https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/issue/feed Food & Nutrition Research 2022-01-07T14:22:48-08:00 The Food & Nutrition Research Editorial Team anneli.hovstadius@snf.ideon.se Open Journal Systems <p>As one of the first Open Access journals in its field,&nbsp;<em>Food &amp; Nutrition Research&nbsp;</em>(FNR) offers an important forum for researchers to exchange the latest results from research on human nutrition broadly and food-related nutrition in particular. FNR is widely indexed by relevant services and databases, including PubMed Central/PubMed, Scopus, Science Citation Index, with an&nbsp;<strong>Impact Factor of 3.89 (2020)</strong>.</p> https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7715 Household food insecurity is associated with child’s dietary diversity score among primary school children in two districts in Ghana 2022-01-07T14:22:48-08:00 Janet Antwi jaantwi@PVAMU.EDU Esi Quaidoo esi_quaidoo@yahoo.com Agartha Ohemeng anohemeng@ug.edu.gh Boateng Bannerman bboray@gmail.com <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Dietary diversity is generally considered as a good indicator of nutrient adequacy and is influenced by various factors at the national, household, and individual levels.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective</em>:</strong>&nbsp;The present study sought to determine the relationships between household food insecurity, primary caregivers’ nutrition knowledge, and dietary diversity of school-aged children in Ghana.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Methods</em>:</strong>&nbsp;This forms part of a longitudinal study conducted in the Ayawaso West Municipal district in Accra (urban setting) and the Upper Manya Krobo district (rural setting) in Ghana. Data were collected from a total of 116 caregiver-child dyads using 24-h dietary recall and a short version of the US 12-month Household Food Security Survey Module. Nutrition knowledge and sociodemographic data were obtained using a structured questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regression was used to check for factors associated with children’s dietary diversity.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Majority of households reported food insecurity, with a higher percentage of insecure households located in the rural area (88.9% vs. 46.5%,&nbsp;<em>P</em>&nbsp;≤ 0.0001), compared to the urban setting. Diet diversity among the study children was low, with a mean (standard deviation [SD]) of 5.8 (2.1) out of 14 food groups. Children living in food insecure households were three times more likely to have received low diverse diet compared to those from food secure households (adjusted odds ratio [OR] =3.3, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4–8.0). Caregivers’ nutrition knowledge was, however, not related to children’s dietary diversity.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Discussion and conclusion</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Household food insecurity was a main predictor of dietary diversity among school-age children in this study. Thus, caregiver knowledge in nutrition may not be enough, particularly in the presence of food insecurity to guarantee adequate nutrition for school-aged children.</p> 2022-01-07T14:21:19-08:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Janet Antwi, Esi Quaidoo, Agartha Ohemeng, Boateng Bannerman https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/3685 A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the hypoglycemic efficacy of the mcIRBP-19-containing <em>Momordica charantia L. </em>fruit extracts in the type 2 diabetic subjects 2022-01-03T12:43:05-08:00 Yi-Sun Yang monica119@gmail.com Nian-Yi Wu calla0425@gmail.com Edy Kornelius korn3lius82@gmail.com Chien-Ning Huang cshy049@gmail.com Nae-Cherng Yang naeman@csmu.edu.tw <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background:</em></strong>&nbsp;The fruits of&nbsp;<em>Momordica charantia</em>&nbsp;L., also named as bitter gourd or bitter melon in popular, is a common tropical vegetable that is traditionally used to reduce blood glucose. A peptide derived from bitter gourd,&nbsp;<em>Momordica charantia</em>&nbsp;insulin receptor binding peptid-19 (mcIRBP-19), had been demonstrated to possess an insulin-like effect&nbsp;<em>in vitro</em>&nbsp;and in the animal studies. However, the benefit of the mcIRBP-19-containing bitter gourd extracts (mcIRBP-19-BGE) for lowering blood glucose levels in humans is unknown.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective:</em></strong>&nbsp;This aim of this study was to evaluate the hypoglycemic efficacy of mcIRBP-19-BGE in subjects with type 2 diabetes who had taken antidiabetic medications but failed to achieve the treatment goal. Whether glucose lowering efficacy of mcIRBP-19-BGE could be demonstrated when the antidiabetic medications were ineffective was also studied.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Design:</em></strong>&nbsp;Subjects were randomly assigned to two groups: mcIRBP-19-BGE treatment group (<em>N</em>&nbsp;= 20) and placebo group (<em>N</em>&nbsp;= 20), and were orally administered 600 mg/day investigational product or placebo for 3 months. Subjects whose hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) continued declining before the trial initiation with the antidiabetic drugs were excluded from the subset analysis to further investigate the efficacy for those who failed to respond to the antidiabetic medications.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results:</em></strong>&nbsp;The oral administration of mcIRBP-19-BGE decreased with a borderline significance at fasting blood glucose (FBG;&nbsp;<em>P</em>&nbsp;= 0.057) and HbA1c (<em>P</em>&nbsp;= 0.060). The subgroup analysis (N = 29) showed that mcIRBP-19-BGE had a significant effect on reducing FBG (from 172.5 ± 32.6 mg/dL to 159.4 ± 18.3 mg/dL,&nbsp;<em>P</em>&nbsp;= 0.041) and HbA1c (from 8.0 ± 0.7% to 7.5 ± 0.8%,&nbsp;<em>P</em>&nbsp;= 0.010).</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong>&nbsp;All of these results demonstrate that mcIRBP-19-BGE possesses a hypoglycemic effect, and can have a significant reduction in FBG and HbA1c when the antidiabetic drugs are ineffective.</p> 2022-01-03T12:41:29-08:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Yi-Sun Yang, Nian-Yi Wu, Edy Kornelius, Chien-Ning Huang, Nae-Cherng Yang