Food & Nutrition Research 2020-01-17T06:57:56-08:00 The Food & Nutrition Research Editorial Team Open Journal Systems <p>As one of the first Open Access journals in its field,&nbsp;<em>Food &amp; Nutrition Research&nbsp;</em>offers an important forum for researchers&nbsp;to exchange the latest results from research on human nutrition broadly and food-related nutrition in particular. The&nbsp;Journal&nbsp;is widely indexed and has an&nbsp;<strong>Impact Factor of 2.553 (2018).</strong></p> Resveratrol-induced brown fat-like phenotype in 3T3-L1 adipocytes partly via mTOR pathway 2020-01-17T06:53:47-08:00 Weiyao Liao Zihui Liu Xiaohan Yin Xinjie Zheng Qingrong Li Hongmin Zhang Lin Zheng Xiang Feng <p><strong>Background</strong>: Browning of white adipose tissues (WAT) is recognized as a novel way to combat obesity and its related comorbidities. Thus, a lot of dietary agents contributing to browning of WAT have been identified.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: In this study, we try to explore the mechanism of the browning of WAT induced by resveratrol (Res) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: The levels of cell viability and lipid accumulation were evaluated under different concentrations of Res. Cell signaling pathway analysis was performed to investigate the possible mechanisms of the WAT browning effect of Res in 3T3-L1 cells.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: We found that Res induced the brown fat-like phenotype by activating protein expressions of brown adipocyte-specific markers, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ), peroxisome proliferator- activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α), and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). Besides, Res reduced lipid accumulation, as shown by Oil Red O staining. The increased small lipid droplets implied that Res-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes had some features of brown adipocytes. The brown fat-like phenotype in 3T3-L1 adipocytes induced by Res was possibly mediated by activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), as brown adipocyte-specific markers were decreased by rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTOR and the MHY1485 treatment, an activator of mTOR, showed the similar effect of Res on browning markers.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Res induced brown-like adipocyte phenotype in 3T3-L1 adipocytes partly via mTOR pathway, which provided new insights into the utilization of Res to prevent obesity and related comorbidities.</p> 2020-01-14T00:00:00-08:00 Copyright (c) Groundnut spread likability, sensory properties, and intent to pay for quality certification 2020-01-17T06:56:10-08:00 Ozgur Kaya Wojciech J. Florkowski Daniel Sarpong Manjeet S. Chinnan Anna V. A. Ressurrecion <p>Quality-certified, nutritious novel groundnut spread has great commercialization possibilities due to evolving urban lifestyles in Africa, but lack of information about likability, sensory attributes, and consumer safety awareness is a severe barrier for small enterprises. This paper examines a novel groundnut spread, made of sorted kernels deemed free of aflatoxin, intended for use on bread in a fashion similar to groundnut paste or groundnut butter, but with modified sensory characteristics. In particular, it seeks to measure the effects of sensory attributes of the novel spread on the intent to pay for safety certification and the role of consumer awareness of aflatoxin. A novel spread was prepared with groundnut paste from sorted kernels (to eliminate the risk of aflatoxin contamination) and cocoa. Adults intercepted at Ghana’s International Fair in 2012 volunteered to sample the spread and complete a questionnaire. Results from a tasting panel of untrained participants established that sensory attributes and panellist characteristics are relevant to the intent to pay for quality certification. Spread likability, aroma, education, knowledge about aflatoxin, packaging and being married were identified as major factors increasing the probability of intent to pay for quality certification whereas young age and the presence of children in a household lowered the probability. Results also identified income, education level, and having young children at home as increasing the chances of knowing about aflatoxin. Groundnut paste available in Ghana is often contaminated by aflatoxin as it is in other countries in the region and consumers cannot visually assess paste quality. Under the circumstances, quality certification is necessary.</p> 2020-01-09T00:00:00-08:00 Copyright (c) Insufficient iodine status in pregnant women as a consequence of dietary changes 2020-01-17T06:57:56-08:00 Solveig Adalsteinsdottir Ellen Alma Tryggvadottir Laufey Hrolfsdottir Thorhallur I. Halldorsson Bryndis Eva Birgisdottir Ingibjorg Th. Hreidarsdottir Hildur Hardardottir Petra Arohonka Iris Erlund Ingibjorg Gunnarsdottir <p><strong>Background</strong>: Historically, Iceland has been an iodine-sufficient nation due to notably high fish and milk consumption. Recent data suggest that the intake of these important dietary sources of iodine has decreased considerably.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To evaluate the iodine status of pregnant women in Iceland and to determine dietary factors associated with risk for deficiency.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Subjects were women (<em>n</em> = 983; 73% of the eligible sample) attending their first ultrasound appointment in gestational weeks 11–14 in the period October 2017–March 2018. Spot urine samples were collected for assessment of urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and creatinine. The ratio of iodine to creatinine (I/Cr) was calculated. Median UIC was compared with the optimal range of 150–249 μg/L defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). Diet was assessed using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), which provided information on main dietary sources of iodine in the population studied (dairy and fish).</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The median UIC (95% confidence interval (CI)) and I/Cr of the study population was 89 μg/L (42, 141) and 100 (94, 108) μg/g, respectively. UIC increased with higher frequency of dairy intake, ranging from median UIC of 55 (35, 79) μg/L for women consuming dairy products &lt;1 time per week to 124 (98, 151) μg/L in the group consuming dairy &gt;2 times per day (P for trend &lt;0.001). A small group of women reporting complete avoidance of fish (<em>n</em> = 18) had UIC of 50 (21, 123) μg/L and significantly lower I/Cr compared with those who did not report avoidance of fish (58 (34, 134) μg/g vs. 100 (94, 108) μg/g, <em>P</em> = 0.041). Women taking supplements containing iodine (<em>n</em> = 34, 3.5%) had significantly higher UIC compared with those who did not take supplements (141 (77, 263) μg/L vs. 87 (82, 94), <em>P</em> = 0.037).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: For the first time, insufficient iodine status is being observed in an Icelandic population. There is an urgent need for a public health action aiming at improving iodine status of women of childbearing age in Iceland.</p> 2020-01-06T00:00:00-08:00 Copyright (c)