energy intake of participants, overall nutrient intake is low, suggesting lower diet quality. Associations between select micronutrients and liver health markers warrant further investigation.</p> 2020-09-18T13:17:29-07:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Michelle L. Aktary, Lindsay K. Eller, Alissa C. Nicolucci, Raylene A. Reimer Bone loss, low height, and low weight in different populations and district: a meta-analysis between vegans and non-vegans 2020-09-14T12:07:16-07:00 Jianfeng Li Ruiyun Zhou Wei Huang Jianjun Wang <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The aim of this study was to- conduct a meta-analysis of the association of bone mineral density, height, and weight in different populations between vegans and non-vegans.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Based on a search of PubMed, Web of Science, MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, the Wanfang database, and the CNKI database, 14 relevant publications were collected by two researchers. Review Manager 5.3 and Stata 12.0 software were used for data analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The following results were observed in this study: 1) the density of lumbar vertebrae was higher in vegans than in non-vegans (mean difference: -0.05, 95% CI: -0.09 to -0.01, P = 0.01); 2) hip bone density was higher in non-vegans than in vegans (mean difference: -0.08, 95% CI: -0.14 to -0.02, P = 0.008); 3) weight was higher in non-vegans than in vegans (mean difference: -2.21, 95% CI: -4.05 to -0.37, P = 0.02); and 4) height was higher in non-vegans than in vegans (mean difference: -1.87, 95% CI: -2.52 to -1.22, P &lt; 0.00001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Our study suggests that a vegetarian lifestyle may contribute to bone loss, low height, and low weight based on existing evidence.</p> 2020-09-14T12:06:52-07:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Jianfeng Li, Ruiyun Zhou, Wei Huang, Jianjun Wang Antidiabetic effects of a lipophilic extract obtained from flowers of <em>Wisteria sinensis</em> by activating Akt/GLUT4 and Akt/GSK3β 2020-09-07T13:50:02-07:00 Yibing Lv Wenjie Ren Yirui Zhang Yun Huang Ji Hao Kun Ma Yuanren Ma Xinzhou Yang <p><strong>Background</strong>: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is primarily caused by insulin resistance (IR) in insulin-sensitive tissues, including liver, white adipose tissues (WAT), and skeletal muscles. Discovering nutritious foods with antidiabetic effects is of great significance. Numerous published reports indicated that protein kinase B (Akt) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) play crucial roles in ameliorating IR and diabetic symptoms.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: In the present study, antidiabetic effects and the potential mechanism of action of WS-PE (a lipophilic extract from edible flowers of Wisteria sinensis) were explored with L6 cells<em> in vitro</em> and in high-fat diet (HFD) + Streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice<em> in vivo.</em></p> <p><strong>Design</strong>:<em> In vivo</em>, HFD + STZ-induced diabetic mice were used as diabetic models to investigate the potential antidiabetic and antidyslipidemic activities. <em>In vitro</em>, a novel GLUT4 translocation assay system was established to evaluate the potential effects of WS-PE on GLUT4 translocation. Western blot analysis was adopted to investigate the molecular mechanisms of WS-PE both in vivo and in vitro.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: <em>In vitro</em>, WS-PE increased glucose uptake by stimulating GLUT4 expression and translocation, which were regulated by Akt phosphorylation. In vivo, the WS-PE treatment ameliorated the hyperglycemia, IR, and dyslipidemia and reversed hepatic steatosis and pancreatic damage in diabetic mice. The WS-PE treatment increased GLUT4 expression by Akt activation in WAT and skeletal muscle. Akt activation stimulated GSK3β phosphorylation in liver and skeletal muscles, indicating that WS-PE showed regulatory effects on glycogen synthesis in liver and skeletal muscles.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: These <em>in vitro</em> and <em>in vivo</em> results indicated that the WS-PE treatment exerted antidiabetic effects by activating Akt/GLUT4 and Akt/GSK3β.</p> 2020-09-07T13:46:34-07:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Yibing Lv, Wenjie Ren, Yirui Zhang, Yun Huang, Ji Hao, Kun Ma, Yuanren Ma, Xinzhou Yang Efficacy of <em>Labisia pumila</em> and <em>Eurycoma longifolia</em> standardised extracts on hot flushes, quality of life, hormone and lipid profile of peri-menopausal and menopausal women: a randomised, placebo-controlled study 2020-09-03T13:59:29-07:00 Sasikala M. Chinnappan Annie George Malkanthi Evans Joseph Anthony <p><strong>Background</strong>: Interest in herbal medicines and non-hormonal therapies for the treatment of menopausal symptoms has increased since the publication of adverse effects of estrogen replacement therapy. Vasomotor symptoms are the most characteristic and notable symptoms of menopause.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To investigate the changes in the frequency and severity of hot flush and associated vasomotor symptoms experienced by peri-menopausal and menopausal women supplemented with the herbal formulation (Nu-femme™) comprising Labisia pumila (SLP+®) and Eurycoma longifolia (Physta®) or placebo.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 24-week study enrolled 119 healthy women aged 41–55 years experiencing peri-menopausal or menopausal symptoms and supplemented with Nu-femme™ or placebo. The primary endpoint was comparative changes between treatment groups in the change in the frequency and severity of hot flushes. The secondary objectives were to assess the changes in the frequency and severity of joint pain, Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) and Menopause-Specific Quality of Life (MENQOL) questionnaire domain scores. Concentrations of serum hormone, lipid profile, bone markers, sleep quality and vitality were also studied as secondary objectives.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: At week 12, significant (P &lt; 0.01) improvements in hot flush symptoms were observed in Nu-femme™ and placebo groups. Even though there was no significant difference between groups, higher percentage of improvement, 65%, was seen in Nu-femme™ compared to 60% in placebo. Significant improvements (P &lt; 0.001) in MRS and MENQOL scores at weeks 12 and 24 were observed in both groups, respectively. Luteinising hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels were significantly reduced (P &lt; 0.05) at weeks 12 and 24, respectively, compared to baseline in the Nu-femme™ group, with no significant changes observed in the placebo group. There were significant (P &lt; 0.05) reductions in serum low-density lipid and triglycerides levels at week 12 in Nu-femme™ group, but no changes seen in placebo group. At the end of week 24, changes in haematology and clinical chemistry parameters remained within normal clinical ranges in both groups.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Herbal formulation consists of L. pumila and E. longifolia (Nu-femme™) may support reduction in hot flushes and improvements in hormone and lipid profile in healthy peri-menopausal and menopausal women.</p> 2020-09-03T13:58:54-07:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Sasikala M. Chinnappan, Annie George, Malkanthi Evans, Joseph Anthony Isolation, identification, and selection of strains as candidate probiotics and starters for fermentation of Swedish legumes 2020-09-02T14:08:18-07:00 Inger-Cecilia Mayer Labba Thomas Andlid Åsa Lindgren Ann-Sofie Sandberg Fei Sjöberg <p><strong>Background</strong>: The non-dairy sector is growing, fermented alternatives to dairy are sparse. Adapted starter cultures to substituting raw materials needs to be developed.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: Aims of this study were to isolate, identify, and phenotypically characterize lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that inhabit Swedish legumes, and assess properties necessary for selecting strains with the ability to ferment a bean beverage and with potential health beneficial properties.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: Isolates of presumed LAB were obtained from legumes collected at Öland, Sweden. Strain diversity was assessed by repetitive polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR). The strains were identified using matrix- assisted laser desorption/ionization–time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Species belonging to Enterococcus were predominant along with Pediococcus and closely related Bacillus. Strains were tested for tolerance to low pH, phenol, and bile as well as their bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity. In addition, Enterococcus strains were tested for antibiotic resistance, and Pediococcus strains for their ability to ferment a bean beverage.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: From the 25 strains characterized, five were found resistant to low pH, bile, and phenol, suggesting that they can survive a passage through the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and hence potentially exert beneficial effects in the host. These are suggested for further investigation on specific host-beneficial properties. Two of these, belonging to Pediococcus pentosaceus, were able to ferment a bean beverage without any added nutrients, indicating that the Pediococcus strains are well adapted to the bean substrate. One of the P. pentosaceus strains were also able to markedly improve the reduction of phytate by the phytase-producing yeast strain Pichia kudriavzevii TY1322 during co-fermentation as well as increase the final cell count of the yeast strain.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Strain isolation and characterization performed in this study aids in selecting starter cultures for legume fermentation. Nutritional properties can be improved by co-fermentation with yeast indicating that novel nutritious fermented non-dairy products could be developed.</p> 2020-09-02T14:07:45-07:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Inger-Cecilia Mayer Labba, Thomas Andlid, Åsa Lindgren, Ann-Sofie Sandberg, Fei Sjöberg <em>Cyclocarya paliurus</em> ethanol leaf extracts protect against diabetic cardiomyopathy in db/db mice via regulating PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling 2020-09-01T02:32:18-07:00 Yang Wang Xiaojie Zheng Longyu Li Hong Wang Keyuan Chen Mingjie Xu Yiwei Wu Xueli Huang Meiling Zhang Xiaoxia Ye Tunhai Xu Rongchang Chen Yindi Zhu <p><strong>Background</strong>: Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a serious complication of diabetes that can lead to significant mortality. Cyclocarya paliurus is a tree, the leaves of which are often utilized to prevent and treat diabetes mellitus. Whether C. paliurus leaves can prevent or treat DCM, however, it remains to be formally assessed. The present study was therefore designed to assess the ability of C. paliurus to protect against DCM in db/db mice.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Male wild-type (WT) and db/db mice were administered C. paliurus ethanol leaf extracts (ECL) or appropriate vehicle controls daily via gavage, and levels of blood glucose in treated animals were assessed on a weekly basis. After a 10-week treatment, the levels of cardiac troponin I (cTn-I), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase MB (CK-MB), aspartate transaminase (AST), total triglycerides (TG), and total cholesterol (TC) in serum were measured. Activities of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase (CAT) and the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6 in heart tissues were detected. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Masson staining were conducted. The protein expression that related with oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction was evaluated by Western blotting.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Compared with WT mice, the TG, TC, and blood glucose levels in db/db mice increased significantly, which were reduced by ECL treatment. Compared with WT mice, the levels of LDH, CK-MB, AST, and cTn-I in serum and MDA in heart tissues of db/db mice increased significantly. Activities of SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT in heart tissues of db/db mice decreased significantly. The levels of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) in heart tissues of db/db mice increased remarkably. However, ECL treatment improved the above pathological changes significantly. ECL alleviated pathological injury and fibrosis in heart tissues of mice. Western blotting showed that ECL increased Bcl-2 level and decreased Bax, cle-caspase-3, and clecaspase- 9 expression. Furthermore, ECL inhibited NF-κB nuclear translocation and increased PI3K and p-Akt expressions.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Our results indicate that ECL treatment can markedly reduce pathological cardiac damage in db/ db mice through antiapoptotic, antifibrotic, and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Specifically, this extract was able to suppress NF-κB activation via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Given its diverse activities and lack of significant side effects, ECL may thus have therapeutic value for the treatment of DCM.</p> 2020-08-31T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) Marine fish peptides (collagen peptides) compound intake promotes wound healing in rats after cesarean section 2020-09-01T02:31:32-07:00 Xue Peng Jinfeng Xu Yuan Tian Wenjun Liu Bing Peng <p><strong>Background</strong>: Wound complications are a major source of morbidity after cesarean section (CS) and contribute to increased risks in subsequent pregnancies. In the present study, we aim to investigate the wound healing potential of a kind of oligopeptide compound, mainly derived from the marine fish peptides (MFPs), in rats after CS by biomechanical, biochemical, and histological methods.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Eighty-four pregnant Sprague–Dawleyrats were randomly assigned to four groups, namely the control group and 1.1, 2.2, and 4.4 mg/kg MFP groups, respectively. The MFPs or normal saline of the equal volume was intragastrically administered every morning on the second day after CS. On days 5, 10, and 15 after the surgery, seven rats from each group were randomly selected. The samples of skin wound and uterus were harvested and then used for the following experiments and analyses.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Using the CS rat model, this study demonstrated that in the MFP groups, the skin tensile strength, uterine bursting pressure, and hydroxyproline (Hyp) were significantly higher than those in the control group at all three time points (P &lt; 0.05). The formation of collagen and smooth muscle fibers and the expression of CD34 and connective tissue growth factor at the incision site were increasingly observed in the MFP groups (P &lt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: MFPs have a great potential to accelerate the process and quality of wound healing in rats after CS.</p> 2020-08-31T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) High oleic peanuts improve parameters leading to fatty liver development and change the microbiota in mice intestine 2020-09-01T02:40:15-07:00 Elise Taieb Bimro Ran Hovav Abraham Nyska Tal Assa Glazer Zecharia Madar <p><strong>Background</strong>: Oleic-acid consumption can possibly prevent or delay metabolic diseases. In Israel, a Virginia- type peanut cultivar with a high content of oleic acid has been developed.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: This study examined the effect of consuming high oleic peanuts (D7) on the development of fatty liver compared to the standard HN strain.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: The two peanut cultivars were added to normal diet (ND) and high-fat (HF) mouse diet. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed for 8 and 10 weeks on a 4% D7, 4% HN, or control diet. At the end of the experiments, blood and tissues were collected. Triglyceride, lipid levels, histology, and protein expression were examined. The diets’ effects on intestinal microbiota were also evaluated.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Both D7 and HFD7 led to a reduction in plasma triglycerides. Lipids, triglycerides, and free fatty acids in the liver were low in diets containing D7. Additionally, CD36 expression decreased in the D7 group. Consumption of D7 led to higher Prevotella levels, and consumption of ND that contained HN or D7 led to a lower Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: These findings suggest that consumption of peanuts high in oleic acid (D7) may have the potential to delay primary fatty liver symptoms.</p> 2020-08-31T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) Effect of dietary oils from various sources on carbohydrate and fat metabolism in mice 2020-08-14T14:21:29-07:00 Anna Altberg Ran Hovav Nava Chapnik Zecharia Madar <p><strong>Background</strong>: Dietary oils differ in their fatty acid composition and the presence of additional microcomponents (antioxidants, etc.). These differences are thought to invoke different biochemical pathways, thus affecting fats and carbohydrates metabolism differently. Olive oil (OO) and soybean oil (SO) are common vegetable oils in the local cuisine. Peanuts oils of local varieties are viewed as potential sources of dietary vegetable oils, especially in the food industry.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: We examined the effect of four different dietary vegetable oils on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in mice. The selected oils were OO, high in oleic acid, extracted from cultivated high oleic acid peanut (C-PO), regular peanut oil (PO), and SO.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: In this study, 32 male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into four groups (n = 8 in each group) and were fed with four different diets enriched with 4% (w/w) dietary vegetable oils (OO, C-PO, PO, or SO). After 10 weeks, the mice were sacrificed. Western blot was used to examine proteins such as phospho-AMP-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK), ace-tyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36), and Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), whereas real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to examine the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1C), fatty acid synthase (FAS), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), and CD36 transcripts.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: In mice-fed SO, lipid accumulation was predominately in adipose tissue, accompanied a tendency decrease in insulin sensitivity. Mice-fed OO had lower plasma triglycerides (TG) and increased hepatic CD36 gene expression. The C-PO group presented lower messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in the liver for all examined genes: SREBP-1c, FAS, G6Pase, and CD36. There were no significant differences in weight gain, plasma cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels, hepatic ACC, SIRT1, AMPK, and CD36 protein levels or in liver function among the diets. Discussion: It seems that as long as fat is consumed in moderation, oil types may play a lesser role in the metabolism of healthy individuals.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: This finding has the potential to increase flexibility in choosing oil types for consumption.</p> 2020-08-14T14:20:23-07:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Anna Altberg , Ran Hovav, Nava Chapnik, Zecharia Madar The flavonoid-rich ethanolic extract from the green cocoon shell of silkworm has excellent antioxidation, glucosidase inhibition, and cell protective effects <em>in vitro</em> 2020-08-14T14:37:48-07:00 Hai-Yan Wang Jin-Ge Zhao Yu-Qing Zhang <p>The green cocoon shell of a novel variety of silkworm, Bombyx mori, is rich in two types of quercetin and kaempferol flavonoids. The aim of this study was to identify these flavonoids in the ethanolic extract (EE) from green cocoons and develop EE applications in healthy foods. The experimental results indicated that the amount of total amino acids in EE was 27.06%. The flavonoids in EE are presented in quercetin and kaempferol glycosides. The total amount of the two aglycones was 33.42 ± 0.08 mg/g. The IC50 values of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 1,2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonicacid) (ABTS), and hydroxyl radical scavenging abilities were 296.95 ± 13.24 μg/mL, 94.31 ± 9.13 μg/mL, and 9.21 ± 0.15 mg/mL, respectively. The IC50 values of the inhibitory activities of α-amylase and α-glucosidase were 37.57 ± 6.45 μg/mL and 212.69 ± 22.94 μg/mL, respectively. EE also reduced the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress in L02 cells induced by high glucose levels. It also effectively decreased the content of 8-hydroxyl deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in cells with a good dose effect. These results clearly indicated that the flavonoid-rich EE with excellent antioxidant and glucosidase inhibition abilities significantly reduced the damage to cells caused by oxidative stress and inflammatory reactions. It is suggested that EE might serve as useful functional foods for the treatment of related diseases induced by oxidative stress such as diabetes mellitus.</p> 2020-08-14T14:36:49-07:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Hai-Yan Wang, Jin-Ge Zhao, Yu-Qing Zhang Association between parental feeding practices and shared family meals. The Food4toddlers study 2020-08-07T04:37:19-07:00 Nina C. Øverby Elisabet R. Hillesund Margrethe Røed Frøydis N. Vik <p><strong>Background</strong>: Parental feeding practices and family meals are important determinants for infants’ diet and health. Still, there is no previous research of the association between feeding practices and family meals in infants.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: Explore potential associations between feeding practices and family meals among infants.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: We present cross-sectional results (baseline) from the Food4toddlers study. In total 298 parents of 1-year-olds, recruited from all over Norway, filled in a questionnaire regarding frequency of shared family meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner) and feeding practices using the validated instrument Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to explore the associations between having family meals every day and feeding practices (10 dimensions).</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The children included were about 11 months old, and 55% were boys. Parents were highly educated. Most children had family breakfast and dinner (60–65%), while fewer had family lunch every day (35%). We found that eating family breakfast and lunch every day was associated with use of the positive feeding practices: encourage balance and variety, environment and modelling (ORs ranging from 1.15 to 1.37), while eating family breakfast and family lunch less often was associated with the negative feeding practice pressure to eat (OR, 95% CI: 0.90 (0.83, 0.96) and 0.91 (0.84, 0.97), respectively). Eating family dinner every day was associated with more use of the positive feeding practice balance and variety (OR, 95% CI: 1.21 (1.06, 1.38), while having family dinner less often was associated with use of the negative feeding practices pressure to eat and restriction to health (OR, 95% CI: 0.89 (0.83, 0.96) and 0.94 (0.87, 1.01), respectively).</p> <p><strong>Discussion and conclusion</strong>: In this group of infants, having family meals every day was associated with positive feeding practices, while having family meals less often was associated with negative feeding practices. Shared family meals provide an important setting for healthy eating, development of feeding skills and dietary habits formation.</p> 2020-08-05T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) Effects of fish oil during hemodialysis on nutritional status and quality of life: a randomized double-blinded trial 2020-08-03T03:18:50-07:00 Chi Zhang Chang Ge Junsheng Wang Dong Sun <p><strong>Background</strong>: Supplementation of fish oil has been shown to exert beneficial effects in patients undergoing hemodialysis. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of fish oil in improving the quality of life of these patients through a randomized, double-blinded clinical trial.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Among the 103 patients enrolled in the study, a total of 74 patients were randomized to receive fish oil (intervention group) or placebo (n=37 per group). Patients received identical soft-gel capsules, with each capsule containing either 1000 mg fish oil or placebo for 4 months. Personnel responsible for data collection and analyses were blinded to the grouping.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The reduction of protein-energy wasting (PEW) in the intervention group was significantly more prominent compared to the placebo group (P=0.023). The intervention group demonstrated significant increase in midarm circumference, arm muscle circumference, and triceps skinfold thickness after fish oil intake. The intervention group also exhibited significant differences from the placebo group in creatinine, uric acid, and serum calcium levels. Significant improvement was seen regarding the physical role and energy/figure in the intervention group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Our study demonstrated that fish oil intake in patient undergoing hemodialysis can significantly reduce PEW, and improve physical and biochemical parameters and quality of life, which could provide guidance to clinical management of these patients.</p> 2020-08-03T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) Low glycemic load after digestion of native starch from the indigenous tuber Belitung Taro (<em>Xanthosoma sagittifolium</em>) in a dynamic <em>in vitro</em> model of the upper GI tract (TIM-1) 2020-07-20T13:58:05-07:00 Ingrid S. Surono Jessica Verhoeven Koen Venema <p><strong>Background</strong>: Low glycemic foods are beneficial for people with type II diabetes. At the same time, sustained glucose release is also beneficial for people suffering from glycogen storage diseases. Taro (<em>Xanthosoma sagittifolium</em>) is a tuber indigenous to Indonesia, which has starch as the major storage carbohydrate.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The aim of the current study was to determine the speed of digestion of native and modified taro starch, compared to free glucose and wheat starch.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: This was investigated in a validated, dynamic computer-controlled <em>in vitro</em> model of the stomach and small intestine (TIM-1). Samples were taken from the dialysate, which reflected glucose absorbed in the blood stream.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Native taro starch showed a ~1.5-fold reduced digestibility compared to glucose and a ~ 1.35-fold compared to wheat starch. In addition, digestion of native taro starch was moved towards the ileum, and later in time compared to glucose and wheat. With modified taro starch, these effects were not observed.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: In conclusion, native taro starch showed a lower glycemic load than wheat starch and modified taro starch and could be used as a substitute for refined foods by diabetics and people suffering from other glucose metabolic diseases.</p> 2020-07-20T13:54:43-07:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Ingrid S. Surono, Jessica Verhoeven, Koen Venema Soybean protein-derived peptide nutriment increases negative nitrogen balance in burn injury-induced inflammatory stress response in aged rats through the modulation of white blood cells and immune factors 2020-06-29T13:21:45-07:00 Jian Zhang Wenhui Li Zhiwei Ying Di Zhao Guofu Yi He Li Xinqi Liu <p><strong>Background</strong>: As an important nutrient, soybean protein-derived peptides (SPP) affect the immune function of animals.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: This study describes the effects of nutrient supplementation with SPP on the negative nitrogen balance in the burn injury-induced inflammatory response of aged rats. Design: Soybean protein isolate (SPI) was hydrolyzed to obtain SPP. A negative nitrogen-balance aged rat model and a major full-thickness 30% total body surface area (TBSA) burn-injury rat model were utilized.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The results show that SPP can increase the speed and ability of inflammatory stress by adjusting white blood cell counts. Soybean protein-derived peptides significantly increased serum immunoglobulin M (IgM), immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels; significantly decreased serum interleukin-1 beta (IL-β), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and regulated upon activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) levels. These results give conclusive evidence that SPP has a significantly positive effect in improving the immune function on the condition of negative nitrogen balance with burn-injury, and reducing excessive inflammation.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Nutrient supplementation of SPP can, therefore, be used as an adjuvant treatment to inhibit the development and severity of inflammatory reactions caused by burns, providing a novel therapy for the treatment and positive prognosis of burn patients.</p> 2020-06-29T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) Sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 and glucose transporter 2 mediate intestinal transport of quercetrin in Caco-2 cells 2020-06-15T08:35:18-07:00 Suyun Li Jin Liu Zheng Li Liqin Wang Weina Gao Zhenqing Zhang Changjiang Guo <p>The role of glucose transporters in the transport of flavonoids remains ambiguous. In this study, we examined whether quercetrin would be uptaken and transported intactly in modeled Caco-2 cells, as well as to determine the involvements of sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) in its transmembrane transport. The uptake experiment was conducted in Caco-2 cells 24 hours after seeded and the transport experiment was conducted in Caco-2 cells after 21 days of culturing in a Millicell system. Quercetrin was administered at 3, 9 or 18 µg/mL; and the timepoints of sampling were 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 min. In the uptake experiment, the highest intracellular quercetrin concentration was observed in the cells treated with 18 µg/mL quercetrin at 60 min, with a bell-shaped kinetic curve. Quercetin, isorhamnetin, and tamarixetin were detected inside the cells, particularly when treated with the high dose. In the transport experiment, quercetrin was transported from the apical to basolateral side and vice versa; its concentrations depended on dose, time, and transport direction. Only trace amounts of isorhamnetin and tamarixetin were detected in the apical chamber when quercetrin was added to the basolateral chamber. Phloridzin and phloretin, a potent inhibitor of SGLT1 and GLUT2, respectively, significantly diminished quercetrin transport from the apical to basolateral side; and phloretin had a larger inhibitory effect than phloridzin. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that quercetrin is absorbed intactly and then effluxed out of Caco-2 cells through both apical and basolateral membranes probably via SGLT1 and GLUT2.</p> 2020-06-15T08:34:34-07:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Suyun Li, Jin Liu, Zheng Li, Liqin Wang, Weina Gao, Zhenqing Zhang, Changjiang Guo Is overnight fresh juice drinkable? The shelf life prediction of non-industrial fresh watermelon juice based on the nutritional quality, microbial safety quality, and sensory quality 2020-06-09T14:13:06-07:00 Tingting Ma Jiaqi Wang Haoli Wang Tian Lan Ruihao Liu Tian Gao Wanyi Yang Yuan Zhou Qian Ge Yulin Fang Xiangyu Sun <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The aim of this study was to obtain the time range of non-industrial fresh watermelon juice (FWJ), which is widely used in the catering industry under different storage conditions, with safe-drinkable quality, and the drinking time range of fresh juice with good nutritional quality and sensory quality.</p> <p><strong>Method</strong>: The quality of non-industrial FWJ was audited by assessing the shelf life of non-industrial FWJ through microbial safety, nutritional, and sensory quality investigating during 24 h of storage at 4, 25, and 37°C.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: According to the microbial safety quality, the safe drinking time of FWJ was within 12, 4, and 4 h when stored at 4, 25, and 37°C, respectively. Based on the nutritional and sensory quality, FWJ was drinking with good quality within 2 h, and with just acceptable quality for no more than 4 h when stored at 4 or 25°C. Electronic nose and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) could effectively distinguish and identify the changes in volatile components in FWJ under different storage conditions.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: It is a feasible method to predict the shelf life of non-industrial FWJ by this method, and hence to guarantee non-industrial FWJ being drinking with safety and health, and it might be used in many other fresh juice shelf life predictions.</p> 2020-06-09T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) A mushroom diet reduced the risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension and macrosomia: a randomized clinical trial 2020-06-09T02:15:20-07:00 Linlin Sun Zhanjie Niu <p><strong>Background</strong>: Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) is a disease characterized by high blood pressure detected after 20 weeks of pregnancy, affecting approximately 10% of pregnant women worldwide. Effective strategies are imperatively needed to prevent and treat PIH.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Subjects were required to consume 100 g mushroom daily from pre-pregnancy to the 20th week of gestation. The gestational hypertension and related primary and secondary outcomes of the mushroom diet (MD) group and placebo group were investigated to compare the intervention of a MD on the PIH and preeclampsia- associated maternal and child health conditions.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: A total of 582 and 580 subjects belonging to the MD group and placebo group were included for the analysis, respectively. Compared to the placebo, the MD significantly reduced the incidence of gestational hypertension (<em>P</em> = 0.023), preeclampsia (<em>P</em> = 0.014), gestational weight gain (<em>P</em> = 0.017), excessive gestational weight gain (<em>P</em> = 0.032) and gestational diabetes (<em>P</em> = 0.047). Stratified analysis showed that the MD lowered the risk of PIH for overweighed women (<em>P</em> = 0.036), along with the percentage of macrosomia (<em>P</em> = 0.007).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: An MD could serve as a preventative strategy for lowering the risk of PIH and could control newborn birthweight while reducing comorbidities including gestational weight gain, diabetes etc.</p> 2020-06-09T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) Antiobesity and anti-inflammation effects of Hakka stir-fried tea of different storage years on high-fat diet-induced obese mice model via activating the AMPK/ACC/CPT1 pathway 2020-06-08T14:53:12-07:00 Qiuhua Li Xingfei Lai Lingli Sun Junxi Cao Caijin Ling Wenji Zhang Limin Xiang Ruohong Chen Dongli Li Shili Sun <p><strong>Background</strong>: As a typical representative of metabolic syndrome, obesity is also one of the extremely dangerous factors of cardiovascular diseases. Thus, the prevention and treatment of obesity has gradually become a global campaign. There have been many reports that green tea is effective in preventing obesity, but as a kind of green tea with regional characteristics, there have been no reports that Hakka stir-fried tea (HT) of different storage years has a weight loss effect.</p> <p><strong>Aims</strong>: The aim was to investigate the effect of HT in diet-induced obese mice.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: The mice were divided into five groups as follows: the control group received normal diet; the obese model group received high-fat diet; and HT2003, HT2008, and HT2015 groups, after the induction of obesity via a high-fat diet, received HT of different storage years treatment for 6 weeks, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: It was observed that HT decreased the levels of serum and liver triglyceride; the ratio of liver to body weight; accumulation of epididymal, perirenal, and mesenteric fat; the degree of hepatic steatosis; and adipocyte hypertrophy, with the concomitant reduction of body weight. Moreover, HT decreased the expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α (TNF α), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and reduced fatty acid synthase (FAS) activity in liver tissue of obese mice. In addition, HT treatment also increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its direct downstream proteins, acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC), and carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-1), which participate in FAS pathway.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: These findings demonstrate that HT treatment has a potential protection on high-fat diet-induced obesity mice via activating the AMPK/ACC/CPT1 pathway, and to a certain extent, it has nothing to do with the storage time of three kinds of HT..</p> 2020-06-08T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) Associations between dietary iron intake from different sources and the risk of hyperuricemia among US adults: a cross-sectional study 2020-06-05T06:38:24-07:00 Jinran Yu Hongying Zheng Peipei Zhang Lixia Zhang Yongye Sun <p><strong>Background</strong>: Currently available evidence on the association between dietary iron intake and hyperuricemia is limited and inconsistent.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: This study aimed to examine the relationships between animal-derived dietary iron (ADDI) intake, plant-derived dietary iron (PDDI) intake, and the ratio PDDI:ADDI and hyperuricemia risk among US adults.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009–2014 were used. Iron intake from diet was assessed through two 24-h dietary recalls. Logistic regression models and restricted cubic spline models were used to investigate the associations between dietary iron intake from different sources and hyperuricemia risk.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: A total of 12,869 participants aged ≥20 years were enrolled in the study. After adjustment for multiple confounders, relative to the lowest quartile, the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of hyperuricemia for the highest quartile of ADDI intake, PDDI intake, and the PDDI:ADDI intake ratio were 1.11 (0.90–1.38), 0.69 (0.55–0.87), and 0.85 (0.67–1.07), respectively. Dose–response analysis revealed that the risk of hyperuricemia was negatively associated with PDDI intake in a linear manner.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: PDDI intake was inversely associated with hyperuricemia in US adults.</p> 2020-05-11T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) Protective effect of oil from Cornus wilsoniana fruits against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice 2020-07-24T10:22:59-07:00 Qiang Liu Qiang Liu Xiaohua Lei Zhenyu Cao Ju Zhang Tao Kuang Guoxing Liu Yu Fang Ke Qian Jie Fu Huihui Du Likun Yan Zhihong Xiao Changzhu Li Xundi Xu <p><strong>Background</strong>: Cornus wilsoniana Wanger is a widely distributed woody oil plant in south China; oil extracted from its fruits has been the main source of edible oil for local residents for hundreds of years. Previous studies have demonstrated that Cornus wilsoniana oil (CWO) has hypolipidemic activity in rats. However, the hepatoprotective effects of CWO and their underlying mechanisms are not clear.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The purpose of this study was to explore the protective effects and mechanisms of the CWO against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice. Methods: Hepatic fibrosis mouse model was induced by intraperitoneal injection with 1 mL/kg CCl4 (mixed 1:4 in olive oil) twice a week for 6 weeks. In the meantime, the mice were orally administrated with CWO (0.5, 2 mL/kg) once daily for 6 weeks. Serological changes as well as oxidative stress, inflammatory, and histological alteration in the liver were determined.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The results showed that CWO significantly attenuated CCl4-induced serological changes in mice, as assessed by serum markers, including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), procollagen III, collagen type IV, hyaluronic acid, and laminin. At the same time, CWO significantly improved CCl4-induced liver histological changes, as detected by hematoxylin and eosin (H&amp;E), Sirius red, and Masson’s trichrome staining. In addition, treatment with CWO reduced oxidative stress and inflammation in the liver. Furthermore, CWO also reduced the expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) in liver induced by CCl4, and TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling may be involved in the process.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: CWO ameliorates CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis by attenuating hepatic oxidative stress, reducing hepatic inflammation and inhibiting TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway in liver. CWO may be a potentially beneficial edible oil for the adjuvant treatment of hepatic fibrosis.</p> 2020-05-08T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) A 12-week, randomized, double-blind study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of liver function after using fermented ginseng powder (GBCK25) 2020-06-05T06:47:46-07:00 Su-Jin Jung Ji-Hyun Hwang Soo-Hyun Park Eun-Kyung Choi Ki-Chan Ha Hyang-Im Baek Dong-Gue Shin Jeong-Hun Seo Soo-Wan Chae <div> <h1><strong>Popular scientific summary</strong></h1> <ul> <li>We confirmed significant decreases in GGT and hs-CRP levels in male subjects suspected of non-alcoholic liver disease as a result of supplementation with 125 mg of GBCK25 (low dose).</li> <li>We found significant improvements in fatigue score with intake of 500 mg of GBCK25 (high dose).</li> <li>GBCK25 supplementation has beneficial effects on liver function.</li> </ul> </div> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <p><strong>Background<em>:</em></strong>&nbsp;Recently, clinical research has suggested that red ginseng components play a role in liver protection and combating fatigue. However, fermented ginseng has not been analyzed for liver-protective or anti-fatigue effects.</p> <p><strong>Objective<em>:</em></strong>&nbsp;This study evaluates the positive effects of fermented ginseng powder (GBCK25) on liver function.</p> <p><strong>Methods<em>:</em></strong>&nbsp;Ninety participants with elevated alanine aminotransferase levels (35 ≤ ALT ≤1 05 IU/L) were randomized to one of three groups. The participants were treated with GBCK25 tablets at a dose of 500 mg/day (high dose), 125 mg/day (low dose), or placebo group daily for 12 weeks. The primary outcomes included changes in ALT and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels. The secondary outcomes included changes in aspartate amino-transferase (AST), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), multidimensional fatigue scale, lipid profile, and antioxidant markers.</p> <p><strong>Results<em>:</em></strong>&nbsp;In male subjects, after 12 weeks of low-dose GBCK25 (125 mg) supplementation, the GGT (<em>P</em>&nbsp;= 0.036) and hs-CRP (<em>P</em>&nbsp;= 0.021) levels decreased significantly more than those in the placebo group. High-dose GBCK25 (500 mg) supplementation significantly decreased the fatigue score compared with the placebo group. There were no clinically significant differences between the groups when studying any safety parameter.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion<em>:</em></strong>&nbsp;Our results suggest that GBCK25 supplementation has beneficial effects on liver function.</p> 2020-04-06T13:19:10-07:00 Copyright (c) A novel exopolysaccharide produced by <em>Lactobacillus coryniformis</em> NA-3 exhibits antioxidant and biofilm-inhibiting properties <em>in vitro</em> 2020-04-03T12:42:35-07:00 Xiaoqing Xu Qing Peng Yuwei Zhang Dandan Tian Pengbo Zhang Ying Huang Lan Ma Yu Qiao Bo Shi <p><strong>Background</strong>: Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) secreted from lactic acid bacteria are carbohydrate polymers with reported biological activities. In this study, we extracted and characterized the composition as well as antioxidant and biofilm-inhibitory properties of EPS from Lactobacillus coryniformis NA-3 isolated from northeast Chinese sauerkraut (Suan Cai).</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Lactobacillus coryniformis NA-3 was identified with 16S rDNA amplification and Neighbor Joining (NJ) phylogenetic analysis. EPS derived from Lactobacillus coryniformis NA-3 (EPS-NA3) was analyzed, including compositions by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), functional groups by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and glycosidic bond configuration by Hydrogen-1 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR). Antioxidant activity of EPS was evaluated with hydroxyl and superoxide radical-scavenging. Anti-biofilm activities of EPS-NA3 were checked through inhibition and dispersion.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The monosaccharide composition of EPS included α-rhamnose, α-mannose, α-galactose, and α-glucose in a ratio of 2.6:1.0:5.0:3.3. The free radical-scavenging abilities of EPS-NA3 were 37.77% ± 1.56% and 78.87% ± 3.07% on hydroxyl and superoxide reactive oxygen species respectively. Moreover, EPS-NA3 attenuated the formation of Bacillus cereus and Salmonella typhimurium biofilms by inhibition ratios of approximately 80% and 40% respectively. Additionally, treatment with EPS-NA3 dispersed established biofilms of B. cereus and S. typhimurium by approximately 90% and 20% respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: These results suggest that EPS-NA3 may be developed as antioxidant and anti-biofilm agents for industrial and clinical applications due to its capacity of scavenging free radicals, inhibition of bacterial biofilm formation, and dispersion of established biofilms.</p> 2020-04-03T12:41:34-07:00 Copyright (c) <em>Camellia</em> cake extracts reduce burn injury through suppressing inflammatory responses and enhancing collagen synthesis 2020-03-16T03:39:59-07:00 Yuxia Liu Xiaomei Xiao Luling Ji Lu Xie Suzhen Wu Zhiping Liu <p><strong>Background</strong>: Burn injury accidents happen in our daily life, and the burn mortality is especially high in the low-to-middle-income countries. Camellia cake extracts (CCEs) are compound extracts from Camellia cake, and the major ingredients in CCEs may have antimicrobial, anti-oxidative, and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the effects of CCEs on burn inflammation and injury remain unknown.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: This study is to investigate the effects of CCEs in burn injury and explore its mechanism.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: First, CCEs were identified to mainly contain camelliaside A and B using Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer (UHPLC-TOF-MS) method. Second, the CCEs’ effect on burn was tested. Burn was induced by boiling water in mice, and then CCEs (30, 50, and 100 mg/mL) were applied on the damaged skin at 3, 7, and 14 days after burn induction.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The results showed that CCEs protected the skin from burn-induced inflammation and enhanced the wound healing in a dose-dependent manner. CCEs decreased the expression levels of various cytokines including IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, MCP-1, TGF-β, and IL-10, as well as inflammatory related factors iNOS. Moreover, CCEs increased the levels of collagens, including the mRNA of COLα-1 and COL-3, and inhibited the mRNA of MMP-1 and TIMP-1, and increased the collagen staining. CCEs also reversed the impairment of activity levels of anti-oxidative enzymes. Furthermore, CCEs suppressed the gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in LPS-stimulated human skin keratinocyte, possibly through inhibiting NF-κB signaling pathway. In addition, toxicological safety experiments on CCEs showed that the oral median lethal dose (LD50) was 2,000 mg/kg, the percutaneous LD50 was greater than 2,000 mg/kg, and CCEs did not cause gene mutation.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: CCEs exert a potent anti-inflammatory effect against burn damage in mice. And toxicological safety experiments suggest that CCEs are safe for usage.</p> 2020-03-06T14:08:21-08:00 Copyright (c) White sweet potato ameliorates hyperglycemia and regenerates pancreatic islets in diabetic mice 2020-03-02T13:11:57-08:00 Chun-Kuang Shih Chiao-Ming Chen Viola Varga Liang-Chen Shih Peng-Ru Chen Shu-Fang Lo Lie-Fen Shyur Sing-Chung Li <p><strong>Background</strong>: White sweet potato (WSP) has many potential beneficial effects on metabolic control and on diabetes- related insulin resistance. The antihyperglycemic effects of Tainung No. 10 (TNG10), a variety of WSP in Taiwan, warrant investigation.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To investigate the antidiabetic activity of WSP (Ipomoea batatas L. TNG10) and the mechanisms for interventions using whole leaves or tubers of WSP in diabetic mice.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: Mice were co-administered with streptozotocin and nicotinamide to induce diabetes and then treated with an experimental diet including either 10% WSP tuber (10%-T) and 30% WSP tuber (30%-T) or 0.5% WSP leaf (0.5%-L) and 5% WSP leaf (5%-L). After 8 weeks’ treatment, their plasma glycemic parameters, lipid profiles, and inflammatory marker were analyzed. Their pancreases were removed for histopathologic image analysis; proteins were also extracted from their muscles for phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The 30%-T or 5%-L mice had lower plasma glucose, insulin, glucose area under the curve (AUC), homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), alanine transaminase, triglyceride, and tumor necrosis factor alpha levels. In all diabetic mice, their Langerhans’s area was reduced by 60%; however, after 30% WSP-T or 5% WSP-L diets, the mice demonstrated significant restoration of the Langerhans’s areas (approximately 30%). Only in 5%-L mice, slightly increased expression of insulin-signaling pathway-related proteins, phosphorylated insulin receptor and protein kinase B and membrane glucose transporter 4 was noted.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: WSP has antihyperglycemic effects by inducing pancreatic islet regeneration and insulin resistance amelioration. Therefore, WSP has potential applications in dietary diabetes management.</p> 2020-03-02T13:11:09-08:00 Copyright (c) The effects of diet on levels of physical activity during winter in forensic inpatients – A randomized controlled trial 2020-02-21T13:14:02-08:00 Anita L. Hansen Gina Ambroziak David Thornton Lisbeth Dahl Bjørn Grung <p><strong>Background</strong>: Fish consumption has been shown to have beneficial effects on biological and subjective measures of health and well-being. However, little is known about the effects of fish consumption at the behavioral level.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The primary aim of this study was to investigate the influence of diet on behavior such as physical activity during winter in forensic inpatients. The secondary aim was to investigate the relationship between vitamin D status and physical activity.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: Eighty-one male forensic inpatients participated in this study. Participants were randomized into two different diet groups: a Fish group receiving fatty fish three times per week and a Control group receiving an alternative meal (e.g. chicken, pork, and beef); while the Fish group received their fish, the Control group received an alternate meal, but with the same nutritional value as their habitual diet. The duration of the food intervention was 6 months.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The results revealed that the Fish group had a regular pattern of physical activity throughout the intervention period. The participants in the Control group showed a more irregular pattern of physical activity in addition to a significant reduction in physical activity over time.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Behavior such as physical activity during winter seemed to be influenced by the diet.</p> 2020-02-21T13:03:32-08:00 Copyright (c) Capsaicin has an anti-obesity effect through alterations in gut microbiota populations and short-chain fatty acid concentrations 2020-02-19T13:58:12-08:00 Yuanwei Wang Cheng Tang Yong Tang Haiyan Yin Xiong Liu <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The present study investigated whether CAP exerted its anti-obesity effect through changes in the composition of gut microbiota and SCFAs, and whether the TRPV1 contributes to CAP’s effects against obesity in HFD-fed mice.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: C57BL/6J (TRPV1+/+) and B6.129X1-Trpv1tm1Jul/J (TRPV1-/-) mice were respectively divided into three groups (n = 6),that is SLD, HFD-fed, and CAP (2 mg/kg, po) +HFD fed and were administered respective treatment for 12 weeks.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: We observed significantly lower weight gain and food intake, triglyceride, cholesterol, glucose, and insulin levels in HFD+CAP-fed TRPV1knockout (KO) mice compared to the HFD-fed KO mice, though this effect was more obvious in wild-type (WT) mice. CAP increased the numbers of Akkermansia, Prevotella, Bacteroides, Odoribacter, Allobaculum, Coprococcus, and S24-7, and reduced the numbers of Desulfovibrio, Escherichia, Helicobacter, and Sutterella in the HFD+CAP-fed WT and KO mice compared with HFD-fed WT and KO mice. CAP increased the relative abundances of SCFAs producing the bacterial species, which increased intestinal acetate and propionate concentrations, which were beneficial in prevention and treatment of obesity.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Results from our study indicate that the reduced food intake and anti-obesity effect of CAP had been observed regardless of TRPV1 channel activation, and which is mediated by changes in the gut microbiota populations and SCFAs concentrations.</p> 2020-02-19T13:45:05-08:00 Copyright (c) Associations between breastfeeding mode and duration and food neophobia in toddlerhood: A cross-sectional study among Norwegian toddlers 2020-02-14T13:18:44-08:00 Nina Cecilie Øverby Eli Anne Myrvoll Blomkvist Elisabet Rudjord Hillesund <p><strong>Background</strong>: Research on the association between breastfeeding duration and food neophobia is inconclusive. Breastfeeding and measures to reduce food neophobia are highly recommended to ensure a healthy diet early in life.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between breastfeeding duration and food neophobia in young Norwegian children.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: Participants (n = 246) were recruited through kindergartens in four Norwegian counties in 2017. The parents of 1-year-olds filled in questionnaires, including standardized questions on breastfeeding and food neophobia. Cross-sectional results are presented. Comparisons of child neophobia score at 16 months of age according to breastfeeding status at various timepoints during infancy were explored in linear regression models adjusted for maternal education and parental food neophobia.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Still being breastfed at 12 months and being exclusively breastfed at 5 months were independently associated with slightly higher food neophobia score at the mean age of 16 months compared to shorter duration of breastfeeding. We found no other associations between breastfeeding duration and child food neophobia.</p> <p><strong>Discussion</strong>: Our study adds to the somewhat scarce literature regarding associations between breastfeeding mode and duration and later food neophobia; some literature shows protective relations between breastfeeding and food fussiness, and others report opposite or null findings.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: We found that both being breastfed at 12 months and being exclusively breastfed at 5 months were independently associated with slightly higher food neophobia score at the mean age of 16 months compared to shorter duration of breastfeeding. As the data are derived from a cross-sectional study, these findings should be interpreted with caution.</p> 2020-02-14T13:18:09-08:00 Copyright (c) Purple sweet potato color protects against hepatocyte apoptosis through Sirt1 activation in high-fat-diet-treated mice 2020-02-04T13:45:22-08:00 Weitong Su Cheng Zhang Feng Chen Junwen Sui Jiaqi Lu Qingqing Wang Qun Shan Guihong Zheng Jun Lu Chunhui Sun Shaohua Fan Dongmei Wu Zifeng Zhang Yuanlin Zheng <p><strong>Background</strong>: Recent evidence indicates that the inhibition of hepatocyte apoptosis is possible to develop a potential therapeutic strategy for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Our previous work suggested that purple sweet potato color (PSPC), a class of naturally occurring anthocyanins, effectively improved many features of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD. However, whether PSPC ameliorates HFD-induced hepatocyte apoptosis has never been investigated.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: Here we investigated the effects of PSPC on HFD-induced hepatic apoptosis and the mechanisms underlying these effects.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: Mice were divided into four groups: Control group, HFD group, HFD + PSPC group and PSPC group. PSPC was administered by daily oral gavage at doses of 700 mg/kg/day for 20 weeks. EX-527 (a SirT1-selective inhibitor) and Sirt1 siRNA were used to demonstrate the Sirt1 dependence of PSPC-mediated effects on apoptotic and survival signaling pathways in vivo and in vitro.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Our results showed that PSPC reduced body weights, hepatic triglyceride contents, histopathological lesions and serum ALT levels in a mouse model of NAFLD induced by HFD. Furthermore, PSPC attenuated HFD-induced hepatocyte apoptosis ratio from 7.27 ± 0.92% to 1.79 ± 0.27% in mouse livers, which is insignificant compared with that of controls. Moreover, PSPC activated Sirt1 by boosting NAD+ level in HFD-treated mouse livers. Furthermore, PSPC promoted Sirt1-dependent suppression of P53-mediated apoptotic signaling and activation of Akt survival signaling pathway in HFD-treated mouse livers, which was confirmed by EX527 treatment. Moreover, Sirt1 knockdown abolished these ameliorative effects of PSPC on apoptosis and P53 acetylation and protein expression in PA-treated L02 cells. Ultimately, PSPC reduced Caspase-3 activation and Bax level, and elevated the Bcl-2 level in HFD-treated mouse livers.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: PSPC protected against HFD-induced hepatic apoptosis by promoting Sirt1- dependent inhibition of p53-apoptotic pathway and facilitation of Akt survival pathway. This study indicates that PSPC is a candidate for nutritional intervention of NAFLD.</p> 2020-02-04T13:41:41-08:00 Copyright (c) Long-term caloric restriction activates the myocardial SIRT1/ AMPK/PGC-1α pathway in C57BL/6J male mice 2020-01-29T02:35:41-08:00 Lina Ma Rong Wang Hongjuan Wang Yaxin Zhang Zhiwei Zhao <p><strong>Background</strong>: Caloric restriction (CR) can help in improving heart function. There is as yet no consensus on the mechanism of the effect of CR. Silent mating-type information regulation 1 (SIRT1), adenosine monophosphate- activated protein kinase (AMPK), and mTOR are key players in metabolic stress management. We aimed to explore the effect of CR on the myocardial SIRT1/AMPK/mTOR pathway in mice.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Thirty-six 6-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into three groups: normal control group (NC group, n = 12), high-energy group (HE group, n = 12) and CR group (n = 12) according to different diets. After 11 months, western blot was used to examine proteins such as p-AMPK, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), SIRT1, and p-mTOR, whereas real-time PCR was used to examine the expression of AMPK, PGC-1α, and SIRT1 transcripts.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Compared to the HE group, the CR group displayed increased expression of myocardial p-AMPK protein, SIRT1 protein and mRNA, and PGC-1a mRNA. However, no difference was observed in the expression of p-mTOR protein and mTOR mRNA in the myocardium among the three groups.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: CR improves the SIRT1/AMPK/PGC-1α pathway in mice myocardium with no effect on the mTOR pathway.</p> 2020-01-29T02:35:10-08:00 Copyright (c) Prediction model of artificial neural network for the risk of hyperuricemia incorporating dietary risk factors in a Chinese adult study 2020-01-20T13:54:09-08:00 Jie Zeng Junguo Zhang Ziyi Li Tianwang Li Guowei Li <p><strong>Background</strong>: Risk of hyperuricemia (HU) has been shown to be strongly associated with dietary factors. However, there is scarce evidence on prediction models incorporating dietary factors to estimate the risk of HU.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The aim of this study was to develop a prediction model to predict the risk of HU in Chinese adults based on dietary information.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: Our study was based on a cross-sectional survey, which recruited 1,488 community residents aged 18 to 60 years in Beijing from October 2010 to January 2011. The eligible participants were randomly divided into a training set (n<sub>1</sub> = 992) and a validation set (n<sub>2</sub> = 496) in the ratio of 2:1. We developed the prediction model in three stages. We first used a logistic regression model (LRM) based on the training set to select a set of dietary risk factors which were related to the risk of HU. Artificial neural network (ANN) was then used to construct the prediction model using the training set. Finally, we used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to assess the accuracy of the prediction model using training and validation sets.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: In the training set, the mean age of participants with and without HU was 39.3 (standard deviation [SD]: 9.65) and 38.2 (SD: 9.38) years, respectively. Patients with HU consisted of 101 males (77.7%) and 29 females (22.3%). The LRM found that food frequency (vegetables [odds ratio (OR) = 0.73], meat [0.72], eggs [0.80], plant oil [0.78], tea [0.51], eating habits (breakfast [OR = 1.28]), and the salty cooking style (OR = 1.33) were associated with risk of HU. In the ANN analysis, we selected a three-layer back propagation neural network (BPNN) model with 14, 3, and 1 neuron in the input, hidden, and output layers, respectively, as the best prediction model. The areas under the ROC of the training and validation sets were 0.827 and 0.814, respectively. HU would occur when the incidence probability is greater than 0.128. The indicators of accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and Yuden Index suggested that the ANN model in our study is successful and valuable.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: This study suggests that the ANN model could be used to predict the risk of HU in Chinese adults. Further prospective studies are needed to improve the accuracy and to generalize the use of model.</p> 2020-01-20T13:53:40-08:00 Copyright (c) Resveratrol-induced brown fat-like phenotype in 3T3-L1 adipocytes partly via mTOR pathway 2020-01-17T06:53:47-08:00 Weiyao Liao Zihui Liu Xiaohan Yin Xinjie Zheng Qingrong Li Hongmin Zhang Lin Zheng Xiang Feng <p><strong>Background</strong>: Browning of white adipose tissues (WAT) is recognized as a novel way to combat obesity and its related comorbidities. Thus, a lot of dietary agents contributing to browning of WAT have been identified.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: In this study, we try to explore the mechanism of the browning of WAT induced by resveratrol (Res) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: The levels of cell viability and lipid accumulation were evaluated under different concentrations of Res. Cell signaling pathway analysis was performed to investigate the possible mechanisms of the WAT browning effect of Res in 3T3-L1 cells.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: We found that Res induced the brown fat-like phenotype by activating protein expressions of brown adipocyte-specific markers, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ), peroxisome proliferator- activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α), and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). Besides, Res reduced lipid accumulation, as shown by Oil Red O staining. The increased small lipid droplets implied that Res-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes had some features of brown adipocytes. The brown fat-like phenotype in 3T3-L1 adipocytes induced by Res was possibly mediated by activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), as brown adipocyte-specific markers were decreased by rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTOR and the MHY1485 treatment, an activator of mTOR, showed the similar effect of Res on browning markers.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Res induced brown-like adipocyte phenotype in 3T3-L1 adipocytes partly via mTOR pathway, which provided new insights into the utilization of Res to prevent obesity and related comorbidities.</p> 2020-01-14T00:00:00-08:00 Copyright (c) Groundnut spread likability, sensory properties, and intent to pay for quality certification 2020-01-17T06:56:10-08:00 Ozgur Kaya Wojciech J. Florkowski Daniel Sarpong Manjeet S. Chinnan Anna V. A. Ressurrecion <p>Quality-certified, nutritious novel groundnut spread has great commercialization possibilities due to evolving urban lifestyles in Africa, but lack of information about likability, sensory attributes, and consumer safety awareness is a severe barrier for small enterprises. This paper examines a novel groundnut spread, made of sorted kernels deemed free of aflatoxin, intended for use on bread in a fashion similar to groundnut paste or groundnut butter, but with modified sensory characteristics. In particular, it seeks to measure the effects of sensory attributes of the novel spread on the intent to pay for safety certification and the role of consumer awareness of aflatoxin. A novel spread was prepared with groundnut paste from sorted kernels (to eliminate the risk of aflatoxin contamination) and cocoa. Adults intercepted at Ghana’s International Fair in 2012 volunteered to sample the spread and complete a questionnaire. Results from a tasting panel of untrained participants established that sensory attributes and panellist characteristics are relevant to the intent to pay for quality certification. Spread likability, aroma, education, knowledge about aflatoxin, packaging and being married were identified as major factors increasing the probability of intent to pay for quality certification whereas young age and the presence of children in a household lowered the probability. Results also identified income, education level, and having young children at home as increasing the chances of knowing about aflatoxin. Groundnut paste available in Ghana is often contaminated by aflatoxin as it is in other countries in the region and consumers cannot visually assess paste quality. Under the circumstances, quality certification is necessary.</p> 2020-01-09T00:00:00-08:00 Copyright (c) Insufficient iodine status in pregnant women as a consequence of dietary changes 2020-01-17T06:57:56-08:00 Solveig Adalsteinsdottir Ellen Alma Tryggvadottir Laufey Hrolfsdottir Thorhallur I. Halldorsson Bryndis Eva Birgisdottir Ingibjorg Th. Hreidarsdottir Hildur Hardardottir Petra Arohonka Iris Erlund Ingibjorg Gunnarsdottir <p><strong>Background</strong>: Historically, Iceland has been an iodine-sufficient nation due to notably high fish and milk consumption. Recent data suggest that the intake of these important dietary sources of iodine has decreased considerably.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To evaluate the iodine status of pregnant women in Iceland and to determine dietary factors associated with risk for deficiency.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Subjects were women (<em>n</em> = 983; 73% of the eligible sample) attending their first ultrasound appointment in gestational weeks 11–14 in the period October 2017–March 2018. Spot urine samples were collected for assessment of urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and creatinine. The ratio of iodine to creatinine (I/Cr) was calculated. Median UIC was compared with the optimal range of 150–249 μg/L defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). Diet was assessed using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), which provided information on main dietary sources of iodine in the population studied (dairy and fish).</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The median UIC (95% confidence interval (CI)) and I/Cr of the study population was 89 μg/L (42, 141) and 100 (94, 108) μg/g, respectively. UIC increased with higher frequency of dairy intake, ranging from median UIC of 55 (35, 79) μg/L for women consuming dairy products &lt;1 time per week to 124 (98, 151) μg/L in the group consuming dairy &gt;2 times per day (P for trend &lt;0.001). A small group of women reporting complete avoidance of fish (<em>n</em> = 18) had UIC of 50 (21, 123) μg/L and significantly lower I/Cr compared with those who did not report avoidance of fish (58 (34, 134) μg/g vs. 100 (94, 108) μg/g, <em>P</em> = 0.041). Women taking supplements containing iodine (<em>n</em> = 34, 3.5%) had significantly higher UIC compared with those who did not take supplements (141 (77, 263) μg/L vs. 87 (82, 94), <em>P</em> = 0.037).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: For the first time, insufficient iodine status is being observed in an Icelandic population. There is an urgent need for a public health action aiming at improving iodine status of women of childbearing age in Iceland.</p> 2020-01-06T00:00:00-08:00 Copyright (c) The Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2022 – handbook for qualified systematic reviews 2020-06-18T06:57:58-07:00 Erik Kristoffer Arnesen Jacob Juel Christensen Rikke Andersen Hanna Eneroth Maijaliisa Erkkola Anne Høyer Eva Warensjö Lemming Helle Margrete Meltzer Þórhallur Ingi Þórhallsson Inga Þórsdóttir Ursula Schwab Ellen Trolle Rune Blomhoff <p><strong>Background</strong>: Systematic reviews (SRs) constitute a major part of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNRs). The step-by-step procedure used to develop SRs has evolved considerably over time and is often tailored to fit the exposure and outcomes in focus.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To describe a detailed procedure for developing qualified SRs commissioned by the NNR2022 project.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: Scrutinizing procedures of recent SRs commissioned by leading national food and health authorities or international food and health organizations.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The following eight steps must be included when developing qualified SRs for the NNR2022 project: 1) define research question, 2) protocol development, 3) literature search, 4) screening and selection of studies, 5) data extraction, 6) assessing risk of bias, 7) synthesis and grading of total strength of evidence, and 8) reporting according to certain standards.</p> <p><strong>Discussion</strong>: This guide is based on the guidelines developed for the fifth edition of NNR but includes some important new domains in order to adhere to more recent, authoritative standards.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: All qualified SRs in the NNR2022 project will follow the protocol described here.</p> 2020-06-18T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) The Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2022 – structure and rationale of qualified systematic reviews 2020-06-18T06:58:01-07:00 Erik Kristoffer Arnesen Jacob Juel Christensen Rikke Andersen Hanna Eneroth Maijaliisa Erkkola Anne Høyer Eva Warensjö Lemming Helle Margrete Meltzer Þórhallur Ingi Þórhallsson Inga Þórsdóttir Ursula Schwab Ellen Trolle Rune Blomhoff <p><strong>Background</strong>: Qualified systematic reviews (SRs) will form the main basis for evaluating causal effects of nutrients or food groups on health outcomes in the sixth edition of Nordic Nutrition Recommendations to be published in 2022 (NNR2022).</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To describe rationale and structure of SRs used in NNR2022. Design: The SR methodologies of the previous edition of NNR were used as a starting point. Methodologies of recent SRs commissioned by leading national food and health authorities or international food and health organizations were examined and scrutinized. Methodologies for developing SRs were agreed by the NNR2022 Committee in a consensus-driven process.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Qualified SRs will be developed by a cross-disciplinary group of experts and reported according to the requirements of the EQUATOR network. A number of additional requirements must also be fulfilled, including 1) a clearly stated set of objectives and research questions with pre-defined eligibility criteria for the studies, 2) an explicit, reproducible methodology, 3) a systematic search that attempts to identify all studies that would meet the eligibility criteria, 4) an assessment of the validity of the findings of the included studies through an assessment of ‘risk of bias’ of the studies, 5) a systematic presentation and synthesis of the characteristics and findings of the included studies, and 6) a grading of the overall evidence. The complete definition and requirements of a qualified SR are described.</p> <p><strong>Discussion</strong>: Most SRs published in scientific journals do not fulfill all criteria of the qualified SRs in the NNR2022 project. This article discusses the structure and rationale for requirements of qualified SRs in NNR2022. National food and health authorities have only recently begun to use qualified SRs as a basis for nutrition recommendations.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Qualified SRs will be used to inform dietary reference values (DRVs) and food-based dietary guidelines (FBDGs) in the NNR2022 project.</p> 2020-06-18T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) The Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2022 – principles and methodologies 2020-06-18T06:58:04-07:00 Jacob Juel Christensen Erik Kristoffer Arnesen Rikke Andersen Hanna Eneroth Maijaliisa Erkkola Anne Høyer Eva Warensjö Lemming Helle Margrete Meltzer Þórhallur Ingi Þórhallsson Inga Þórsdóttir Ursula Schwab Ellen Trolle Rune Blomhoff <p><strong>Background</strong>: The Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNRs) constitute the scientific basis for national dietary reference values (DRVs) and food-based dietary guidelines (FBDGs) in the Nordic and Baltic countries.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To define principles and methodologies for the sixth edition of NNR to be published in 2022 (NNR2022).</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: The principles and methodologies of the previous edition of NNR were used as a starting point. Recent nutrition recommendations commissioned by other national food and health authorities or international food and health organizations were examined and dissected. Updated principles and methodologies were agreed by the NNR2022 Committee in a consensus-driven process.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: An organizational model with ‘checks and balances’ was developed to minimize the influence of subjective biases of the committee members and experts. Individual chapters on all included nutrients and food groups will be updated as scoping reviews. Systematic reviews (SRs), which are the main basis for evaluating causal effects of nutrients or food groups on health outcomes, will be embedded in each chapter. A NNR SR Centre will be established for performing de novo SRs on prioritized topics. To avoid duplication and optimize the use of resources, qualified SRs commissioned by other national and international organizations and health authorities will also inform DRVs and FBDGs in NNR2022.</p> <p><strong>Discussion</strong>: The evidence-based methods defined in the NNR2022 project are compatible with most contemporary methods used by leading national food and health authorities. Global harmonization of methodological approaches to nutrition recommendations is strongly encouraged.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Evidence-informed principles and methodologies underpinned by SRs will ensure that DRVs and FBDGs defined in the NNR2022 project are based on the best available evidence and as far as possible free from overt bias.</p> 2020-06-18T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c)