https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/issue/feed Food & Nutrition Research 2022-09-20T07:02:19-07:00 The Food & Nutrition Research Editorial Team anneli.hovstadius@snf.ideon.se Open Journal Systems <p>As one of the first Open Access journals in its field,&nbsp;<em>Food &amp; Nutrition Research&nbsp;</em>(FNR) offers an important forum for researchers to exchange the latest results from research on human nutrition broadly and food-related nutrition in particular. FNR is widely indexed by relevant services and databases, including PubMed Central/PubMed, Scopus, Science Citation Index, with an&nbsp;<strong>Impact Factor of 3.89 (2020)</strong>.</p> https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/8814 Human body weight, nutrients, and foods: a scoping review 2022-09-14T01:04:09-07:00 Jøran Hjelmesæth joran.hjelmeseth@siv.no Agneta Sjöberg agneta.sjoberg@allmed.gu.se <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background</em></strong>: The aim of this article (scoping review) is to elucidate the current knowledge for the potential role of body weight for setting and updating Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) and Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs). The following research questions were formulated:</p> <ol style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"> <li>What is known about the association between intakes of specific nutrient and/or foods (exposure/intervention) and body weight (outcome) in the general population?</li> <li>What is known about the association between body weight (exposure) and intakes of specific nutrient and/or foods (outcomes)?</li> <li>Is there any evidence suggesting specific effects of foods or nutrients on body weight independent of caloric content?</li> </ol> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Methods</em></strong>: To identify potentially relevant articles, PubMed was searched from January 1, 2011 to June 9, 2021. The search strategy was drafted by the NNR2022 Committee. The final results were exported into EndNote. Systematic reviews (SRs), scoping reviews (ScRs), reviews, and meta-analyses (MAs) on the topic ‘Body weight’ published between January 1, 2011 and June 9, 2021, including human participants from the general population, in English or Scandinavian language (Norwegian, Swedish, or Danish), were considered eligible.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Main findings</em></strong>: First, the overall body of evidence based on findings from SRs and MAs of observational and clinical studies indicates that changes in intakes of specific nutrients (sugar, fiber, and fat) and/or foods (sugar sweetened beverages, fiber rich food, and vegetables) are associated with modest or small short-term changes (0.3–1.3 kg) in body weight in the general population (with or without obesity/overweight), while long-term studies are generally lacking. Second, no study in our search assessed any association between body weight (exposure) and intakes of specific nutrients or foods (outcomes). Third, limited evidence suggests, but does not prove, that some foods or nutrients may have specific effects on body weight or body weight measures independent of caloric content (e.g. nuts and dairy). These findings may inform the setting and updating of DRVs and FBDGs in NNR2022.</p> 2022-08-22T13:07:30-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Jøran Hjelmesæth, Agneta Sjöberg https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/8629 Quality of dietary fat and risk of Alzheimer’s disease and dementia in adults aged ≥50 years: a systematic review 2022-07-29T01:20:08-07:00 Bright I. Nwaru bright.nwaru@gu.se Jutta Dierkes veronica.svard@openacademia.net Alfons Ramel veronica.svard@openacademia.net Erik Kristoffer Arnesen veronica.svard@openacademia.net Birna Thorisdottir veronica.svard@openacademia.net Christel Lamberg-Allardt veronica.svard@openacademia.net Fredrik Söderlund veronica.svard@openacademia.net Linnea Bärebring veronica.svard@openacademia.net Agneta Åkesson veronica.svard@openacademia.net <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective</em>:</strong>&nbsp;To identify, critically appraise, and synthesize evidence on the effect of quality of dietary fat intake and different classes of fatty acids on the risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and dementia in adults aged ≥50 years.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Methods</em>:</strong>&nbsp;We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central of Controlled Trials, and Scopus for clinical trials and prospective cohort studies published until May 2021. Two reviewers independently screened retrieved literature, extracted relevant data, and performed risk of bias assessment. Classes of fatty acids included were saturated fatty acids (SFAs), trans fatty acids (TFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and their subtypes and sources. Given between-study heterogeneity, we did not perform meta-analyses but narratively described findings from the studies.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results</em>:</strong>&nbsp;From 4,491 identified records, five articles (based on four prospective cohort studies) met the inclusion criteria. Three studies had an overall serious risk of bias, while one study had a moderate risk. Overall, we found no robust association between intake of any fatty acids type and the development of AD and dementia. For example, for SFA and TFA, there was contradictory associations reported on AD: one study found that each unit increase in energy-adjusted intake of SFA (risk ratio [RR] 0.83, 95%CI 0.70–0.98) and TFA (RR 0.80, 95%CI 0.65–0.97) was associated with a decreased risk of AD, but not dementia. For PUFA, one study found that higher quintile intake of marine-based n-3 PUFA was associated with a decreased risk of AD. The intake of other fatty acids was not associated with the outcomes. The certainty of the overall evidence was inconclusive.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusion</em>:</strong>&nbsp;We found no clear association between the intake of various classes of fatty acids and the risk of AD and dementia in adults. More well-designed prospective studies are required to clarify these findings.</p> 2022-07-28T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Bright I. Nwaru, Jutta Dierkes, Alfons Ramel, Erik Kristoffer Arnesen, Birna Thorisdottir, Christel Lamberg-Allardt, Fredrik Söderlund, Linnea Bärebring, Agneta Åkesson https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/8572 The Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2022 – food consumption and nutrient intake in the adult population of the Nordic and Baltic countries 2022-06-09T01:31:36-07:00 Eva Warensjö Lemming eva.warensjo.lemming@surgsci.uu.se Tagli Pitsi tagli.pitsi@tai.ee <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Knowledge about the nutrient intakes and food consumption in the Nordic and Baltic countries is important for the formulation of dietary reference values (DRVs) and food-based dietary guidelines (FBDGs), as part of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2022 project (NNR2022).</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective</em>:</strong>&nbsp;To describe nutrient intake and food consumption at a broad level in the adult population of each Nordic and Baltic country. This paper also provides guidance on where to find more information on the nutrient intake and food consumption reported from each country.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Design</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Information about the dietary surveys as well as the daily mean intakes was retrieved from the national dietary surveys in each of the Nordic and Baltic countries. Tabulation of the population intakes divided by sex for macronutrients, 20 micronutrients, and for the following broader food groups, Beverages, Cereals, Potatoes, Vegetables, Fruits and berries, Fish and seafood, Meat and meat products, Milk and dairy products, Cheese, Eggs, Fats and oils, and Sweets and sweet bakery products, was done.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results and Discussion</em>:</strong>&nbsp;The Nordic and Baltic countries share not only similarities but also differences in food consumption patterns, which is reflected in differences in average food consumption and nutrient intakes between the countries. This may be related to the dietary assessment method, prevalence of misreporting, and participation rates in the different dietary surveys. Other factors that may play a role are differences in the calculation procedures in the food composition databases and the definition of food groups.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusion</em>:</strong>&nbsp;The nutrient intake and, especially, food consumption differ between the Nordic and Baltic countries because of differences in food patterns and factors related to the dietary surveying, food grouping, and calculation procedures in each country. To facilitate future comparisons between countries, it would be of interest to harmonize food groupings and the age groups reported on.</p> 2022-06-08T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Eva Warensjö Lemming, Tagli Pitsi https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/8242 Protein intake in children and growth and risk of overweight or obesity: A systematic review and meta-analysis 2022-02-21T12:56:47-08:00 Erik Kristoffer Arnesen e.k.arnesen@medisin.uio.no Birna Thorisdottir bith@hi.is Christel Lamberg-Allardt christel.lamberg-allardt@helsinki.fi Linnea Bärebring linnea.barebring@gu.se Bright Nwaru bright.nwaru@gu.se Jutta Dierkes Jutta.Dierkes@uib.no Alfons Ramel alfonsra@hi.is Agneta Åkesson agneta.akesson@ki.se <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objectives:</em></strong>&nbsp;The aim of this study was to examine the evidence for an association between the dietary protein intake in children and the growth and risk of overweight or obesity up to 18 years of age in settings relevant for the Nordic countries.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong>&nbsp;We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Scopus up to February 26, 2021 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or prospective cohort studies assessing for protein intake from foods (total and from different sources) in children. The outcomes include weight, height/length, adiposity indices, and/or risk of overweight and/or obesity. The risk of bias was evaluated with instruments for each respective design (Cochrane’s Risk of Bias 2.0 and RoB-NObS). A meta-analysis of five cohort studies was performed. The evidence was classified according to the criteria of the World Cancer Research Fund.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results:</em></strong>&nbsp;The literature search resulted in 9,132 abstracts, of which 55 papers were identified as potentially relevant. In total, 21 studies from 27 publications were included, of which five were RCTs and 16 were cohort studies. The RCTs found generally null effects of high-protein intake in infants on weight gain, nor that lower protein diets negatively affected growth. All included RCTs had some concern regarding the risk of bias and were limited by small sample sizes. Total protein intake and BMI were assessed in 12 cohorts, of which 11 found positive associations. The meta-analysis revealed a pooled effect estimate of 0.06 (95% CI 0.03, 0.1) kg/m<sup>2</sup>&nbsp;BMI per one E% increment in total protein (<em>I</em><sup>2</sup>&nbsp;= 15.5). Therefore, the evidence for a positive relationship between total protein intake and BMI was considered&nbsp;<em>probable</em>. Furthermore, there was&nbsp;<em>probable</em>&nbsp;evidence for an association between higher intake of animal protein and increased BMI. There was&nbsp;<em>limited, suggestive</em>&nbsp;evidence for an effect of total protein intake and higher risk of overweight and/or obesity, while no conclusions could be made on the associations between animal vs. plant protein intake and risk of overweight and/or obesity.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Discussion:</em></strong>&nbsp;In healthy, well-nourished children of Western populations, there is probably a causal relationship between a high-protein intake in early childhood (≤ 18 months) – particularly protein of animal origin – and higher BMI later in childhood, with consistent findings across cohort studies. A lack of RCTs precluded a stronger grading of the evidence.</p> 2022-02-21T12:55:34-08:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Erik Kristoffer Arnesen, Birna Thorisdottir, Christel Lamberg-Allardt, Linnea Bärebring, Bright Nwaru, Jutta Dierkes, Alfons Ramel, Agneta Åkesson https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/8110 Antioxidant and anti-aging effects of polysaccharide LDP-1 from wild <em>Lactarius deliciosus</em> on <em>Caenorhabditis elegans</em> 2022-09-20T07:02:19-07:00 Xiao-Hui Wang d18301073@stu.ahu.edu.cn Xiao-Du Cheng d16201028@stu.ahu.edu.cn Dong Wang d19201010@stu.ahu.edu.cn Zhi Wu d19301048@stu.ahu.edu.cn Yan Chen chenyan@ahu.edu.cn Qing-Xi Wu wuqx@ahu.edu.cn <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><em><strong>Background</strong>:</em>&nbsp;Edible fungi (mushrooms) have attracted much more concerns due to their abundant nutritions and functional bioactive substances like polysaccharides.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><em><strong>Objective</strong>:</em>&nbsp;In this study, the anti-oxidation and anti-aging activities of polysaccharide fraction (LDP-1) from the wild&nbsp;<em>Lactarius deliciosus</em>&nbsp;fruiting bodies were systematically evaluated using&nbsp;<em>Caenorhabditis elegans</em>&nbsp;(<em>C. elegans</em>) as a model.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><em><strong>Methods</strong>:</em>&nbsp;Lifetime determination of&nbsp;<em>C. elegans</em>&nbsp;(survival status) was observed via microscope. Effects of LDP-1 on&nbsp;<em>C. elegans</em>&nbsp;induced by heat and oxidative stress were, respectively, performed in an artificial climate chamber and Juglone solution. Determination of lipofuscin levels in&nbsp;<em>C. elegans</em>&nbsp;was observed by laser confocal scanning microscopy. Determination of reactive oxygen species in&nbsp;<em>C. elegans in vivo</em>&nbsp;was conducted via fluorescence spectrophotometer reader.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><em><strong>Results</strong>:</em>&nbsp;The results revealed that LDP-1 could significantly extend the lifespan of&nbsp;<em>C. elegans</em>, and the lifetime of&nbsp;<em>C. elegans</em>&nbsp;treated with 1,000 μg/mL LDP-1 could be prolonged by 32.8% compared with the control. The survival rates of the experimental&nbsp;<em>C. elegans</em>&nbsp;under heat shock and oxidative stress conditions were clearly improved after treated with 1,000 μg/mL LDP-1 (40 and 19.8%, respectively), while under the same circumstances all the&nbsp;<em>C. elegans</em>&nbsp;in the blank group died. Fluorescence microscopy analysis confirmed that LDP-1 could effectively reduce the accumulation of lipofuscin and reactive oxygen free radicals in&nbsp;<em>C. elegans</em>, where the respective maximum reduction reached 22.8 and 42.7% compared with the control.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><em><strong>Conclusion</strong>:</em>&nbsp;These results indicate that LDP-1 had favorable antioxidant and anti-aging effects, which could be explored as potential dietary additives to renovate oxidative damage and slow down aging process.</p> 2022-09-19T13:34:32-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Xiao-Hui Wang, Xiao-Du Cheng, Dong Wang, Zhi Wu, Yan Chen, Qing-Xi Wu https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/8714 Arborinine from <em>Glycosmis parva</em> leaf extract inhibits clear-cell renal cell carcinoma by inhibiting KDM1A/UBE2O signaling 2022-09-16T07:48:01-07:00 Chenchen Feng drfengchenchen@163.com Lingxiao Gong gonglingxiaobtbu@163.com Jing Wang wangjingbtbu@163.com <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><em><strong>Background</strong>:</em>&nbsp;Arborinine is a natural product isolated from&nbsp;<em>Globigerina parva</em>&nbsp;(<em>G. parva</em>) leaf extract that shows strong anticancer activity with its role in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) unreported.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><em><strong>Objective</strong>:</em>&nbsp;We aim to evaluate the role of Arborinine in ccRCC.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><em><strong>Design</strong>:</em>&nbsp;Arborinine was tested for its effects in ccRCC cell lines in vitro and in silico.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><em><strong>Results</strong>:</em>&nbsp;Arborinine conferred inhibitory effect to ccRCC cells at reasonable doses. Arborinine showed inhibitory effects on Lysine Demethylase 1A (KDM1A) in ccRCC cells and decreased levels of KDM1A outputs and on epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers. Arborinine significantly inhibited proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle progression and migration of ccRCC cells. Using&nbsp;<em>in silico</em>&nbsp;ChIP analysis and luciferase activity validation, we identified Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2O (UBE2O) as an active transcription target downstream of KDM1A. UBE2O expression was not only correlated with KDM1A expression but also associated with worsened prognosis in ccRCC. Overexpression of UBE2O abrogated cancer-inhibitory effect of Arborinine.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><em><strong>Discussion</strong>:</em>&nbsp;Arborinine holds promise as an additive in the treatment of ccRCC.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><em><strong>Conclusions</strong>:</em>&nbsp;We have shown for the first time that Arborinine showed inhibitory effect on ccRCC via KDM1A/UBE2O signaling.</p> 2022-09-16T07:46:25-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Chenchen Feng, Lingxiao Gong, Jing Wang https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7653 Circadian dysregulation disrupts gut microbe-related bile acid metabolism 2022-08-19T03:37:22-07:00 Rulong Chen 2676619247@qq.com Mengchen Ruan 326350926@qq.com Si Chen 1502901049@qq.com Yu Tian 519357488@qq.com Hualin Wang 119076992@qq.com Na Li lina81518@qq.com Junlin Zhang junlinlx@163.com Xaoli Yu Yxll268@126.com Zhiguo Liu 1610744140@qq.com <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Disturbance of circadian rhythm leads to abnormalities in bile acid (BA) and lipid metabolism, and it is of great significance to explore the relationship between them. This study explored the effects of circadian dysregulation on the rhythms of intestinal BA metabolism.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Method</em>:</strong>&nbsp;<em>Period circadian clock 1/period circadian clock 2</em>&nbsp;(<em>Per1/Per2</em>) double gene knockout (DKO) and wild-type (WT) male C57BL/6 mice were fed with a control or high-fat diet for 16 weeks. We measure plasma parameters of mice. Pathological changes including those in liver and intestine were detected by hematoxylin and eosin (H&amp;E) and oil O staining. Western blot was used to detect the intestinal core rhythm protein clock circadian regulator (CLOCK), nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group D, member 1 (REV-ERBα), Farnesoid X receptor (FXR), Small heterodimer partner (SHP), and Fibroblast growth factor 15 (FGF15) expressions. We analyzed the bile acid and intestinal flora profile in the mice intestine tissues by BA-targeted metabolomics detection and high-throughput sequencing.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Rhythmic chaos affected lipid metabolism and lipid accumulation in mice liver and intestine, and diurnal fluctuations of plasma triglycerides (TGs) were absent in normal-feeding DKO mice. The normal circadian fluctuations of the CLOCK and REV-ERBα observed in wild mice disappeared (normal diet) or were reversed (high-fat diet) in DKO mice. In WT mice intestine, total BA and conjugated BA were affected by circadian rhythm under both normal and high-fat diets, while these circadian fluctuations disappeared in DKO mice. Unconjugated BA seemed to be affected exclusively by diet (significantly increased in the high-fat group) without obvious fluctuations associated with circadian rhythm. Correlation analysis showed that the ratio of conjugated/unconjugated BA was positively correlated with the presence of Bacteroidetes and displayed a circadian rhythm. The expression levels of BA receptor pathway protein FXR, SHP, and FGF15 were affected by the ratio of conjugated/unconjugated BA.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusion</em>:</strong>&nbsp;<em>Bacteroidetes</em>-related diurnal changes to intestinal ratios of conjugated/unconjugated BA have the potential to regulate diurnal fluctuations in liver BA synthesis via FXR-FGF15. The inverted intestinal circadian rhythm observed in DKO mice fed with a high-fat diet may be an important reason for their abnormal circadian plasma TG rhythms and their susceptibility to lipid metabolism disorders.</p> <p><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">&nbsp;</span></span></p> 2022-08-19T03:34:48-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Rulong Chen, Mengchen Ruan, Si Chen, Yu Tian, Hualin Wang, Na Li, Junlin Zhang, Xaoli Yu, Zhiguo Liu https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7570 A behavior change communication intervention, but not livelihood interventions, improves diet diversity and animal-source food consumption among Ghanaian women 2022-07-29T03:05:38-07:00 Elizabeth Ludwig-Borycz Lizzer@umich.edu Mark L. Wilson wilsonml@umich.edu Esi K. Colecraft colecraft_s@hotmail.com Andrew D. Jones jonesand@umich.edu <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Women of reproductive age (WRA), especially in sub-Saharan Africa, are vulnerable to micronutrient deficiencies driven largely by poor quality diets. Intervening into food value chains, on which many households in low- and middle-income countries depend for their livelihood, may be a promising approach to improving diets in these contexts.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective</em>:</strong>&nbsp;In this pilot-scale randomized trial, we evaluated whether a multisectoral, food value chain intervention improved the diet diversity and the consumption of animal-source foods (ASFs) among WRA in Ghana.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Design</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Twelve fish-smoking communities in two regions of Ghana with 296 eligible women were randomly assigned to one of three 9-month treatment arms: 1) behavior change communication (BCC) to promote improved diet quality through twice-weekly audio messages and bi-weekly peer-to-peer learning sessions; 2) BCC with microcredit to increase women’s incomes; or 3) BCC with provision of new smoke-oven technology. We assessed baseline-endline and between-treatment arm differences using a 10-food group diet diversity score (DDS), the Minimum Dietary Diversity for Women (MDD-W) indicator, and 7-day frequency of ASF consumption.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Among 118 participants (39 in both treatment arm 1 and treatment arm 3, and 40 in treatment arm 2, with no participant refusals), DDS increased from a mean (SD) of 4.0 (1.3) at baseline to 5.1 (0.9) at endline (<em>P</em>-value &lt; 0.0001). The proportion of women achieving the MDD-W indicator nearly doubled from baseline (35.6%) to endline (69.5%) (<em>P</em>-value &lt; 0.0001). Frequency of ASF consumption similarly increased for meat and poultry (2.7 (4.1) to 4.7 (5.3);&nbsp;<em>P</em>-value &lt; 0.0001) and eggs (1.5 (3.1) to 2.3 (4.9);&nbsp;<em>P</em>-value = 0.02). Few differences in these outcomes were observed among treatment arms.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusions</em>:</strong>&nbsp;A BCC intervention improved diet diversity and consumption of ASFs among participants. However, neither a group-based microcredit nor improved smoke oven intervention, both of which increased women’s income, led to additional dietary improvements.</p> 2022-07-27T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Elizabeth Ludwig-Borycz, Mark L. Wilson, Esi K. Colecraft, Andrew D. Jones https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/8101 <em>Gardenia jasminoides</em> J. Ellis extract GJ-4 attenuates hyperlipidemic vascular dementia in rats via regulating PPAR-γ-mediated microglial polarization 2022-07-19T09:17:28-07:00 Hui Liu liuhui@imm.ac.cn Caixia Zang zangcaixia@imm.ac.cn Junmei Shang shangjunmei@imm.ac.cn Zihong Zhang zhangzihong@imm.ac.cn Lu Wang wanglu@imm.ac.cn Hanyu Yang yanghanyu@imm.ac.cn Chanjuan Sheng shengchanjuan@imm.ac.cn Fangyu Yuan yuanfangyu@imm.ac.cn Cheng Ju jucheng@imm.ac.cn Fangyuan Li lifangyuan@imm.ac.cn Yang Yu 1018yuyang@163.com Xinsheng Yao tyaoxs@jnu.edu.cn Xiuqi Bao baoxiuqi@imm.ac.cn Dan Zhang danzhang@imm.ac.cn <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background</em>:</strong>&nbsp;GJ-4 is extracted from&nbsp;<em>Gardenia jasminoides</em>&nbsp;J. Ellis (Fructus Gardenia) with crocin composition and has been demonstrated to improve memory deficits in several dementia models in our previous studies.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective</em>:</strong>&nbsp;This study aimed to evaluate the effects of GJ-4 on hyperlipidemic vascular dementia (VD) and explore the underlying mechanisms.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Design</em>:</strong>&nbsp;In the current study, we employed a chronic hyperlipidemic VD rat model by permanent bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (2-VO) based on high-fat diet (HFD), which is an ideal model to mimic the clinical pathogenesis of human VD.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Our results showed that GJ-4 could significantly reduce serum lipids level and improve cerebral blood flow in hyperlipidemic VD rats. Additionally, treatment with GJ-4 remarkedly ameliorated memory impairment and alleviated neuronal injury. Mechanistic investigation revealed that the neuroprotective effects of GJ-4 might be attributed to the inhibition of microglia-mediated neuro-inflammation via regulating the M1/M2 polarization. Our data further illustrated that GJ-4 could regulate the phenotype of microglia through activating the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) and subsequently inhibited nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) nuclear translocation and increased CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) expression.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusion</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Our results implied that GJ-4 might be a promising drug to improve VD through the regulation of microglial M1/M2 polarization and the subsequent inhibition of neuro-inflammation.</p> 2022-07-19T09:08:20-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Hui Liu, Caixia Zang, Junmei Shang, Zihong Zhang, Lu Wang, Hanyu Yang, Chanjuan Sheng, Fangyu Yuan, Cheng Ju, Fangyuan Li, Yang Yu, Xinsheng Yao, Xiuqi Bao, Dan Zhang https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5459 <em>Lactobacillus plantarum</em> Lp2 improved LPS-induced liver injury through the TLR-4/MAPK/NFκB and Nrf2-HO-1/CYP2E1 pathways in mice 2022-07-05T14:54:06-07:00 Yiying Chen 543684006@QQ.COM Yuhua Wang yuhua-ww@163.com Wuyang Guan 543684006@QQ.COM Nan Zhang veronica.svard@openacademia.net Yu Wang veronica.svard@openacademia.net Yuan Tian veronica.svard@openacademia.net Haiyue Sun veronica.svard@openacademia.net Xia Li veronica.svard@openacademia.net Jingsheng Liu veronica.svard@openacademia.net <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Inflammatory liver diseases present a significant public health problem. Probiotics are a kind of living microorganisms, which can improve the balance of host intestinal flora, promote the proliferation of intestinal beneficial bacteria, inhibit the growth of harmful bacteria, improve immunity, reduce blood lipids and so on. Probiotics in fermented foods have attracted considerable attention lately as treatment options for liver injury.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective</em>:</strong>&nbsp;The aim of this study was selected probiotic strain with well probiotic properties from naturally fermented foods and investigated the underlying mechanisms of screened probiotic strain on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury, which provided the theoretical foundation for the development of probiotics functional food.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Design</em>:</strong>&nbsp;The probiotic characteristics of&nbsp;<em>Lactobacillus plantarum</em>&nbsp;Lp2 isolated from Chinese traditional fermented food were evaluated. Male KM mice were randomly assigned into three groups: normal chow (Control), LPS and LPS with&nbsp;<em>L. plantarum</em>&nbsp;Lp2.&nbsp;<em>L. plantarum</em>&nbsp;Lp2 were orally administered for 4 weeks before exposure to LPS. The liver injury of LPS-induced mice was observed through the evaluation of biochemical indexes, protein expression level and liver histopathology.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results and discussions</em>:</strong>&nbsp;After treatment for 4 weeks,&nbsp;<em>L. plantarum</em>&nbsp;Lp2 administration significantly reduced the LPS-induced liver coefficient and the levels of serum or liver aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and LPS, as well as decreasing the histological alterations and protein compared with the LPS group. Western-blotting results showed that&nbsp;<em>L. plantarum</em>&nbsp;Lp2 activated the signal pathway of TLR4/MAPK/NFκB/NRF2-HO-1/CYP2E1/Caspase-3 and regulated the expression of related proteins.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusions</em>:</strong>&nbsp;In summary,&nbsp;<em>L. plantarum</em>&nbsp;Lp2 suppressed the LPS-induced activation of inflammatory pathways, oxidative injury and apoptosis has the potential to be used to improve liver injury.</p> 2022-07-05T14:46:07-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Yiying Chen, Yuhua Wang, Wuyang Guan, Nan Zhang, Yu Wang, Yuan Tian, Haiyue Sun, Xia Li, Jingsheng Liu https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7680 Dietary adenosine 5’-monophosphate supplementation increases food intake and remodels energy expenditure in mice 2022-06-30T13:17:53-07:00 Zifang Wu zifangwu@qq.com Sujuan Rao 1450581489@qq.com Jiaying Li 754831725@qq.com Ning Ding veronica.svard@openacademia.net Jianzhao Chen 920133802@qq.com Li Feng veronica.svard@openacademia.net Shuo Ma veronica.svard@openacademia.net Chengjun Hu 623847996@qq.com Haonan Dai 1437430444@qq.com Lijun Wen lj.wen@163.com Qingyan Jiang veronica.svard@openacademia.net Jinping Deng veronica.svard@openacademia.net Ming Deng dengming@scau.edu.cn Chengquan Tan tanchengquan@scau.edu.cn <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Dietary nucleotides [inclusion adenosine 5’-monophosphate (AMP)] supplementation was shown to promote the feed intake of sows and increase the AMP content in their milk in our previous work, but whether AMP shapes the energy expenditure and lipid metabolism in mammals remains unknown. Here, we aimed to explore the effects and the related mechanism of dietary AMP supplementation on food intake, body composition, energy expenditure, and lipid metabolism in male mice.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Methods</em>:</strong>&nbsp;4-week-old C57BL/6 mice (After a 1-wk adaptation) were fed with basal diet and basal diet supplemented with 0.1% AMP, respectively. Animal food intake and body weight were monitored and after 4 weeks all animals were sacrificed to measure the body composition, energy expenditure and lipid metabolism changes.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Compared with the control, the 0.1% AMP fed mice showed higher food intake while lower adipose weight. Intriguingly, dietary AMP supplementation was found to stimulate brown adipose tissue thermogenesis as evidenced by the increase in the uncoupling protein-1 level and the core temperature. Moreover, AMP supplementation was shown to promote white adipose tissue lipolysis as indicated by smaller lipid droplet size in mice. These results demonstrate that dietary AMP supplementation could enhance oxygen consumption and energy expenditure.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusions</em>:</strong>&nbsp;This study highlights the physiological importance of AMP supplementation in mediating food intake and energy expenditure and suggests its potential as an adjuvant therapy in preventing energy metabolic disorders (mainly obesity and diabetes).</p> 2022-06-30T13:05:33-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Zifang Wu, Sujuan Rao, Jiaying Li, Ning Ding, Jianzhao Chen, Li Feng, Shuo Ma, Chengjun Hu, Haonan Dai, Lijun Wen, Qingyan Jiang, Jinping Deng, Ming Deng, Chengquan Tan https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/8587 Sunflower (<em>Helianthus annuus</em>) seed extract suppresses the lipogenesis pathway and stimulates the lipolysis pathway in high-fat diet-induced obese mice 2022-06-29T15:26:13-07:00 Jeong Moon Yun moon1894@hanmail.net Jaeeun Jung jaeeun88@khu.ac.kr Seong-Hoo Park phoo3166@khu.ac.kr Young Ha Seo yhs@rpcorp.co.kr Jae Kyoung Lee ljk1200@rpcorp.co.kr Mun Hyoung Bae mara24@rpcorp.co.kr Sangwon Eun info@dhchemtech.com Ok-Kyung Kim 20woskxm@jnu.ac.kr Jeongmin Lee jlee2007@khu.ac.kr <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Obesity, abnormal fat accumulation in the adipose tissue, has become a serious global public health problem as it increases an individual’s risk of developing various diseases.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective</em>:</strong>&nbsp;This study sought to determine whether the extract from sunflower seed (SUNCA) prevents the development of obesity in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Design</em>:</strong>&nbsp;C57BL/6J mice were fed with AIN93G normal diet (Normal diet), 60% HFD, HFD containing Catechin 100 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) (Catechin), HFD containing SUNCA 25 mg/kg b.w. (SUNCA 25), HFD containing SUNCA 50 mg/kg b.w. (SUNCA 50), or HFD containing SUNCA 100 mg/kg b.w. (SUNCA 100) for 15 weeks.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Body weight gain, food efficiency rate, adipose tissue weight, adipose tissue mass, size of adipocytes, and serum levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein/low-density lipoprotein (VLDL/LDL)-cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were significantly decreased by SUNCA supplementation in HFD-fed mice. Furthermore, SUNCA supplementation decreased the expression of proteins related to the adipogenesis and lipogenesis pathways and increased the expression of proteins related to the lipolysis and thermogenesis pathways in the adipose tissues of HFD-induced obese mice.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusions</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Altogether, SUNCA might prevent obesity by suppressing the adipogenesis/lipogenesis pathway and stimulating the lipolysis/thermogenesis pathway in HFD-induced obese mice.</p> 2022-06-29T15:24:47-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Jeong Moon Yun, Jaeeun Jung, Seong-Hoo Park, Young Ha Seo, Jae Kyoung Lee, Mun Hyoung Bae, Sangwon Eun, Ok-Kyung Kim, Jeongmin Lee https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/8580 Gut microbiota is associated with dietary intake and metabolic markers in healthy individuals 2022-06-22T07:22:31-07:00 Line Gaundal linega@oslomet.no Mari C.W. Myhrstad mmyhrsta@oslomet.no Ida Rud ida.rud@nofima.no Terje Gjøvaag terje@oslomet.no Marte G. Byfuglien Marte.Gjeitung.Byfuglien@mills.no Kjetil Retterstøl kjetil.retterstol@medisin.uio.no Kirsten B. Holven k.b.holven@medisin.uio.no Stine M. Ulven smulven@medisin.uio.no Vibeke H. Telle-Hansen vtelle@oslomet.no <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Metabolic diseases have been related to gut microbiota, and new knowledge indicates that diet impacts host metabolism through the gut microbiota. Identifying specific gut bacteria associated with both diet and metabolic risk markers may be a potential strategy for future dietary disease prevention. However, studies investigating the association between the gut microbiota, diet, and metabolic markers in healthy individuals are scarce.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective</em>:</strong>&nbsp;We explored the relationship between a panel of gut bacteria, dietary intake, and metabolic and anthropometric markers in healthy adults.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Design</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Forty-nine volunteers were included in this cross-sectional study. Measures of glucose, serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), blood pressure (BP), and body mass index (BMI) were collected after an overnight fast, in addition to fecal samples for gut microbiota analyzes using a targeted approach with a panel of 48 bacterial DNA probes and assessment of dietary intake by a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Correlations between gut bacteria, dietary intake, and metabolic and anthropometric markers were assessed by Pearson’s correlation. Gut bacteria varying according to dietary intake and metabolic markers were assessed by a linear regression model and adjusted for age, sex, and BMI.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Of the 48 gut bacteria measured, 24 and 16 bacteria correlated significantly with dietary intake and metabolic and/or anthropometric markers, respectively. Gut bacteria including&nbsp;<em>Alistipes</em>,&nbsp;<em>Lactobacillus</em>&nbsp;spp., and&nbsp;<em>Bacteroides stercoris</em>&nbsp;differed according to the intake of the food components, fiber, sodium, saturated fatty acids, and dietary indices, and metabolic markers (BP and total cholesterol) after adjustments. Notably,&nbsp;<em>Bacteroides stercoris</em>&nbsp;correlated positively with the intake of fiber, grain products, and vegetables, and higher&nbsp;<em>Bacteroides stercoris</em>&nbsp;abundance was associated with higher adherence to Healthy Nordic Food Index (HNFI) and lower diastolic BP after adjustment.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusion</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Our findings highlight the relationship between the gut microbiota, diet, and metabolic markers in healthy individuals. Further investigations are needed to address whether these findings are causally linked and whether targeting these gut bacteria can prevent metabolic diseases.</p> 2022-06-22T07:19:56-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Line Gaundal, Mari C.W. Myhrstad, Ida Rud, Terje Gjøvaag, Marte G. Byfuglien, Kjetil Retterstøl, Kirsten B. Holven , Stine M. Ulven, Vibeke H. Telle-Hansen https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/8239 Tea and its components reduce the production of uric acid by inhibiting xanthine oxidase 2022-06-15T11:12:54-07:00 Dan Wu wudan@stu.scau.edu.cn Ruohong Chen chenruohong@tea.gdaas.cn Wenji Zhang zhangwenji@tea.gdaas.cn Xingfei Lai laixingfei@tea.gdaas.cn Lingli Sun sunlingli@tea.gdaas.cn Qiuhua Li liqiuhua@tea.gdaas.cn Zhenbiao Zhang zhangzhenbiao@tea.gdaas.cn Junxi Cao caojunxi@tea.gdaas.cn Shuai Wen wenshuai@tea.gdaas.cn Zhaoxiang Lai laizhaoxiang@tea.gdaas.cn Zhigang Li lizhigang@tea.gdaas.cn Fanrong Cao prcao@scau.edu.cn Shili Sun sunshili@gdaas.cn <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background</em>:</strong>&nbsp;The health benefits of tea are as diverse including the reduction of uric acid levels. Xanthine oxidase is the most directly mediated enzyme in the production of uric acid.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective</em>:</strong>&nbsp;To explore the inhibitory effects of different teas and its main bioactive components on the production of uric acid.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Design</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Experimental study. The experiments were conducted in vitro using human immortalized normal liver cell line HL-7702 (L-02).</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results</em>:</strong>&nbsp;The inhibition of the xanthine oxidase activities and the expression level of xanthine dehydrogenase mRNA stimulated in the hyperuric hepatocyte cell model showed that the unfermented green tea and th1e lightly fermented yellow tea, white tea, and oolong tea significantly stronger than the highly fermented black tea and dark tea. The main bioactive compound, gallic acid, showed the strongest inhibitory effect on uric acid production, followed by tea polyphenols and theaflavins.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Discussion</em>:</strong>&nbsp;All teas exhibited significant inhibition of xanthine oxidase activities, and the degree of fermentation of tea may be inversely proportional to its ability to inhibit the production of uric acid. Compared with tea polyphenols rich in tea, gallic acid may be a more potential uric acid-lowering component.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusion</em>:</strong>&nbsp;In this article, we first compared the effects of six traditional Chinese tea made from a single variety in stabilizing the synthesis of uric acid and found that the lighter the fermentation, the greater the potential for inhibiting the production of uric acid. Furthermore, we analyzed the inhibitory effects of its main biochemical active ingredients and found that the inhibitory effects of polyphenols rich in lightly fermented tea were significantly stronger than caffeine rich in highly fermented tea. Our findings will be helpful for people to choose a proper tea for alleviating hyperuricemia and provide a scientific basis for uric acid-lowering tea processing.</p> 2022-06-15T11:11:05-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Dan Wu, Ruohong Chen, Wenji Zhang, Xingfei Lai, Lingli Sun, Qiuhua Li, Zhenbiao Zhang, Junxi Cao, Shuai Wen, Zhaoxiang Lai, Zhigang Li, Fanrong Cao, Shili Sun https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/8472 Comparative characterization of the gluten and fructan contents of breads from industrial and artisan bakeries: a study of food products in the Spanish market 2022-06-21T05:44:35-07:00 Miriam Marín Sanz mmarin@ias.csic.es Susana Sánchez-León ssanchez@ias.csic.es Elena León elena.leon.ro@gmail.com Francisco Barro fbarro@ias.csic.es <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background</em>:</strong>&nbsp;The consumption of wheat/gluten is associated with adverse reactions for human health. Gluten and fructans are identified as the major compounds triggering and worsening adverse reactions to wheat, which are increasing, and as a consequence, avoidance of gluten/wheat is the common strategy of many individuals of the western population. Although bread is a product of daily consumption, there is a lack of information on the gluten and fructan contents and the influence of artisanal or industrial processes.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective</em>:</strong>&nbsp;The aim of this study is to carry out a comparative characterization between artisan bakeries and hypermarkets in Spain for gluten and fructan contents in daily sold breads.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Design</em>:</strong>&nbsp;A total of 48 types of bread highly consumed in Spain sold in artisan bakeries (long fermentation) and hypermarkets (short fermentations) were selected for comparing the gluten and fructan contents. Methods such as reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), R5 monoclonal antibody (moAb), and fructans protocols were used for the quantification of these compounds.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Great variation for the content of gluten and fructans has been found between all bread categories. Although breads produced using long fermentation (artisan bakeries) contain significantly lower gluten, they have higher fructans than those using short fermentations (hypermarkets). Durum wheat breads had the lowest content of gluten. Moreover, spelt breads from artisan bakeries had the lowest content of fructans but not those from hypermarkets.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Discussion</em>:</strong>&nbsp;In this study, we report the comparative characterizarion of the breads of the Spanish market. These food products presented variation in the amount of gluten and fructans, ligated in most of the cases to the nature of the providers: artisan bakeries against hypermarkets. Depending on the type of bread, the differences for the daily consumption of gluten and fructan can be 4.5 and 20 times, respectively.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusions</em>:</strong>&nbsp;We found strong differences for gluten and fructan contents among breads. These information may contribute to designing strategies to improve the management of gluten and fructans in bread.</p> 2022-06-10T15:22:53-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Miriam Marín Sanz, Susana Sánchez-León, Elena León, Francisco Barro https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7652 <em>Citrus maxima</em> and tea regulate AMPK signaling pathway to retard the progress of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease 2022-06-10T15:18:38-07:00 Shuai Wen wenshuai@tea.gdaas.cn Ran An wyu2017ar@163.com Zhi-Gang Li lizhigang@tea.gdaas.cn Zhao-Xiang Lai laizhaoxiang@tea.gdaas.cn Dong-Li Li wyuchemldl@126.com Jun-Xi Cao junxic@126.com Ruo-Hong Chen chenruohong@tea.gdaas.cn Wen-Ji Zhang zhangwenji@gdaas.cn Qiu-Hua Li liqiuhua@tea.gdaas.cn Xing-Fei Lai laixingfei@tea.gdaas.cn Shi-Li Sun sunshili@gdaas.cn Ling-Li Sun lingli_318@126.com <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic metabolic disease that easily induces hepatitis, cirrhosis, and even liver cancer. The long-term use of NAFLD therapeutic drugs produces toxicity and drug resistance. Therefore, it is necessary to develop high efficiency and low-toxicity active ingredients to alleviate NAFLD.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective</em>:</strong>&nbsp;This study aimed to reveal the role and mechanism of a new functional food CMT in alleviating NAFLD.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results</em>:</strong>&nbsp;In the ob/ob fatty liver mice models, the CMT extracts significantly inhibited the weight gain of the mice and reduced the accumulation of white fat. The anatomical and pathological results showed that CMT relieved fatty liver in mice and reduced excessive lipid deposition and inflammatory infiltration. Serological and liver biochemical indicators suggest that CMT reduced dyslipidemia and liver damage caused by fatty liver. CMT obviously activated the adenosine 5′-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/acetyl-coA carboxylase (ACC) and AMPK/fatty acid synthase (FAS) signaling pathways, promoted fat oxidation, and inhibited synthesis. Moreover, CMT regulated the expression of inflammatory factors to relieve hepatitis caused by NAFLD.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusion</em>:</strong>&nbsp;The study explained the role and mechanism of CMT in alleviating NAFLD and suggested that the active ingredients of CMT might be beneficial in NAFLD therapy.</p> 2022-06-10T15:12:50-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Shuai Wen, Ran An, Zhi-Gang Li, Zhao-Xiang Lai, Dong-Li Li, Jun-Xi Cao, Ruo-Hong Chen, Wen-Ji Zhang, Qiu-Hua Li, Xing-Fei Lai, Shi-Li Sun, Ling-Li Sun https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/8645 Antcin K inhibits VCAM-1-dependent monocyte adhesion in human rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts 2022-06-21T02:23:55-07:00 David Achudhan achudhaninformations@gmail.com Sunny Li-Yun Chang sunnylyc@gmail.com Shan-Chi Liu sdsaw.tw@yahoo.com.tw Yen-You Lin chas6119@gmail.com Wei-Chien Huang whuang@mail.cmu.edu.tw Yang-Chang Wu yachwu@mail.cmu.edu.tw Chien-Chung Huang u104054003@cmu.edu.tw Chun-Hao Tsai ritsai8615@gmail.com Chih-Yuan Ko D14333@mail.cmuh.org.tw Yueh-Hsiung Kuo kuoyh@mail.cmu.edu.tw Chih-Hsin Tang chtang@mail.cmu.edu.tw <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Antcin K, an extract of&nbsp;<em>Antrodia cinnamomea</em>&nbsp;(a medicinal mushroom endemic to Taiwan commonly used in Chinese medicine preparations), inhibits proinflammatory cytokine production and angiogenesis in human rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RASFs), major players in RA disease. Antcin K also inhibits disease activity in mice with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Up until now, the effects of Antcin K upon cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) were unknown.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Methods</em>:</strong>&nbsp;RA and healthy synovial tissue samples (<em>n</em>&nbsp;= 10 in each group) were retrieved from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database (accession code: GDS5401) to compare CAM and monocyte marker expressions. In addition, synovial tissue samples from six RA patients and six patients undergoing arthroscopy for trauma/joint derangement (healthy controls) were subjected to immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis. mRNA and protein expression levels were analyzed in RASFs using RT-qPCR (Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction) and Western blot. RASFs were incubated with Antcin K and examined for monocyte adherence by fluorescence microscopy. Ankle joint tissue specimens from a CIA mouse model and healthy controls were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&amp;E) and Safranin-O/Fast Green to examine histological changes and evidence of bone loss. IHC analysis determined levels of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and CD11b in CIA ankle tissue and clinical synovial tissue.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Levels of VCAM-1 expression were higher in the GEO database specimens and the study’s clinical samples of RA synovial tissue compared with the healthy specimens. Antcin K dose-dependently inhibited VCAM-1 expression and monocyte adhesion in RASFs. Antcin K also significantly inhibited levels of VCAM-1 and monocyte CD11b expression in CIA tissue. These effects appeared to be mediated by MEK1/2-ERK, p38, and AP-1 signaling.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusions</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Antcin K seems promising for the treatment of RA and deserves further investigations.</p> 2022-06-02T13:18:44-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 David Achudhan , Sunny Li-Yun Chang, Shan-Chi Liu, Yen-You Lin, Wei-Chien Huang, Yang-Chang Wu, Chien-Chung Huang, Chun-Hao Tsai, Chih-Yuan Ko, Yueh-Hsiung Kuo, Chih-Hsin Tang https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/8289 Capsaicin regulates lipid metabolism through modulation of bile acid/gut microbiota metabolism in high-fat-fed SD rats 2022-05-26T15:26:15-07:00 Ting Gong liuxiong2018@163.com Haizhu Wang 709155067@qq.com Shanli Liu 583218727@qq.com Min Zhang zhangmin401331@163.com Xiong Liu liuxiong2018@126.com <p><span style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">Capsaicin (CAP) is one of the active ingredients found in chili peppers and has been shown to reduce fat. This study aimed to explore the mechanisms of CAP activity by investigating intestinal microorganisms and bile acids (BAs). This study utilized 16S RNA sequencing to detect gut microbiota in cecal contents, and BAs in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were also investigated. The results showed that 1) CAP increased the levels of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), deoxycholic acid (DCA), β-muricholic acid (β-MCA), and tauro-β-muricholic acid sodium salt (T-β-MCA), which can regulate farnesoid X receptor (FXR) to inhibit Fgf15, increased CYP7A1 expression to lower triglycerides (TG) and total cholesterol (TC); 2) CAP decreased the abundance of&nbsp;</span><em style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Firmicutes</em><span style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">&nbsp;and promoted the presence of specific fermentative bacterial populations, like&nbsp;</span><em style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Akkermansia</em><span style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">; meanwhile, less optimal dose can reduce&nbsp;</span><em style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Desulfovibrio</em><span style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">; 3) CAP decreased inflammatory factors IL-6 and IL-1β, and increased transient receptor potential channel of vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) to regulate lipid metabolism, fasting plasma glucose and insulin resistance. In conclusion, CAP can reduce fat accumulation by regulating BAs, microorganisms, and short-chain fatty acids.</span></p> 2022-05-26T15:24:41-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ting Gong, Haizhu Wang, Shanli Liu, Min Zhang, Xiong Liu https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/8469 Troxerutin alleviates kidney injury in rats via PI3K/AKT pathway by enhancing MAP4 expression 2022-06-21T04:14:51-07:00 Tongxu Guan guantongxu@yeah.net Yingce Zheng zhengyingce@neau.edu.cn Shengzi Jin 1836636469@qq.com Shuang Wang wangshuang@neau.edu.cn Mengxin Hu 984968009@qq.com Xingyao Liu xingyaoliu@126.com Siqi Huang HuangSiQihhh@163.com Yun Liu liuyun@neau.edu.cn <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Troxerutin is a flavonoid compound and possesses potential anti-cancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. Besides, cisplatin is one of the most widely used therapeutic agents, but the clinical uses of cisplatin are often associated with multiple side effects, among which nephrotoxicity is more common.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective and design</em>:</strong>&nbsp;This study explored the protective effects of troxerutin (150 mg kg<sup>−1</sup>&nbsp;day<sup>−1</sup>&nbsp;for 14 days) against cisplatin-induced kidney injury and the potential mechanism using Wistar rats as an experimental mammalian model.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results</em>:</strong>&nbsp;We discovered that troxerutin could significantly alleviate cisplatin-induced renal dysfunction, such as increased levels of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine (<em>P</em>&nbsp;&lt; 0.01), as well as improved abnormal renal tissue microstructure and ultrastructure. Additionally, troxerutin significantly decreased malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>), NO, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) levels (<em>P &lt;</em>&nbsp;0.01), p-NF-κB p65/NF-κB p65, TNF-α, Pro-IL-1β, IL-6, B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2)/Bcl-xl associated death promoter (Bad), Cytochrome C (Cyt C), Cleaved-caspase 9, Cleaved-caspase 3, and Cleaved-caspase 8 protein levels (<em>P &lt;</em>&nbsp;0.01) in the kidney tissues of cisplatin-treated rats; and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) activities (<em>P &lt;</em>&nbsp;0.01), IL-10, Bcl-2 protein levels (<em>P &lt;</em>&nbsp;0.01).</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusion</em>:</strong>&nbsp;These results suggested that the underlying mechanism might be attributed to the regulation of Phosphoinositide 3 kinase/Protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) pathway via enhancing MAP4 expression to attenuate cellular apoptosis, alleviating oxidative stress and inflammatory response.</p> 2022-05-24T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Tongxu Guan, Yingce Zheng, Shengzi Jin, Shuang Wang, Mengxin Hu, Xingyao Liu, Siqi Huang, Yun Liu https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/8268 Kimchi improves irritable bowel syndrome: results of a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study 2022-05-30T06:15:37-07:00 Hee-Young Kim kimhy@pusan.ac.kr Eui-Seong Park pakjiji@hanmail.net Young Sik Choi yschoi@kosinmed.or.kr Seun Ja Park parksj@kosinmed.or.kr Jae Hyun Kim kjh8517@daum.net Hee Kyung Chang changhkg@kosin.ac.kr Kun-Young Park kunypark@cha.ac.kr <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) can be caused by abnormal bowel movements, altered brain-gut axis, gut microbiota change, and low levels of inflammation or immune activation. The intake of food containing much fiber and lactic acid bacteria (LABs) can alleviate IBS.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective</em>:</strong>&nbsp;This study was undertaken to confirm the alleviative effect of kimchi on symptoms of IBS.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Design</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Three types of kimchi (standard kimchi, SK; dead nano-sized&nbsp;<em>Lactobacillus plantarum</em>&nbsp;nF1 (nLp) added to standard kimchi, nLpSK; or functional kimchi, FK) were given to 30 individuals in each of three groups, that is, the SK group (<em>n</em>&nbsp;= 30), the nLpSK group (<em>n</em>&nbsp;= 30), or the FK group (<em>n</em>&nbsp;= 30) at 210 g a day for 12 weeks. Food intake records, serum levels of inflammatory factors, fecal levels of harmful enzymes, and microbiome changes were investigated over the 12-week study period.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results</em>:</strong>&nbsp;After intervention, dietary fiber intake was increased in all groups. Typical IBS symptoms (abdominal pain or inconvenience, desperation, incomplete evacuation, and bloating), defecation time, and stool type were also improved. In serum, all groups showed reductions in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (<em>P</em>&nbsp;&lt; 0.001) levels. In addition, serum IL-4 (<em>P</em>&nbsp;&lt; 0.001), IL-10 (<em>P</em>&nbsp;&lt; 0.001), and IL-12 (<em>P</em>&nbsp;&lt; 0.01) were significantly reduced in the nLpSK and FK groups, and serum monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 (<em>P</em>&nbsp;&lt; 0.05) was significantly reduced in the nLpSK group. Furthermore, activities of fecal β-glucosidase and β-glucuronidase were significantly decreased in all three groups, and these reductions were greatest in the nLpSK group. Gut microbiome analysis showed that kimchi consumption increased Firmicutes populations at the expense of Bacteroidetes and Tenericutes populations. In addition, the&nbsp;<em>Bifidobacterium adolescentis</em>&nbsp;population increased significantly in the FK group (<em>P</em>&nbsp;= 0.026).</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusion</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Kimchi intake helps alleviate IBS by increasing dietary fiber intake and reducing serum inflammatory cytokine levels and harmful fecal enzyme activities. Notably, nLp improved the immune system, and several functional ingredients in FK promoted the growth of&nbsp;<em>Bifidobacterium adolescentis</em>&nbsp;in gut.</p> 2022-05-23T11:59:56-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Hee-Young Kim, Eui-Seong Park, Young Sik Choi, Seun Ja Park, Jae Hyun Kim, Hee Kyung Chang, Kun-Young Park https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7974 <em>Lactobacillus plantarum</em> FRT4 alleviated obesity by modulating gut microbiota and liver metabolome in high-fat diet-induced obese mice 2022-05-09T22:25:15-07:00 Hongying Cai caihongying@caas.cn Zhiguo Wen wenzhiguo@caas.cn Lulu Zhao zhll2014@yeah.net Dali Yu poseidon788@hotmail.com Kun Meng mengkun@caas.cn Peilong Yang yangpeilong@caas.cn <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Obesity has become a global epidemic recognized by the World Health Organization. Probiotics supplementation has been shown to contribute to improve lipid metabolism. However, mechanisms of action of probiotics against obesity are still not clear.&nbsp;<em>Lactobacillus plantarum</em>&nbsp;FRT4, a probiotic previously isolated from a kind of local yogurt, had good acid and bile salt tolerance and lowered cholesterol&nbsp;<em>in vitro</em>.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective</em>:</strong>&nbsp;This study aimed to evaluate the effect of&nbsp;<em>L. plantarum</em>&nbsp;FRT4 on serum and liver lipid profile, liver metabolomics, and gut microbiota in mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD).</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Design</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Mice were fed with either normal diet or HFD for 16 weeks and administered 0.2 mL of 1 × 10<sup>9</sup>&nbsp;or 1 × 10<sup>10</sup>&nbsp;CFU/mL dosage of&nbsp;<em>L. plantarum</em>&nbsp;FRT4 during the last 8 weeks of the diet. Cecal contents were analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing. Hepatic gene expression and metabolites were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and metabolomics, respectively.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results</em>:</strong>&nbsp;<em>L. plantarum</em>&nbsp;FRT4 intervention significantly reduced the HFD-induced body weight gain, liver weight, fat weight, serum cholesterol, triglyceride, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in the liver (<em>P &lt;</em>&nbsp;0.05). Liver metabolomics demonstrated that the HFD increased choline, glycerophosphocholine, and phosphorylcholine involved in the glycerophospholipid metabolism pathway. All these changes were reversed by FRT4 treatment, bringing the levels close to those in the control group. Further mechanisms showed that FRT4 favorably regulated gut barrier function and pro-inflammatory biomediators. Furthermore, FRT4 intervention altered the gut microbiota profiles and increased microbial diversity. The relative abundances of&nbsp;<em>Bacteroides</em>,&nbsp;<em>Parabateroides</em>,&nbsp;<em>Anaerotruncus</em>,&nbsp;<em>Alistipes</em>,&nbsp;<em>Intestinimonas</em>,&nbsp;<em>Butyicicoccus</em>, and&nbsp;<em>Butyricimonas</em>&nbsp;were significantly upregulated. Finally, Spearman’s correlation analysis revealed that several specific genera were strongly correlated with glycerophospholipid metabolites (<em>P &lt;</em>&nbsp;0.05).</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusions</em>:</strong>&nbsp;These findings suggested that&nbsp;<em>L. plantarum</em>&nbsp;FRT4 had beneficial effects against obesity in HFD-induced obese mice and can be used as a potential functional food for the prevention of obesity.</p> 2022-05-09T22:20:20-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Hongying Cai, Zhiguo Wen, Lulu Zhao, Dali Yu, Kun Meng, Peilong Yang https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7909 Short-term moderate caloric restriction in a high-fat diet alleviates obesity via AMPK/SIRT1 signaling in white adipocytes and liver 2022-05-03T06:52:08-07:00 Shaohong Zhang hongshao0504@163.com Shuoshuo Sun veronica.svard@openacademia.net Xiao Wei veronica.svard@openacademia.net Mengxiao Zhang veronica.svard@openacademia.net Yu Chen veronica.svard@openacademia.net Xiaodong Mao veronica.svard@openacademia.net Guofang Chen veronica.svard@openacademia.net Chao Liu Profliuchao@163.com <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background</em></strong>: Obesity is a growing problem for public health worldwide. Calorie restriction (CR) is a safety and effective life intervention to defend against obesity. Short-term moderate CR may be a more favorable strategy against this pathology. However, the mechanisms behind the effects of CR remain to be clarified. Increased energy expenditure in the liver and brown adipose tissue could potentially be manipulated to modulate and improve metabolism in obesity. Moreover, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) are well-characterized metabolic modulators. We aim to explore the anti-obesity effects of short-term moderate CR by improving energy metabolism via the SIRT1/AMPK pathway in white adipocytes and liver in a mouse model of obesity.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Methods</em></strong>: Male C57BL/6 mice were randomized into two groups receiving either a standard or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks to induce obesity. The HFD-induced obese mice were further randomized into two groups: HFD group or CR group (received 75% of the food eaten by HFD group). Their energy metabolism, white adipose tissue (WAT) contents, hepatic fat deposition, the expression of AMPK, SIRT1, peroxisome proliferators γ-activated receptor coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in WAT, and hepatic tissues were determined.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results</em></strong>: After 4 weeks, body weight, total serum cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, and insulin levels were significantly lower in the CR group. Moreover, CR ameliorated hepatocyte steatosis, attenuated white adipogenesis, and increased energy expenditure and expressions of SIRT1, PGC-1α, and phosphorylated AMPK in subcutaneous WAT and the hepatic tissues. In addition, CR reduced the protein levels of NF-κB and increased the eNOS expression.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusion</em></strong>: Short-term moderate CR decreases obesity, increases the thermogenesis, and inhibits inflammation in a mouse model of obesity, probably via the activation of the AMPK/SIRT1 pathway in WAT and liver.</p> 2022-05-03T06:47:10-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Shaohong Zhang, Shuoshuo Sun, Xiao Wei, Mengxiao Zhang, Yu Chen, Xiaodong Mao, Guofang Chen, Chao Liu https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/8224 Resveratrol regulates Hsp60 in HEK 293T cells during activation of SIRT1 revealed by nascent protein labeling strategy 2022-04-21T13:31:35-07:00 Tian Su tian_su1008@163.com Zhen Wang wzh-2010@163.com Zhengyi Zhang zhengki@foxmail.com Zhanwu Hou xa_daniel@163.com Xiao Han 694629358@qq.com Fei Yang yang_fei_123@163.com Huadong Liu huadongliu@xjtu.edu.cn <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Resveratrol, a well-known natural compound and nutrient, activates the deacetylation ability of SIRT1, demonstrating p53-dependent apoptosis functions in many diseases. However, the nascent proteomic fluctuation caused by resveratrol is still unclear.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective</em>:</strong>&nbsp;In this study, we investigated the effect of resveratrol on the nascent proteome and transcriptome initiated by SIRT1 activation, and we explored the mechanism of resveratrol in HEK 293T cells.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Methods</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Bioorthogonal noncanonical amino acid tagging (BONCAT) is a method used to metabolically label nascent proteins. In this strategy, L-azidohomoalanine (AHA) was used to replace methionine (Met) under different conditions. Taking advantage of the click reaction between AHA and terminal alkyne- and disulfide-functionalized agarose resin (TAD resin), we were able to efficiently separate stimulation responsive proteins from the pre-existing proteome. Resveratrol responsive proteins were identified by Liquid Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer/Mass Spectrometer (LC-MS/MS). Furthermore, changes in mRNA levels were analyzed by transcriptome sequencing.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Integrational analysis revealed a resveratrol response in HEK 293T cells and showed that Hsp60 was downregulated at both the nascent protein and mRNA levels. Knockdown of SIRT1 and Hsp60 provides evidence that resveratrol downregulated Hsp60 through SIRT1 and that Hsp60 decreased p53 through the Akt pathway.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusions</em>:</strong>&nbsp;This study revealed dynamic changes in the nascent proteome and transcriptome in response to resveratrol in HEK 293T cells and demonstrated that resveratrol downregulates Hsp60 by activating SIRT1, which may be a possible mechanism by which resveratrol prevents p53-dependent apoptosis by regulating Hsp60.</p> 2022-04-21T13:29:57-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Tian Su, Zhen Wang, Zhengyi Zhang, Zhanwu Hou, Xiao Han, Fei Yang, Huadong Liu https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7870 Administration of Jerusalem artichoke reduces the postprandial plasma glucose and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) concentrations in humans 2022-04-04T22:29:24-07:00 Hirokazu Takahashi takahas2@cc.saga-u.ac.jp Akane Nakajima takahas2@cc.saga-u.ac.jp Yuichi Matsumoto veronica.svard@openacademia.net Hitoe Mori veronica.svard@openacademia.net Kanako Inoue veronica.svard@openacademia.net Hiroko Yamanouchi veronica.svard@openacademia.net Kenichi Tanaka veronica.svard@openacademia.net Yuki Tomiga veronica.svard@openacademia.net Maki Miyahara veronica.svard@openacademia.net Tomomi Yada veronica.svard@openacademia.net Yumiko Iba veronica.svard@openacademia.net Yayoi Matsuda veronica.svard@openacademia.net Keiichi Watanabe veronica.svard@openacademia.net Keizo Anzai veronica.svard@openacademia.net <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background</em>:</strong>&nbsp;The consumption of Jerusalem artichoke has multiple beneficial effects against diabetes and obesity.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective</em>:</strong>&nbsp;The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a single administration of Jerusalem artichoke tubers on postprandial glycemia and the concentrations of incretin hormones in humans.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Method</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Grated Jerusalem artichoke was administered prior to a meal (Trial 1; white rice for prediabetic participants,&nbsp;<em>n</em>&nbsp;= 10). Dose-dependent effect of Jerusalem artichoke (Trial 2; white rice for prediabetic participants,&nbsp;<em>n</em>&nbsp;= 4) and effect prior to the fat-rich meal were also investigated (Trial 3; healthy participants,&nbsp;<em>n</em>&nbsp;= 5) in this pilot study. Circulating glucose, insulin, triglyceride, glucagon, active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and active glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) concentrations were subsequently measured in all the trials.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Jerusalem artichoke significantly reduced the glucose and GIP concentrations after the consumption of either meal in Trial 1 and Trial 3, whereas there were no differences in the insulin, glucagon, and active GLP-1 concentrations. Also, there was no significant difference in the triglyceride concentration after the ingestion of the fat-rich meal in Trial 3. The glucose and GIP-lowering effects were dose-dependent, and the consumption of at least 100 g of Jerusalem artichoke was required to have these effects in Trial 2.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusion</em>:</strong>&nbsp;This study demonstrates that a single administration of Jerusalem artichoke tubers reduces postprandial glucose and active GIP concentrations in prediabetic and healthy individuals.</p> 2022-04-04T22:27:25-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Hirokazu Takahashi, Akane Nakajima, Yuichi Matsumoto, Hitoe Mori, Kanako Inoue, Hiroko Yamanouchi, Kenichi Tanaka, Yuki Tomiga, Maki Miyahara, Tomomi Yada, Yumiko Iba, Yayoi Matsuda, Keiichi Watanabe, Keizo Anzai https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7730 Effect of the supplementation of virgin coriander seed oil on reducing reactivity in healthy women with sensitive skin: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled pilot clinical study 2022-04-04T22:29:29-07:00 Catherine Kern catherine.kern@airliquide.com Christian Gombert christian.gombert@airliquide.com Alicia Roso alicia.roso@airliquide.com Christine Garcia christine.garcia@airliquide.com <p><span style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">Sensitive skin is a common condition that affects many people in the world, especially women. This syndrome is defined by the occurrence of unpleasant sensations such as stinging and burning in response to stimuli that should not normally provoke such sensations. Coriander seed oil (CSO) is a 100% virgin oil of coriander seeds and boasts a specific composition of fatty acids, mainly petroselinic acid (60–75%). It has demonstrated its ability to regulate inflammation (NF-κB pathway) and nociception (TRPA1 pathway), two mechanisms supporting sensitive skin, in previous&nbsp;</span><em style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">in vitro</em><span style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">&nbsp;research. It was, therefore, a good candidate to be tested&nbsp;</span><em style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">in vivo</em><span style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">&nbsp;on sensitive skin conditions. A pilot clinical study was conducted to evaluate the effect of this ingredient on healthy women showing excessive skin reactions, mainly redness and discomfort when subjected to external stress. The results showed that the daily consumption of 200 mg of CSO for 28 days effectively reduced redness induced by stripping stress and itching induced by stinging stress. It also improved the perception of skin sensitivity and reactivity after 56 days of consumption. These clinical results confirmed that CSO is a promising ingredient to contribute to reducing reactivity in sensitive skin.</span></p> 2022-03-23T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Catherine Kern, Christian Gombert, Alicia Roso, Christine Garcia https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/8050 Association between parental feeding practices and children’s dietary intake: a cross-sectional study in the Gardermoen Region, Norway 2022-05-24T03:43:26-07:00 Marlene Mazza s.marlene.mazza@gmail.com Marianne Morseth mmorseth@oslomet.no Liv Elin Torheim livtor@oslomet.no <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Parental feeding practices may be important determinants for children’s diets. In Norway, few studies have assessed this association and to our knowledge, no studies have included fish as an outcome.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective</em>:</strong>&nbsp;The purpose of this study was to explore the association between multiple parental feeding practices and children’s food intake.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Design</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Parents (n = 111) of preschool children aged 1–5 years in the Gardermoen Region in Norway were recruited. The parents completed a web–based questionnaire regarding the use of 12 feeding practices measured by the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire (CFPQ). Children’s weekly food intake was measured using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The association between parental feeding practices and food intake was assessed by logistic regression.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results</em>:</strong>&nbsp;The feeding practices involvement and environment increased the likelihood of children having a higher intake of fruit and berries (OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.15, 3.44 and OR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.17, 3.78, respectively) when controlling for potential confounders. A positive association was found between the feeding practice environment and the children’s intake of vegetables (OR = 2.94, CI = 1.55, 5.55), and between modeling and intake of vegetables (OR = 2.14, CI = 1.26, 3.63). Also, the feeding practice encourage balance and variety increased the likelihood of a higher consumption of vegetables (OR = 5.18, CI = 1.63, 16.5). Parents who more frequently encouraged the child to eat balanced and varied were more likely to have children with a higher consumption of fish (OR = 5.03, CI = 1.62, 15.7). If parents used more restriction for weight, the child was less likely to have a high SSB consumption (OR = 0.43, CI = 0.22, 0.83).</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusion</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Findings suggest that children’s intake of the favorite food item groups, fruit and berries, vegetables and fish, was associated with the use of positive feeding practices, such as involvement, environment, modeling and encouragement. For unfavorable food groups, only restriction for weight was negatively associated with SSB consumption. Findings should be interpreted carefully due to the relatively small sample size.</p> 2022-03-21T14:27:17-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Marlene Mazza, Marianne Morseth, Liv Elin Torheim https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/8231 Sesamol counteracts on metabolic disorders of middle-aged alimentary obese mice through regulating skeletal muscle glucose and lipid metabolism 2022-03-17T02:57:19-07:00 Min-Min Hu huminmin0229@126.com Ji-Hua Chen chenjh@csu.edu.cn Quan-Quan Zhang zquanquan2020@163.com Zi-Yu Song song0305ziyu@126.com Horia Shaukat hooriyashaukat@gmail.com Hong Qin qinhong@csu.edu.cn <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Globally, obesity is a significant public problem, especially when aging. Sesamol, a phenolic lignan present in sesame seeds, might have a positive effect on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity associated with aging.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective</em>:</strong>&nbsp;The purpose of current research study was to explore salutary effects and mechanisms of sesamol in treating alimentary obesity and associated metabolic syndrome in middle-aged mice.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Methods</em>:</strong>&nbsp;C57BL/6J mice aged 4–6 weeks and 6–8 months were assigned to the young normal diet group, middle-aged normal diet group, middle-aged HFD group, and middle-aged HFD + sesamol group. At the end of experiment, glucose tolerance test and insulin tolerance test were performed; the levels of lipids and oxidative stress-related factors in the serum and skeletal muscle were detected using chemistry reagent kits; lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle was observed by oil red O staining; the expressions of muscular glucose and lipid metabolism associated proteins were measured by Western blotting.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Sesamol decreased the body weight and alleviated obesity-associated metabolism syndrome in middle-aged mice, such as glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and oxidative stress. Moreover, muscular metabolic disorders were attenuated after treatment with sesamol. It increased the expression of glucose transporter type-4 and down-regulated the protein levels of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isozyme 4, implying the increase of glucose uptake and oxidation. Meanwhile, sesamol decreased the expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c and up-regulated the phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase and the level of carnitine palmityl transferase 1α, which led to the declined lipogenesis and the increased lipolysis and lipid oxidation. In addition, the SIRT1/AMPK signaling pathway was triggered by sesamol, from which it is understood how sesamol enhances glucose and lipid metabolism.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusions</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Sesamol counteracts on metabolic disorders of middle-aged alimentary obese mice through regulating skeletal muscle glucose and lipid metabolism, which might be associated with the stimulation of the SIRT1/AMPK pathway.</p> 2022-03-17T02:55:46-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Min-Min Hu, Ji-Hua Chen, Quan-Quan Zhang, Zi-Yu Song, Horia Shaukat, Hong Qin https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7923 Aged green tea reduces high-fat diet-induced fat accumulation and inflammation via activating the AMP-activated protein kinase signaling pathway 2022-03-10T02:38:47-08:00 Ruohong Chen chenruohong@tea.gdaas.cn Xingfei Lai laixingfei@tea.gdaas.cn Limin Xiang liminxiang2021@126.com Qiuhua Li liqiuhua@tea.gdaas.cn Lingli Sun sunlingli@tea.gdaas.cn Zhaoxiang Lai laizhaoxiang@tea.gdaas.cn Zhigang Li lizhigang@tea.gdaas.cn Wenji Zhang zhangwenji@tea.gdaas.cn Shuai Wen wenshuai@tea.gdaas.cn Junxi Cao junxic@126.com Shili Sun sunshili@gdaas.cn <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background:</em></strong>&nbsp;Obesity is a global public health concern and increases the risk of metabolic syndrome and other diseases. The anti-obesity effects of various plant-derived bioactive compounds, such as tea extracts, are well-established. The mechanisms underlying the anti-obesity activity of Jinxuan green tea (JXGT) from different storage years are still unclear.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective:</em></strong>&nbsp;The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of JXGTs from three different years on the high fat diet (HFD)-fed mouse model.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Design:</em></strong>&nbsp;The mice were divided into six groups, the control group received normal diet and the obese model group received HFD. We analyzed the effects of JXGTs from 2005, 2008, and 2016 on HFD-fed obese mice over a period of 7 weeks.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results:</em></strong>&nbsp;The JXGTs reduced the body weight of the obese mice, and also alleviated fat accumulation and hepatic steatosis. Mechanistically, JXGTs increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK)/AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) ratio, up-regulated carnitine acyl transferase 1A (CPT-1A), and down-regulated fatty acid synthase (FAS), Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3β), Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma co-activator-1alpha (PGC-1α), Interleukin 6 (IL-6), and Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα). Thus, JXGTs can alleviate HFD-induced obesity by inhibiting lipid biosynthesis and inflammation, thereby promoting fatty acid oxidation via the AMPK pathway.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Discussion:</em></strong>&nbsp;The anti-obesity effect of three aged JXGTs were similar. However, JXGT2016 exhibited a more potent activation of AMPK, and JXGT2005 and JXGT2008 exhibited a more potent inhibiting glycogen synthase and inflammation effect. Furthermore, the polyphenol (–)-epicatechin (EC) showed the strongest positive correlation with the anti-obesity effect of JXGT.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusions:</em></strong>&nbsp;These findings demonstrate that JXGT treatment has a potential protection on HFD-induced obesity mice via activating the AMPK/CPT-1A and down-regulating FAS/GSK-3β/PGC-1α and IL-6/TNFα. Our study results also revealed that different storage time would not affect the anti-obesity and anti-inflammation effect of JXGT.</p> 2022-03-10T02:37:14-08:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ruohong Chen, Xingfei Lai, Limin Xiang, Qiuhua Li, Lingli Sun, Zhaoxiang Lai, Zhigang Li, Wenji Zhang, Shuai Wen, Junxi Cao, Shili Sun https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7873 Dietary risk factors of physical growth of Filipino school-aged children 2022-03-09T03:10:39-08:00 Imelda Angeles-Agdeppa iangelesagdeppa@yahoo.com.ph Taro Nakamura veronica.svard@openacademia.net Mayu Sugita veronica.svard@openacademia.net Marvin Bangan Toledo veronica.svard@openacademia.net Pamela Castillo Sampaga sampagapamela@gmail.com Jezreel Ann Taruc Zamora veronica.svard@openacademia.net <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background:</em></strong>&nbsp;Adequate nutrition during childhood is essential to promote child growth and development.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective:</em></strong>&nbsp;The study evaluated the relationship of habitual nutrient intake and protein adequacy to the prevalence of child malnutrition.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong>&nbsp;Data were derived from a nationally representative sample of children aged 6–12 years. Two nonconsecutive day 24-h dietary recalls (24hR) were collected to estimate the individual food intake. PC-SIDE version 1.0 software (Software for Intake Distribution Estimation) was used to estimate the habitual intake of key nutrients accounting for between- and within-person differences in dietary intake. The 2007 WHO Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) method was used to measure the protein quality or the utilizable protein intake. The nutritional status of the participants is reflected in the weight-for-age, height-for-age, and body mass index (BMI)-for-age z-scores using the WHO Growth Reference Standard (WHO, 2007).</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results:</em></strong>&nbsp;Undernourished school-aged children were found to have high protein inadequacy. Higher consumption of grains and cereal products, meat, and high-quality protein foods was associated with a lower risk of stunting. Higher intake of milk and milk products, grains and cereal products, high-quality protein foods, calcium, riboflavin, and vitamin C was associated with a lower risk of underweight. Higher consumption of grains and cereal products, riboflavin, thiamine, and fiber was associated with a lower risk of wasting. On the contrary, higher consumption of meat, milk and milk products, grains and cereal products, high-quality protein foods, and vitamin C was associated with a higher risk of obesity. Furthermore, linear growth of children was found to be associated with high-quality protein foods, calcium, vitamin B12, vitamin C, and vitamin D.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusions:</em></strong>&nbsp;Malnutrition among Filipino children is influenced by nutrient intakes. However, the existence of malnutrition among children may be specifically attributed to the quality of protein consumed. Therefore, the study suggests that nutrition interventions and policies focusing on child malnutrition should improve not just the quantity but also the quality of protein sources consumed by children to aid in proper growth and development.</p> 2022-03-09T03:08:01-08:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Imelda Angeles-Agdeppa, Taro Nakamura, Mayu Sugita, Marvin Bangan Toledo, Pamela Castillo Sampaga, Jezreel Ann Taruc Zamora https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/8226 Conjugated linoleic acid ameliorates hepatic steatosis by modulating intestinal permeability and gut microbiota in ob/ob mice 2022-03-03T08:54:29-08:00 Shengli Gao witft@163.com Yingying He witft@163.com Liping Zhang witft@163.com Lina Liu witft@163.com Changfeng Qu wyuchemldl@126.com Zhou Zheng witft@163.com Jinlai Miao veronica.svard@openacademia.net <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background:</em></strong>&nbsp;Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is an effective supplement for reducing fat mass, but its effect on hepatic steatosis remains controversial.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective:</em></strong>&nbsp;This study aims to evaluate the effect of CLA on liver fat accumulation, inflammation, gut microbiome, and intestinal barrier integrity.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Design:</em></strong>&nbsp;Wild-type (WT) mice and ob/ob (OB) mice were randomly divided into four groups according to the treatment with/without 1% CLA: WT, WT mice treated with CLA (WT-CLA), OB, and OB mice treated with CLA (OB-CLA). Lipid metabolism and hepatic fat accumulation were evaluated by changes in histological and biochemical parameters. Gene expressions related to liver inflammation and intestinal barrier integrity were examined. The effect of CLA on the gut microbiota population was investigated.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results:</em></strong>&nbsp;The body weight, fatty tissue mass, and serum lipid levels of the WT-CLA group and OB-CLA group were separately lower than those of the WT group and OB group, but the livers of the WT-CLA group had more fatty lipids, higher triglyceride properties, and saturated fatty acid (FA) composition than those of the WT group, which was contrary to the effect of CLA on OB mice. Real time quantitative PCR results showed that CLA increased hepatic inflammation and intestinal permeability in the WT mice, while it significantly decreased the mRNA expression of liver TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-1β and markedly ameliorated intestinal tight junction proteins in the OB mice. The gut microbiota testing indicated a higher abundance of beneficial bacteria (e.g.,&nbsp;<em>Lachnoclostridium</em>,&nbsp;<em>Roseburia</em>,&nbsp;<em>Dubosiella</em>,&nbsp;<em>Oscillibacter</em>, and&nbsp;<em>Anaerostipes</em>) and a lower abundance of pro-inflammatory bacteria (e.g.,&nbsp;<em>Tyzzerella</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em>Alistipes</em>) in the OB-CLA group than those of the OB group. Correlation analysis suggested that gut microbiota correlated with liver inflammation, intestinal permeability, and hepatic FA composition.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong>&nbsp;CLA potentially contributed to ameliorating hepatic steatosis in OB mice via modulating liver inflammation, intestinal permeability, and gut microbiota, which suggests CLA is more suitable for people with obesity or overweight.</p> 2022-03-03T08:50:04-08:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Shengli Gao, Yingying He, Liping Zhang, Lina Liu, Changfeng Qu, Zhou Zheng, Jinlai Miao https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5690 Wheat oligopeptides enhance the intestinal mucosal barrier and alleviate inflammation via the TLR4/Myd88/MAPK signaling pathway in aged mice 2022-02-14T13:46:32-08:00 Yang Xian xygzyx1989@163.com Pan Da dapan@seu.edu.cn Yang Chao 1262686397@qq.com Xia Hui 244480737@qq.com Yang Ligang yangligang2012@163.com Wang Shaokang shaokangwang@seu.edu.cn Sun Guiju gjsun@seu.edu.cn <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background:</em></strong>&nbsp;Aging can induce oxidative stress, inflammation and mucosal impairment, and few works have been conducted to investigate the protective effects of WP on the natural intestinal aging process.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective:</em></strong>&nbsp;The present work aimed to examine the protective effect of wheat oligopeptides (WP) on intestine mucosal impairment in aged mice, and investigate the potential antioxidation, anti-inflammatory effects of WP.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Design:</em></strong>&nbsp;Seventy-two aged mice (24 months old) were randomly divided into six groups, 12 for each group. Twelve young mice (6 months old) were regarded as the young control group. WP (25, 50, 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg) or distilled water were administered daily by gavage for 30 days.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results:</em></strong>&nbsp;Histological observations showed that intestinal mucosal degeneration was attenuated by WP pretreatment. WP exhibited remarkable antioxidant activity via increasing superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, total antioxidant capacity and catalase activities, and decreasing the malondialdehyde levels in small intestine mucosa. WP pretreatment significantly suppressed intestinal mucosa inflammation through the reduction of TNF-α, TGF-β, IFN-γ IL-1β and IL-6. WP markedly protect the intestinal mucosal barrier by decreasing the ICAM-1 level, and increasing ZO-1 and JAMA-A levels. WP significantly down-regulated protein expression levels of TLR4, Myd88, and MAPK, suggesting that WP have a potential effect on inhibiting aging-induced inflammatory responses by blocking TLR4/Myd88/MAPK signal transduction.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong>&nbsp;WP administration effectively alleviated intestinal mucosal impairment in aged mice. The potential mechanism was associated with enhancement of antioxidation and anti-inflammatory action and protection of the intestinal mucosal barrier.</p> 2022-02-14T13:16:50-08:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Yang Xian, Pan Da, Yang Chao, Xia Hui, Yang Ligang, Wang Shaokang, Sun Guiju https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5659 Lipid-based nutrient supplement at initiation of antiretroviral therapy does not substitute energy from habitual diet among HIV patients – a secondary analysis of data from a randomised controlled trial in Ethiopia 2022-02-25T06:48:07-08:00 Nanna Buhl Schwartz schwartznanna@gmail.com Daniel Yilma danielyilmab@gmail.com Tsinuel Girma tsinuel@yahoo.com Markos Tesfaye tesmarkos@yahoo.com Christian Mølgaard cm@nexs.ku.dk Kim Fleischer Michaelsen kfm@nexs.ku.dk Pernille Kæstel pernille.kaestel@gmail.com Henrik Friis hfr@nexs.ku.dk Mette Frahm Olsen meo@nexs.ku.dk <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Introduction:</em></strong>&nbsp;Malnutrition is common among people with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Nutritional supplementation at initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) has shown beneficial effects, but it is not known if supplementation replaces or supplements the habitual energy intake in a context of food insecurity.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong>&nbsp;As part of a randomised controlled trial among people with HIV initiating ART in Ethiopia, we assessed whether the provision of a lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) affected energy intake from the habitual diet. People with HIV aged ≥18 years with a body mass index (BMI) &gt;17 were randomly allocated 2:1 to receive either early (month 1–3 after ART initiation) or delayed (month 4–6 after ART initiation) supplementation with LNS (≈4,600 kJ/day). Participants with BMI 16–17 were all allocated to early supplementation. The daily energy intake from the habitual diet (besides the energy contribution from LNS) was assessed using a 24-h food recall interview at baseline and at monthly follow-up visits. Linear mixed models were used to compare habitual energy intake in (1) early versus delayed supplementation groups and (2) supplemented versus unsupplemented time periods within groups.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results:</em></strong>&nbsp;Of 301 participants included, 67% of the participants were women, mean (±standard deviation [SD]) age was 32.9 (±8.9) years and 68% were living in moderately or severely food insecure households. Mean (±SD) reported habitual energy intake at baseline was 5,357 kJ/day (±2,246) for women and 7,977 kJ/day(±3,557) for men. Among all participants, there were no differences in mean habitual energy intake between supplemented and unsupplemented groups in neither the first 3 (<em>P</em>&nbsp;= 0.72) nor the following 3 months (<em>P</em>&nbsp;= 0.56). Furthermore, habitual energy intake did not differ within groups when comparing periods with or without supplementation (<em>P</em>&nbsp;= 0.15 and&nbsp;<em>P</em>&nbsp;= 0.20). The severity of food insecurity did not modify the effect of supplementation in habitual energy intake (<em>P</em>&nbsp;= 0.55). Findings were similar when participants with BMI 16–17 were excluded.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong>&nbsp;Our findings indicate that the LNS provided after ART initiation supplement, rather than substitute, habitual energy intake among people with HIV, even among those who are food insecure. This supports the feasibility of introducing nutritional supplementation as part of HIV treatment.</p> 2022-02-11T14:27:00-08:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Nanna Buhl Schwartz, Daniel Yilma, Tsinuel Girma, Markos Tesfaye, Christian Mølgaard, Kim Fleischer Michaelsen, Pernille Kæstel, Henrik Friis , Mette Frahm Olsen https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/4585 <em>Lycium barbarum</em> polysaccharide attenuates Pseudomonas- aeruginosa pyocyanin-induced cellular injury in mice airway epithelial cells 2022-02-11T14:28:36-08:00 Xue Lin 15684737828@163.com Fuyang Song songfy26@163.com Yiming Wu veronica.svard@openacademia.net Di Xue xue_di@yeah.net Yujiong Wang wyj@nxu.edu.cn <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background</em>:</strong>&nbsp;<em>Lycium barbarum</em>&nbsp;berries have been utilized in Asia for many years. However, the mechanisms of its lung-defensive properties are indeterminate.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective</em>:</strong>&nbsp;We investigate whether&nbsp;<em>L. barbarum</em>&nbsp;polysaccharide (LBP) could weaken&nbsp;<em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>&nbsp;infection-induced lung injury.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Design</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Mice primary air-liquid interface epithelial cultures were pretreated with LBP and subsequently treated with pyocyanin (PCN). Lung injury, including apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress, was estimated by western blot, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay,&nbsp;<em>and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Real-time qPCR (Q-PCR)</em>. Flow cytometry was used to test cell apoptosis. Moreover, Balb/c mice were used to evaluate the tissue injury. We used hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunofluorescence to detect the expression of related proteins and tissue damage in mouse lungs and spleen.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results</em>:</strong>&nbsp;The flow cytometric analysis shows the potential of LBP to reduce time-dependent cell death by PCN. Mechanistically, LBP reduces PCN-induced expression of proapoptotic proteins and caspase3 and induces the activation of Bcl-2 in mice bronchial epithelial cells. Similarly, LBP reduces PCN-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Moreover, LBP inhibits the production of inflammatory cytokines, Interleukin (IL-1β), Tumor Necrosis Factor (<em>TNF)</em>, IL-6, and IL-8. Our study confirms the ability of LBP to retard PCN-induced injury in mice lung and spleen.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusions</em>:</strong>&nbsp;The inhibition of PCN-induced lung injury by LBP is capable of protecting mice cells from injury.</p> 2022-02-11T14:15:01-08:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Xue Lin, Fuyang Song, Yiming Wu, Di Xue, Yujiong Wang https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5524 Herbal extracts that induce type I interferons through Toll-like receptor 4 signaling 2022-01-28T14:27:57-08:00 Misa Nakasuji-Togi m-togi@kanazawa-med.ac.jp Sumihito Togi togi@kanazawa-med.ac.jp Keita Saeki keita.saeki@nih.gov Yasuhiko Kojima paladium@nifty.com Keiko Ozato ozatok@dir6.nichd.nih.gov <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background:</em></strong>&nbsp;A mixture of five herbal extracts called internatural (INT), which is prepared from pumpkin seeds, purple turmeric, pearl barley, corn pistil, and cinnamon, is widely used by people in Japan and elsewhere for its immunity-enhancing effects and general health. Although anecdotal evidence indicates its efficacy, the mechanisms by which INT boosts immunity have remained unknown.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective:</em></strong>&nbsp;The aim of this study was to investigate whether INT induces type I interferons (IFNs) in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) and by what mechanism.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Design:</em></strong>&nbsp;We measured induction of type I IFNs (IFNβ and IFNα) in BMDMs treated with INT or other Toll-like receptor ligands: bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), dsRNA, poly(I:C), and CpG oligonucleotides. To investigate whether INT signals through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), we tested TLR4-specific inhibitor. We also tested if INT utilizes TLR4 adaptors, toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain-containing adaptor (TRIF), or myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), we examined INT induction of IFNβ in TRIF-KO and MyD88-KO BMDMs. We then investigated whether INT provides an antiviral effect upon fibroblasts either directly or indirectly using the encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) model.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results:</em></strong>&nbsp;We first observed that INT, when added to BMDMs, potently induces type I IFNs (IFNβ and IFNα) within 2 h. INT induction of IFN expression was mediated by TLR4, which signaled through the TRIF/MyD88 adaptors, similar to LPS. A high-molecular-weight fraction (MW &gt; 10,000) of INT extracts contained IFN-inducing activity. Supernatants from INT-treated BMDMs protected untreated fibroblast from EMCV infection as reduced viral titers.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusions:</em></strong>&nbsp;INT induced type I IFN mRNA and proteins in BMDMs and other cell types. This induction was mediated by TLR4, which transduces signals using the TRIF/MyD88 pathway. The high-MW component of INT contained type I IFN inducing activity. The supernatants from INT-treated cells displayed antiviral activity and protected cells from EMCV infection. These findings indicate that INT is a novel natural IFN inducer that strengthens host’s innate immunity.</p> 2022-01-28T14:26:40-08:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Misa Nakasuji-Togi, Sumihito Togi, Keita Saeki, Yasuhiko Kojima, Keiko Ozato https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7638 Resveratrol derivative production by high-pressure treatment: proliferative inhibitory effects on cervical cancer cells 2022-01-27T14:43:27-08:00 Yuki Sugahara s19202@u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp Toshiro Ohta ohtat@u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp Yoshiki Taguchi taguchi2021@u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp Sari Honda s-honda@u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp Yasuhiro Kashima kasimay@uha-mikakuto.co.jp Taiji Matsukawa matukawat@uha-mikakuto.co.jp Shigenori Kumazawa kumazawa@u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp Wataru Kadowaki veronica.svard@openacademia.net <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background:</em></strong>&nbsp;In recent years, functional food components have attracted considerable attention. Resveratrol, a food polyphenol, has been widely studied due to its various physiological activities. Previously, we identified a novel resveratrol derivative, named RK4, in food, which is formed by a chemical reaction involving resveratrol and caffeic acid. Furthermore, it was suggested that high-pressure treatment is an important factor in RK4 production.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objectives:</em></strong>&nbsp;The purpose of this study was to clarify relationships between high-pressure processing and component production and to compare RK4 with the known functional ingredient resveratrol to examine the physiological value of RK4. Through this research, we aimed to develop high-pressure treatment technology that adds new usefulness for food.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong>&nbsp;Resveratrol and caffeic acid were reacted under high-pressure treatment and in various conditions of concentration and temperature. RK4 levels in the reaction solution were quantitatively analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. In addition, HeLa cervical cancer cells were exposed to RK4 and resveratrol, and survival rates were measured using the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) method after culturing for 24 h. Activation of an apoptosis-inducing marker was detected by western blotting of cells cultured for 48 h after addition of the test compounds.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results:</em></strong>&nbsp;By reacting resveratrol and caffeic acid under high-pressure conditions (~100 MPa), the amount of RK4 produced was significantly increased. It was also found that the reaction temperature and time contributed to this reaction. RK4 exhibited stronger cytotoxicity to HeLa cells than resveratrol. It was also shown that RK4 activated p38, cleaved poly ADP ribose polymerase, and induced apoptosis.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusions:</em></strong>&nbsp;RK4 is a valuable component for further research as a novel compound with wider functionality than that of resveratrol. High-pressure treatment may substantially contribute to the production of novel food ingredients. Further elucidation of the relationships between high-pressure treatment and production of new ingredients has promising potential to guide development of new applications in food processing.</p> 2022-01-27T14:41:15-08:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Yuki Sugahara, Toshiro Ohta, Yoshiki Taguchi, Sari Honda, Yasuhiro Kashima, Taiji Matsukawa, Shigenori Kumazawa, Wataru Kadowaki https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/8282 Bioactive compounds of pequi pulp and oil extracts modulate antioxidant activity and antiproliferative activity in cocultured blood mononuclear cells and breast cancer cells 2022-01-27T13:37:28-08:00 Renata Brito rer_brito@hotmail.com Milene Teixeira Barcia milene.barcia@ufsm.br Carla Andressa Almeida Farias carlaaafarias@gmail.com Rui Carlos Zambiazi zambiazi@gmail.com Patrícia Gelli Feres de Marchi pgfmarchi.ufmt@gmail.com Mahmi Fujimori mahmi_fujimori@yahoo.com.br Adenilda Cristina Honorio-França adenildachf@gmail.com Eduardo Luzia França dr.eduardo.franca@gmail.com Paula Becker Pertuzatti paulapertuzatti@yahoo.com.br <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background:</em></strong>&nbsp;Pequi (<em>Caryocar brasiliense</em>&nbsp;Camb.) is a fruit from Brazilian Cerrado rich in bioactive compounds, such as phytosterols and tocopherols, which can modulate the death of cancer cells.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective:</em></strong>&nbsp;In the present study, the main bioactive compounds of hydrophilic and lipophilic extracts of pequi oil and pulp were identified and were verified if they exert modulatory effects on oxidative stress of mononuclear cells cocultured with MCF-7 breast cancer cells.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Study design:</em></strong>&nbsp;Identification and quantification of the main compounds and classes of bioactive compounds in pequi pulp and oil, hydrophilic, and lipophilic extracts were performed using spectroscopy and liquid chromatographic methods, while the beneficial effects, such as antioxidant capacity&nbsp;<em>in vitro</em>, were determined using methods based on single electron transfer reaction or hydrogen atom transfer, while for antioxidant and antiproliferative activities&nbsp;<em>ex vivo</em>, 20 healthy volunteers were recruited. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MN) were collected, and cellular viability assay by MTT&nbsp;<em>(3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide)</em>, superoxide anion evaluation, and&nbsp;<em>CuZn-superoxide dismutase determination (CuZn-SOD)</em>&nbsp;in MN cells, MCF-7 cells, and coculture of MN cells and MCF-7 cells in the presence and absence of pequi pulp or oil hydrophilic and lipophilic extracts were performed.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results:</em></strong>&nbsp;In the hydrophilic extract, the pequi pulp presented the highest phenolic content, while in the oil lipophilic extract, it had the highest content of carotenoids. The main phytosterol in pequi oil was β-sitosterol (10.22 mg/g), and the main tocopherol was γ-tocopherol (26.24 μg/g sample). The extracts that had highest content of bioactive compounds stimulated blood mononuclear cells and also improved SOD activity. By evaluating the extracts against MCF-7 cells and coculture, they showed cytotoxic activity.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong>&nbsp;The results support the anticarcinogenic activity of pequi extracts, in which the pequi pulp hydrophilic extracts presented better immunomodulatory potential.</p> 2022-01-27T07:28:31-08:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Renata Brito, Milene Teixeira Barcia, Carla Andressa Almeida Farias, Rui Carlos Zambiazi, Patrícia Gelli Feres de Marchi, Mahmi Fujimori, Adenilda Cristina Honorio-França, Eduardo Luzia França, Paula Moraes Pertuzatti https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7715 Household food insecurity is associated with child’s dietary diversity score among primary school children in two districts in Ghana 2022-01-07T14:22:48-08:00 Janet Antwi jaantwi@PVAMU.EDU Esi Quaidoo esi_quaidoo@yahoo.com Agartha Ohemeng anohemeng@ug.edu.gh Boateng Bannerman bboray@gmail.com <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Dietary diversity is generally considered as a good indicator of nutrient adequacy and is influenced by various factors at the national, household, and individual levels.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective</em>:</strong>&nbsp;The present study sought to determine the relationships between household food insecurity, primary caregivers’ nutrition knowledge, and dietary diversity of school-aged children in Ghana.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Methods</em>:</strong>&nbsp;This forms part of a longitudinal study conducted in the Ayawaso West Municipal district in Accra (urban setting) and the Upper Manya Krobo district (rural setting) in Ghana. Data were collected from a total of 116 caregiver-child dyads using 24-h dietary recall and a short version of the US 12-month Household Food Security Survey Module. Nutrition knowledge and sociodemographic data were obtained using a structured questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regression was used to check for factors associated with children’s dietary diversity.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Majority of households reported food insecurity, with a higher percentage of insecure households located in the rural area (88.9% vs. 46.5%,&nbsp;<em>P</em>&nbsp;≤ 0.0001), compared to the urban setting. Diet diversity among the study children was low, with a mean (standard deviation [SD]) of 5.8 (2.1) out of 14 food groups. Children living in food insecure households were three times more likely to have received low diverse diet compared to those from food secure households (adjusted odds ratio [OR] =3.3, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4–8.0). Caregivers’ nutrition knowledge was, however, not related to children’s dietary diversity.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Discussion and conclusion</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Household food insecurity was a main predictor of dietary diversity among school-age children in this study. Thus, caregiver knowledge in nutrition may not be enough, particularly in the presence of food insecurity to guarantee adequate nutrition for school-aged children.</p> 2022-01-07T14:21:19-08:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Janet Antwi, Esi Quaidoo, Agartha Ohemeng, Boateng Bannerman https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/3685 A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the hypoglycemic efficacy of the mcIRBP-19-containing <em>Momordica charantia L. </em>fruit extracts in the type 2 diabetic subjects 2022-01-03T12:43:05-08:00 Yi-Sun Yang monica119@gmail.com Nian-Yi Wu calla0425@gmail.com Edy Kornelius korn3lius82@gmail.com Chien-Ning Huang cshy049@gmail.com Nae-Cherng Yang naeman@csmu.edu.tw <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background:</em></strong>&nbsp;The fruits of&nbsp;<em>Momordica charantia</em>&nbsp;L., also named as bitter gourd or bitter melon in popular, is a common tropical vegetable that is traditionally used to reduce blood glucose. A peptide derived from bitter gourd,&nbsp;<em>Momordica charantia</em>&nbsp;insulin receptor binding peptid-19 (mcIRBP-19), had been demonstrated to possess an insulin-like effect&nbsp;<em>in vitro</em>&nbsp;and in the animal studies. However, the benefit of the mcIRBP-19-containing bitter gourd extracts (mcIRBP-19-BGE) for lowering blood glucose levels in humans is unknown.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective:</em></strong>&nbsp;This aim of this study was to evaluate the hypoglycemic efficacy of mcIRBP-19-BGE in subjects with type 2 diabetes who had taken antidiabetic medications but failed to achieve the treatment goal. Whether glucose lowering efficacy of mcIRBP-19-BGE could be demonstrated when the antidiabetic medications were ineffective was also studied.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Design:</em></strong>&nbsp;Subjects were randomly assigned to two groups: mcIRBP-19-BGE treatment group (<em>N</em>&nbsp;= 20) and placebo group (<em>N</em>&nbsp;= 20), and were orally administered 600 mg/day investigational product or placebo for 3 months. Subjects whose hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) continued declining before the trial initiation with the antidiabetic drugs were excluded from the subset analysis to further investigate the efficacy for those who failed to respond to the antidiabetic medications.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results:</em></strong>&nbsp;The oral administration of mcIRBP-19-BGE decreased with a borderline significance at fasting blood glucose (FBG;&nbsp;<em>P</em>&nbsp;= 0.057) and HbA1c (<em>P</em>&nbsp;= 0.060). The subgroup analysis (N = 29) showed that mcIRBP-19-BGE had a significant effect on reducing FBG (from 172.5 ± 32.6 mg/dL to 159.4 ± 18.3 mg/dL,&nbsp;<em>P</em>&nbsp;= 0.041) and HbA1c (from 8.0 ± 0.7% to 7.5 ± 0.8%,&nbsp;<em>P</em>&nbsp;= 0.010).</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong>&nbsp;All of these results demonstrate that mcIRBP-19-BGE possesses a hypoglycemic effect, and can have a significant reduction in FBG and HbA1c when the antidiabetic drugs are ineffective.</p> 2022-01-03T12:41:29-08:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Yi-Sun Yang, Nian-Yi Wu, Edy Kornelius, Chien-Ning Huang, Nae-Cherng Yang