Food & Nutrition Research https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr <p>As one of the first Open Access journals in its field,&nbsp;<em>Food &amp; Nutrition Research&nbsp;</em>offers an important forum for researchers&nbsp;to exchange the latest results from research on human nutrition broadly and food-related nutrition in particular. The&nbsp;Journal&nbsp;is widely indexed and has an&nbsp;<strong>Impact Factor of 2.553 (2018).</strong></p> Swedish Nutrition Foundation en-US Food & Nutrition Research 1654-6628 <p><span style="color: #4b7d92;">This work is licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a> <br>Authors retain copyright of their work, with first publication rights granted to SNF Swedish Nutrition Foundation.</span></p> <p><a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/ecsemiczky/88x31_CC_BY.png"></a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> A novel polysaccharide from Lentinus edodes mycelia protects MIN6 cells against high glucose-induced damage via the MAPKs and Nrf2 pathways https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/1598 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most widespread diseases in the world, high glucose can damage islet cells, it is important to discover new natural products to inhibit high glucose damage. The protective effects and mechanisms of a novel Lentinus edodes mycelia polysaccharide (LMP) against damage induced by high glucose in MIN6 cells were explored.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Cell viability, malondialdehyde (MDA) inhibition, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were evaluated under 40 mM glucose with or without LMP for 48 h. Cell signaling pathway analysis was performed to investigate the possible mechanisms of the protective effects of LMP in MIN6 cells.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The results showed that LMP could increase cell viability and the activity of SOD, decrease the reactive oxygen species ( ROS) production, and reduce the MDA content and LDH release in high glucose-induced MIN6 cells. Moreover, LMP prevented high glucose-induced apoptosis by decreasing the expression of Bax and the activation of caspase-1 and caspase-3. Cell signaling pathway analysis showed that p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and JNK pathways were inhibited and the Nrf2 pathway was activated after treated with LMP.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The protective effects of LMP against MIN6 cells damage induced by high glucose might rely on the regulation of the MAPK and Nrf2 pathways. These results indicated that LMP had great potential as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.</p> Xiangyu Cao Dan Liu Ying Xia Tiange Cai Yin he Jianli Liu ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-06-06 2019-06-06 10.29219/fnr.v63.1598 Impact of cooking on the antioxidant activity of spice turmeric https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/3451 <p>Curcuminoids, as the main ingredient of turmeric, are popularly used in food additives and condiments, and are widely accepted to be beneficial for human health for their antioxidant activity. However, curcuminoids are highly susceptible in terms of thermal-induced degradation, and curry is usually boiled, roasted, or fried in the use of food additives and condiments. Thus, it is interesting to explore the effect of cooking on the antioxidant activity of curcuminoids. In the present study, the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) of cooked curcuminoids (boiled curcuminoids, roasted curcuminoids, and fried curcuminoids) processed through three heating conditions, and their protective effects against oxidative damage to rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells, a well-established neuronal model, were evaluated. It was found that cooking slightly lowered the T-AOC of curcuminoids, with boiled curcuminoids being relatively stronger than roasted curcuminoids, and fried curcuminoids being the weakest form. Both boiled and roasted curcuminoids could significantly improve cell viability, mitigate intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species and reduce malondialdehyde activity, reduce caspase-3 and caspase-9 protein expression, and increase superoxide dismutase activity of PC12 cells compared with the control group. In comparison with parent curcuminoids, the protective effects of cooked curcuminoids got relatively lower overall, with boiled curcuminoids being relatively stronger than roasted curcuminoids. In conclusion, the cooked curcuminoids, including boiled and roasted forms, still have antioxidant and neuroprotective activity.</p> Jian-Long Sun Hong-Fang Ji Liang Shen ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-05-31 2019-05-31 10.29219/fnr.v63.3451 Effects of ad libitum consumed, low-fat, high-fiber plant-based diet supplemented with plant-based meal replacements on cardiovascular risk factors https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/1560 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Sustainable nutritional strategies to reduce risk factors of cardiovascular diseases are highly needed. Inclusion of meal replacements may increase adherence to plant-based diets (PBDs).</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The aim of this study was to test the effects of a transition from a western-type diet to a new nutritional paradigm with a PBD from predominately unrefined whole food sources, eaten ad libitum and including nutrient-enriched plant-based meal replacements twice daily.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: This was a single-arm, prospective interventional trial for 10 weeks in 36 participants with extension to 36 weeks in 18 participants. The main endpoint was serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol measured at baseline, after 10 weeks (phase 1), and after 36 weeks (phase 2). Secondary endpoints included total, non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and HDL-cholesterol, fasting glucose, uric acid, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1).</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The mean reduction in LDL-cholesterol was 0.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.3–0.8) mmol/L (−15%, P &lt; 0.001) at the end of phase 1, with no further change by the end of phase 2. Similar reductions were noted for non-HDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol. HDL-cholesterol was reduced by 0.16 mmol/L (95% CI, 0.1–0.2). There was a borderline reduction in fasting glucose (5.2 to 5 mmol/L in phase 1, P = 0.08) and a small significant rise in serum uric acid levels of 15 (95% CI, 1–28) μmol/L, P &lt; 0.05. Median baseline value for IGF-1 concentration was 156 μg/L. Participants with baseline IGF-1 below median had a significant increase in IGF-1 value from baseline 110 ± 31 to 132 ± 39 at the end of phase 1 (mean change of +22 μg/L, 95% CI, 11–33, P = 0.001). Participants with baseline IGF-1 above median had no significant change in IGF-1. Significant reductions in body weight, body fat, and visceral fat were observed.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Supplemented, unrefined PBD eaten ad libitum was effective in improving total and LDL-cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol, and IGF-1 in low baseline IGF-1 subgroup. This trial is registered as NCT02905448 at https://clinicaltrials.gov, registered 19.9.2016, https://clinicaltrials. gov/ct2/show/NCT02905448.</p> Boštjan Jakše Barbara Jakše Jernej Pajek Maja Pajek ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-05-21 2019-05-21 10.29219/fnr.v63.1560 Inadequate nutrient intakes in Filipino schoolchildren and adolescents are common among those from rural areas and poor families https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/3435 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Adequate nutrition during childhood and adolescence is essential to promote growth and development.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: This study evaluated usual energy and nutrient intakes of Filipino schoolchildren and adolescents.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: Food and beverage intakes were collected from a nationally representative sample of schoolchildren aged 6–9 and 10–12 years (n = 3,594 and n = 2,971, respectively) and adolescents aged 13–18 years (n = 5,447) using 24-h dietary recalls. The distributions of usual energy and nutrient intakes and the prevalence of inadequate intakes, which is defined as the percent of children with intakes less than estimated average requirements or acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges, were estimated using the Personal Computer Software for Intake Distribution Estimation (PC-SIDE) program.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The results showed that the mean energy intakes were 19–35% lower than estimated energy requirement. High prevalence of inadequate intakes was found for most macro- and micronutrients. Prevalence of inadequacies was as follows: protein 12–47%, total fat (as percentage of energy) 38–52%, calcium 92–94%, iron 75–90%, vitamin C 68–96%, folate 61–93%, vitamin A 58–81%, riboflavin 58–91%, thiamin 27–75%, and phosphorus 18–91%.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Generally, prevalence of inadequacy of key nutrients were relatively high among adolescents and schoolchildren, especially those from poor families and rural areas. This study demonstrated that nutrient intakes of Filipino schoolchildren and adolescents were highly inadequate, particularly among the poor and those living in rural areas.</p> Imelda Angeles-Agdeppa Liya Denney Marvin B. Toledo Virgillyn Anne Obligar Emma F. Jacquier Alicia L. Carriquiry Mario V. Capanzana ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-05-16 2019-05-16 10.29219/fnr.v63.3435 VMP35 MNC, a novel iron-free supplement, enhances cytoprotection against anemia in human subjects: a novel hypothesis https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/3410 <p><strong>Background</strong>: The American Society of Hematology reported that according to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) anemia is the most common blood disorder, which affects more than 3 million Americans, while the Global Burden of Disease 2016 (GBD 2016) reported that iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is the leading cause of anemia, which affects 1.93 billion people worldwide. Anemia is intricately linked to chronic inflammation, chronic kidney disease, gastrointestinal and gynecological malignancies, and autoimmune disorders. Hemorrhagic anemia results in substantial loss of blood, which causes significant alterations in all blood parameters, including reduced iron. The other type of anemia is chronic anemia syndrome (CAS), which is a constellation of disorders and chronic inflammatory events caused by an increasing anaerobic/acidic environment (promoting the growth of anaerobic organisms), inducing a defensive expenditure of alkalinizing buffers in hemoglobin (i.e. histidine), to prevent a dangerous lowering of blood pH. In this process, iron is cleaved from heme groups and transferred out of blood circulation into other organs, like the liver, appearing to be IDA, where excessive accumulation can lead to hemochromatosis, also known as ‘iron overload anemia’.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: A pilot clinical study was conducted in 38 subjects (men = 10; women = 28; age = 22–82 years) to evaluate the rate of absorption and effects on blood of VMP35 multi-nutrient complex (MNC), a non-iron containing liquid nutraceutical supplement. Subjects consumed either placebo or VMP35 (30 mL) over a period of 0, 5, or 30 min.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Changes in peripheral blood smears from 38 subjects were observed using live blood cell imaging (LBCI) with phase contrast microscopy. Adverse events were rigorously monitored.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: VMP35 caused positive changes in the blood, including morphological, hematological (including restoration of hemoglobin), and rheological changes following 5 min of administration, which were sustained for at least 30 min.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Overall, the non-iron containing VMP35 can induce improvements in blood properties and potential benefits for subjects even with compromised digestive systems. No adverse events were reported. Further research studies are in progress to explore the mechanistic insight.</p> Jean-Ronel Corbier Berrnard William Downs Steve Kushner Ted Aloisio Debasis Bagchi Manashi Bagchi ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-05-09 2019-05-09 10.29219/fnr.v63.3410 Health-related messages in the labeling of processed meat products: a market evaluation https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/3358 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Food labeling is an important communication tool for the exposure of nutrition information in foods.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The presence of labeling messages related to nutrients, health properties, allergens, and additives in meat products marketed in Spain was analyzed in this work. The data collection was done through the web pages of six Spanish meat industries, and 642 products were gathered. The following labeling information was collected: the presence of nutrition claims, the presence of health claims, messages indicating the absence of additives, and those reporting the absence or presence of allergenic substances.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: A total of 1,254 messages were found with the following distribution: 72% were related to the presence/ absence of allergens, 19% were nutrition claims, 8% were messages related to the absence of additives, and only 0.4% were health claims. Fat was the nutrient most frequently referred in the nutrition claims, accounting for a 63.5% of this type of claims, with the expression ‘low-fat’, as the most used (42% of total nutrition claims). Prevalence of processed meat products that showed nutrition claims was 29%, whereas the percentage of products that showed information about allergenic compounds was 83%.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: This work provides information about the presence of health-related messages in a high number of meat products, which could be useful as a tool for marketing purposes or for consumer trends evaluation studies.</p> Diana Ansorena Sandivel Cama Marta Alejandre Iciar Astiasaran ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-05-02 2019-05-02 10.29219/fnr.v63.3358 Suppressive effect of glycyrrhizic acid against lipopolysaccharideinduced neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment in C57 mice via toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/1516 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Glycyrrhizinic acid (GA), a major active ingredient enriched in the roots of licorice, possesses well-confirmed anti-inflammatory effects.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To evaluate the underlying mechanisms of GA against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced chronic neuroinflammation and memory impairment.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: We explored to investigate the effects of GA on neuroinflammation and memory impairment in an LPS-induced Alzheimer’s mouse model.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Data of micro-PET/CT imaging and morris water maze test suggested that GA, when administrated orally, could reverse LPS-induced abnormalized glucose intake and metabolism in the brain and alleviate LPS-induced memory loss and cognitive defects in mice. Histological and immunohistochemical staining results revealed that GA treatment suppressed overexpressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines of IL-1 β and TNF-α in the brain of C57 mice by inhibiting toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway activation.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Our findings suggest that GA may be a therapeutic agent for the treatment of neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment.</p> Wenfeng Liu Shun Huang Yonglian Li Kun Zhang Xi Zheng ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-04-29 2019-04-29 10.29219/fnr.v63.1516 Antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiproliferative activitybased comparative study of peel and flesh polyphenols from <em>Actinidia chinensis</em> https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/1577 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) peel has been always considered as useless because of the harsh taste. To promote the full utilization of kiwifruit resources it is essential to explore the nutritional benefits of kiwifruit peel.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: Our studies explored the difference in polyphenolic composition and biological activity including antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiproliferative activity of the flesh and peel of kiwifruit.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: Antioxidant activity of the extracted polyphenols of the peel and flesh of A. chinensis was checked by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2’-azino-bis3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS), hydroxyl ion reduction, and ion chelating ability. Antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus and antiproliferative activity against HepG2 was tested in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) chromatogram of the peel and flesh further differentiated the phenolic acid profile.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The pericarp of kiwifruit was found to be more abundant in polyphenols and flavonoids than the flesh, with contents of 12.8 mg/g and 2.7 mg/g, respectively. LC/MS analysis revealed that the catachin, quercetin and epigallocatechin content (the main polyphenols in kiwifruit) in the peel was significantly higher than in the flesh (P &lt; 0.05). The antioxidant and antibacterial activity of the peel was significantly higher when compared to the flesh. Moreover, the proliferation of HepG2 cells was time- and dose-dependently inhibited by kiwifruit polyphenols, with IC50 values of 170 μg/mL and 291 μg/mL for peel and flesh polyphenols after 72 h of treatment time, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Kiwifruit peel, with higher content of phenolics and flavonoids, exerts more potent antioxidant, antibacterial, and anticancer activity than the flesh. Our study provides scientific evidence for the development of kiwifruit, especially peel-based, novel natural products with excellent bioactivity.</p> Aamina Alim Ting LI Tanzeela Nisar Daoyuan Ren Xichuan Zhai Yaxing Pang Xingbin Yang ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-04-26 2019-04-26 10.29219/fnr.v63.1577 Pomegranate peel polyphenols inhibits inflammation in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages via the suppression of TLR4/NF-κB pathway activation https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/3392 <p><strong>Backgrounds</strong>: Inflammatory response mediated by activated immune cells is a vital process in host defense system while responding to various stresses. Our previous studies have indicated that pomegranate peel polyphenols (PPPs) and their main components punicalagin (PC) and ellagic acid (EA) decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory mediators by regulating the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathway, but whether these tested polyphenols play an important role in NF-κB signaling pathway, another crucial pathway of inflammation, remains unclear.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: In this study, we analyzed the anti-inflammatory effect of these polyphenols via TLR4-NF-κB pathway in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 macrophages.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Different concentrations of PPPs, PC, and EA were pre-incubated with RAW264.7 macrophages and then stimulated with LPS (1 μg/mL), and the effects of reactive oxygen species and TLR4 were investigated. Moreover, NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation and phosphorylation, and degradation of IκB were measured by Western blot. Furthermore, the influence of pro-inflammatory cytokines was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Our data showed that PPPs, PC, and EA inhibited LPS-induced intracellular ROS production and suppressed the mRNA and protein expression levels of TLR4 in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory mechanism was involved in blocking LPS-induced phosphorylation, degradation of IκB, and nuclear translocation of p65. Additionally, PPPs and PC exhibited a stronger anti-inflammatory effect than that of EA.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The results indicated that PPPs possess potent anti-inflammatory effect, and PC was the main effective component in PPPs, which provided new insights into the utilization of PPPs to prevent inflammation- associated disorders.</p> Lin Du Jianke Li Xitong Zhang Lifang Wang Weimin Zhang Mi Yang Chen Hou ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-04-23 2019-04-23 10.29219/fnr.v63.3392 Chrysanthemum extract attenuates hepatotoxicity via inhibiting oxidative stress <em>in vivo</em> and <em>in vitro</em> https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/1667 <p><strong>Background</strong>: ‘<em>Bianliang ziyu</em>’, a famous chrysanthemum variety commonly planted in Kaifeng, China, is often consumed by local residents. However, the hepatoprotective effects of Bianliang ziyu and their underlying mechanisms are not clear.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: In this study, we investigated the hepatoprotective and antioxidative effects of Bianliang ziyu extract (BZE) on liver injury and explored its molecular mechanisms.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: Sprague-Dawley rats were administered BZE by intragastric administration for 8–9 days, and then alcohol or carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) was administered by gavage to induce acute liver injury. The activities of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, superoxide dismutase, and malondialdehyde in the rats were measured, and the liver of each rat was examined for histopathological changes. In vitro, HL-7702 cells were pretreated with BZE for 24 h and then exposed to 30 mmol•L−1 acetaminophen (APAP) for 12 h. The survival rate of the cells and the alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities were determined. Then, we investigated the effects of BZE on oxidative stress, apoptosis, and the activation of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling in HL-7702 cells induced by APAP.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The results showed that BZE prevented alcohol-, CCl4-, and APAP-induced liver injury and suppressed hepatic oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo. BZE was also observed to significantly inhibit the reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential and regulate the expression of Bcl-2, Bax and Caspase-3 in APAP-induced HL-7702 cells. In addition, BZE significantly promoted nuclear translocation and the expression of Nrf2 as well as its downstream gene hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) in vitro. Furthermore, the findings showed that Nrf2 siRNA reversed the effects of BZE on cell survival and apoptosis-related protein expression in APAP-induced HL-7702 cells.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: BZE plays an important role in preventing hepatotoxicity by inhibiting oxidative stress and apoptosis through activation of Nrf2 signaling. BZE could be developed as an effective functional food for protecting the liver.</p> Zixia Tian Haiyan Jia Yuezhen Jin Minghui Wang Jiejian Kou Chunli Wang Xuli Rong Xinmei Xie Guang Han Xiaobin Pang ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-04-15 2019-04-15 10.29219/fnr.v63.1667 Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis and phase angle in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/1615 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a disease characterized by progressive loss of functional muscle mass followed by changes in body composition.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: This study aimed to describe and evaluate bioimpedance parameters in boys with DMD. Design: This cross-sectional, descriptive study investigated children and adolescents diagnosed with DMD. Age, weight, height, resistance, and reactance data were collected. Phase angle and bioelectrical impedance vector analysis were calculated based on resistance and reactance values.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: We analyzed 43 boys aged between 2.7 and 19.8 years. Low-phase angle values were observed during the investigation of bioimpedance parameters. Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis showed that approximately 87% of the subjects presented vectors outside the tolerance ellipses, and only one patient presented vectors located within the 50% tolerance ellipse, indicating normally hydrated and a good body cell mass. Compared with the reference population, boys with DMD had lower levels of body cell mass.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Based on the evidence, compared with the reference population, patients with DMD had lower levels of body cell mass. This evidence points to bioimpedance parameters as useful tools for the nutritional evaluation and clinical management of patients with DMD.</p> Karina M. Vermeulen Márcia M.G.D. Lopes Evellyn C. Grilo Camila X. Alves Richele J.A. Machado Lucia L. Lais José Brandão-Neto Sancha H.L. Vale ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-04-10 2019-04-10 10.29219/fnr.v63.1615 Nutritional properties and biological activities of kiwifruit (<em>Actinidia</em>) and kiwifruit products under simulated gastrointestinal <em>in vitro</em> digestion https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/1674 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Kiwifruit is one of the most commercialized fruits on the international market, which has notable high nutritional and medicinal value with many health benefits. In addition to being consumed fresh, numerous kiwifruit products are popular, such as kiwifruit juice, vinegar, dried slices, jam, wine, yogurt, and jelly. Although many studies have described the nutritional properties of kiwifruit, investigations on the nutritional properties of kiwifruit products remain limited, especially for kiwifruit products made from raw kiwifruit.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Nutritional properties and biological activities of kiwifruit and kiwifruit products, as well as the digestive and absorption characteristics of their nutritional substances, were investigated.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Kiwifruit, juice, wine, and vinegar were observed to be rich in vitamin C (VC) and polyphenol and exhibited high biological activities, whereas dried kiwifruit slices and jam showed higher amounts of mineral elements. During oral digestion, VC and polyphenol showed similar absorption characteristics, while mineral elements exhibited a number of different trends. A good release rate of all nutritional substances was observed during stomach digestion, while the release rate decreased in serum-available, colon-available, and post-colonic fractions. Eating dried slices and jam supplied high amounts of mineral elements, while eating kiwifruit supplied the most comprehensive nutritional substances. The biological activities detected in raw foodstuffs were much higher than those detected after in vitro digestion. Furthermore, kiwifruit and wine showed the highest biological activities, while dried kiwifruit slices showed the lowest biological activities.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: These results increased our understanding of the nutritional properties of kiwifruit and its products, providing new information and scientific recommendations to consumers for kiwifruit consumption and to producers for kiwifruit production.</p> Tingting Ma Tian Lan Tonghui Geng Yanlun Ju Guo Cheng Zhiluo Que Guitian Gao Yulin Fang Xiangyu Sun ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-04-08 2019-04-08 10.29219/fnr.v63.1674 Childhood obesity in relation to sweet taste perception and dental caries – a cross-sectional multicenter study https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/1682 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Obesity is a multifactorial disease that is increasing worldwide and is caused by different environmental and genetic factors, with an increase in the consumption of high-energy–containing food and a decrease in physical activity constituting two of the main reasons. Sweet taste perception may have an effect on the subject’s dietary choices and affect his or her predisposition to obesity.</p> <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: The aim was to study the sweet taste perception and dental caries in relation to body mass index (BMI) in 13–15-year-old schoolchildren from three different countries and to compare the BMI among the countries.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: The sweet taste perception level, determined as the sweet taste threshold and preference, was assessed in a total of 669 schoolchildren from Italy, Mexico and Saudi Arabia, examined in school settings. Height and weight were collected and BMI was calculated, after which the children were grouped as underweight, normal, overweight, and obese. For caries registration, the International Caries Detection and Assessment System and Decayed Missing Filled Surfaces indices were used.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: A statistically significant difference was found for BMI among the children from the three countries (p &lt; 0.001), with the highest mean found among Saudi children, followed by Mexican and Italian children. A statistically significant difference regarding sweet taste threshold when comparing the BMI groups was only found for Saudi Arabia (p &lt; 0.01). No significant correlation was found between BMI and sweet taste threshold or preference and dental caries variables, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: BMI was found to differ between countries, with a further significant difference among the groups among the Saudi Arabia schoolchildren.</p> Heba Ashi Guglielmo Campus Gunilla Klingberg Heléne Bertéus Forslund Peter Lingström ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-04-04 2019-04-04 10.29219/fnr.v63.1682 Effect of chronic administration of arachidonic acid on the performance of learning and memory in aged rats https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/1441 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4, ω-6) is a ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and plays diverse roles in cell signaling. Numerous reports on the effects of ω-3 PUFAs, such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6, ω-3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5, ω-3) on learning and memory impairments of rats are available, however, the role of AA on brain cognition is largely unknown.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: In this study, our aim was to investigate the effect of oral administration of AA on spatial memory- related learning ability in aged (100 weeks) male rats.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: One group was per orally administered 240 mg/kg per day AA oil and the other group was administered the similar volume of control oil. Five weeks after the start of the administration, rats were tested with the partially baited eight-arm radial maze to evaluate two types of spatial memory-related learning ability displayed by reference memory errors (RMEs) and working memory errors (WMEs). Also, the time required to complete the task was recorded. The levels of lipid peroxide (LPO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured, as an indicator oxidative stress in the plasma and brain corticohippocampal brain tissues.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The scores of RMEs and WMEs, which are analogous to long-term and short-term memory, respectively, were not affected, however, the trial time was shorter in the AA-administered rats than that of the controls. AA also significantly increased the degree of oxidative stress both in the plasma and corticohippocampal brain tissues.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Our results suggest that though AA deposition in the corticohippocampal tissues of senescent rats caused a faster performance activity, which is reminiscent to hyperactive behavior of animals, the spatial learning ability-related memory of the rats, however, was not improved.</p> Takayuki Inoue Michio Hashimoto Masanori Katakura Shahdat Hossain Kentaro Matsuzaki Osamu Shido ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-03-25 2019-03-25 10.29219/fnr.v63.1441 Cod protein powder lowered serum nonesterified fatty acids and increased total bile acid concentrations in healthy, lean, physically active adults: a randomized double-blind study https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/3437 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Fish fillet consumption is associated with beneficial health effects; however, little is known about whether consuming other parts of the fish such as head, backbone, skin, cut-offs, and entrails (collectively known as residuals) will provide comparable effects.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The aim of the study was to investigate if daily supplementation with cod residual protein powder would impact lipid metabolism in healthy adults.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Forty healthy, lean, physically active participants (18 women, 22 men) with normal body mass index consumed 8.1 g of proteins daily from cod residual protein powder (Cod-RP) or placebo (control) for 8 weeks.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Cod residual protein powder supplementation lowered fasting serum nonesterified fatty acids and increased serum total bile acid concentrations significantly when compared with control supplementation. Fasting serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein (Apo) B concentrations, as well as the total cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and ApoB:ApoA1 ratios, were significantly decreased within the Cod-RP group, but these changes were not different from the control group. Fasting serum concentrations of triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and ApoA1 were not changed within or between groups.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Eight weeks of daily supplementation with 8.1 g Cod-RP seems to be sufficient to affect lipid metabolism in healthy, lean, physically active adults.</p> Iselin Vildmyren Alfred Halstensen Åge Oterhals Oddrun A. Gudbrandsen ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-03-11 2019-03-11 10.29219/fnr.v63.3437 Enhancement of glucose and bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats fed with germinated pigmented rice with giant embryo (<em>Oryza sativa</em> L. cv. Keunnunjami) https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/1612 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Menopause induces various metabolic disorders due to the rapid decrease of the ovarian hormone estrogen. It is involved in increased risk of obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and osteoporosis. The pigmented giant embryo cultivar is a promising food product for menopause-induced metabolic disorders.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The effects of non-germinated and germinated Keunnunjami, a new blackish purple pigmented rice with a giant embryo, on glucose and bone metabolisms in ovariectomized rats were investigated.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: The animals were fed with normal control diet (NC group) or control diet supplemented with either non-germinated Keunnunjami (KN group) or germinated Keunnunjami (GKN group) powder for 8 weeks.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The blood glucose and plasma insulin levels, adipokine concentrations, hepatic glucose-regulating enzyme activities, and bone resorption biomarker levels significantly decreased in KN and GKN groups compared to those of the control animals.</p> <p><strong>Discussion</strong>: These findings illustrate that GKN group showed greater hypoglycemic activity and lower bone resorption than KN group, suggesting that germination could further improve the physiological property of Keunnunjami.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Germinated Keunnunjami may have therapeutic potential against hyperglycemia and bone turnover imbalance caused by menopause.</p> Soo Im Chung Xingyue Jin Mi Young Kang ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-03-06 2019-03-06 10.29219/fnr.v63.1612 Seasonality in associations between dietary diversity scores and nutrient adequacy ratios among pregnant women in rural Malawi – a cross-sectional study https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/2712 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Dietary diversity scores (DDS) are simple indicators often used as proxies for nutrient adequacy. A 10-food group indicator is proposed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations as a global standard for measuring dietary diversity among women in low-resource settings. However, its validity as a proxy for nutrient adequacy across different agricultural seasons for pregnant women has not been determined.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: We studied associations between DDS and nutrient adequacy ratios (NAR) across two different agricultural seasons (pre- and post-harvest seasons) for pregnant women in rural Malawi and assessed whether a 1-day DDS or a 3-day DDS would be the best indicator of nutrient adequacy.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: Dietary intakes of 330 pregnant women were assessed between gestational weeks 28 and 35. Intakes of energy, macronutrients, and 11 micronutrients were estimated using three repeated interactive 24-h diet recalls, and DDS were also calculated from these days. Correlation coefficients (r) between DDS, NAR, and mean adequacy ratio (MAR) of the 11 micronutrients were determined.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: After energy adjustments, we found significant correlations between DDS and MAR with both DDS indicators in the preharvest season (r = 0.22–0.23; p &lt; 0.001) but not in the post-harvest season (p &gt; 0.05). For individual energy-adjusted NARs, correlations were not consistently significant across the two seasons and the two DDS indicators.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Our results suggest that DDS could be used to predict overall nutrient adequacy during the preharvest season. As similar correlations were found using both the 1- and 3-day indicators, we recommend using a 1-day DDS, for simplicity. However, as the indicators are sensitive to seasonality they should be used with care in this study setting.</p> Katrine G. Hjertholm Gerd Holmboe-Ottesen Per O. Iversen Ibrahimu Mdala Alister Munthali Kenneth Maleta Zumin Shi Elaine Ferguson Penjani Kamudoni ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-02-27 2019-02-27 10.29219/fnr.v63.2712 Cereal fiber improves blood cholesterol profiles and modulates intestinal cholesterol metabolism in C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/1591 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Dietary intake of cereal fiber has been reported to benefit lipid metabolism through multiple mechanisms. The present study aimed to discover the potential mechanisms by which cereal fiber could modify the intestinal cholesterol metabolism.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a reference chow (RC) diet; high-fat, high-cholesterol (HFC) diet; HFC plus oat fiber diet; or HFC plus wheat bran fiber diet for 24 weeks. Serum lipids were measured by enzymatic methods. Western blot was used to determine the protein expressions involved in intestinal cholesterol metabolism.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Our results showed that HFC-induced elevations of serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were normalized in both groups that received cereal fiber. At the protein level, compared with the HFC diet group, the two cereal fibers, especially the oat fiber, significantly increased the protein expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, liver X receptor alpha, sterol regulatory element- binding protein (SREBP) 2, low-density lipoprotein receptor, adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette A1, and ATP-binding cassette G1, while decreasing the protein expression of Niemann-Pick C1-like protein 1, SREBP-1, fatty acid synthase, and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase, which were involved in intestinal cholesterol metabolism.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Taken together, increased intake of cereal fiber improved blood cholesterol profiles and increased the intestinal cholesterol efflux and cholesterol clearance in C57BL/6 mice fed a HFC diet. Oat fiber had a stronger effect than wheat bran fiber on cholesterol metabolism by modulating the PPARα, LXRα, and SREBP signaling pathways.</p> Shufen Han Wei Zhang Ru Zhang Jun Jiao Chunling Fu Xing Tong Weiguo Zhang Liqiang Qin ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-02-25 2019-02-25 10.29219/fnr.v63.1591 The extent, nature, and nutritional quality of foods advertised to children in Lebanon: the first study to use the WHO nutrient profile model for the Eastern Mediterranean Region https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/1604 <p><strong>Objective</strong>: Exposure to food marketing may influence children’s food preferences and consumption patterns and may increase the risk of childhood obesity. The WHO Office for the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) has recently released a regional nutrient profile model (WHO EMR) for the purpose of regulating the marketing of food and beverages to children. This study aimed at 1) analyzing the frequency and types of food and drink advertisements during children’s viewing time in Lebanon; 2) examining the nutritional content of the advertised food products in reference to the nutrient thresholds specified by the WHO EMR model; and 3) assessing the proportion of food advertisements that included health messages.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: This study consisted of a cross-sectional content analysis of food advertisements on local TV channels, during children’s viewing time. Setting: Three local Lebanese channels with the highest viewership among 4- to 14-year-olds were selected. Recorded broadcasts (September 2016 through January 2017) were analyzed between 3 pm and 10 pm on weekdays and between 8 am and 10 pm on weekend days.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Approximately 31% of advertisements were for foods or drinks. The proportion of food advertisements was the highest during children’s programs (43%) compared to general viewing (32%) and parental guidance (29%) programs. Approximately 8 out of 10 food advertisements were for products that did not meet the standards of the WHO EMR model. Of concern was the heavy advertisement of alcoholic beverages during programs for general audiences. The majority of the advertisements that comprised a health claim were for foods that did not meet the WHO EMR’s nutritional standards (79%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: The findings of this study, which is the first to utilize the new WHO EMR profile model, should be viewed as a foundation for the development of food marketing policies aimed at reducing children’s exposure to TV food advertisements in Lebanon, a country that harbors a high burden of childhood obesity.</p> Lara Nasreddine Mandy Taktouk Massar Dabbous Jad Melki ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-02-19 2019-02-19 <em>Ganoderma lucidum</em> polysaccharide improves rat DSS-induced colitis by altering cecal microbiota and gene expression of colonic epithelial cells https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/1559 <p><strong>Background</strong>: The effects of β-glucan on colitis mice are contradictory in previous reports. As a result, it is still unclear whether there is an anti-colitis effect in Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide (GLP), which is mainly composed of β-glucan. Moreover, the association between GLP function and gut microbiota remains to be elucidated.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: This study aimed to investigate whether GLP consumption improved rat dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis by regulating gut microbiota and altering colonic epithelial expression.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: The disease activity index (DAI) scores and the cecal short chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels of DSS-induced colitis rats fed with a GLP diet (Group GLP, n = 6) and a control diet (Group Con, n = 6) were investigated and analyzed. Moreover, the profiles of gut microbiota and colonic epithelial expression were analyzed using metagenomics and transcriptomics.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: GLP consumption significantly lowered animal DAI scores by producing more SCFAs by increasing SCFA-producing bacteria such as Ruminococcus_1 and reducing pathogens such as Escherichia-Shigella in both the small intestine and cecum of rat. Moreover, GLP consumption regulated 11 genes, including six upregulated (Ccl5, Cd3e, Cd8a, Il21r, Lck, and Trbv) and five downregulated (Ccl3, Gro, Il11, Mhc2, and Ptgs) genes enriched in six inflammation-related Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways, resulting in enhancement of immunity and reduction of inflammatory response and colonic cancer risk.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: GLP consumption alleviated DSS-induced colitis and may have potential for ulcerative colitis relief.</p> Jinli Xie Yanghanxiu Liu Bohui Chen Guangwen Zhang Shiyi Ou Jianming Luo Xichun Peng ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-02-12 2019-02-12 10.29219/fnr.v63.1559 Determinants of dietary diversity among women of reproductive age in two different agro-ecological zones of Rongai Sub-County, Nakuru, Kenya https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/1553 <p><strong>Background: </strong>&nbsp;Empirical evidence on the link between agro-biodiversity and dietary diversity appears to be inconclusive. Thus, arises a need to determine other factors that could significantly influence dietary diversity in different agro-ecological zones as factors may vary from region to region.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: This study assessed the determinants of dietary diversity (DD) among women of reproductive age in two different agro-ecological zones of Rongai Sub-County in Kenya; with agrobiodiversity being the main independent predictor.</p> <p><strong>Design:</strong> A cross-sectional study targeting 400 women aged 18-49 years was conducted. Agro-biodiversity was measured using Shannon-Wiener index, species richness/count and production diversity score. A 24-hour dietary recall was used to determine minimum dietary diversity for women (MDD-W) of reproductive age.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Although the level of agrobiodiversity was different between the low and high agro-ecological zones (using Shannon-Wiener index); the women dietary diversity was not different (P&gt;0.05) between low (3.78 ± 0.99) and high potential areas (3.84 ± 1.05). In multivariate logistic regression, there was no association (P&gt;0.05) between agro-biodiversity indicators and dietary diversity across the two agricultural zones. Other factors influenced dietary diversity and varied across the two agro-ecological zones. In low potential areas, women education level positively influenced dietary diversity while in high potential areas household gender, women education level, woman’s age and household size influenced MDD-W.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This paper informs that factors other than agrobiodiversity influenced dietary diversity among women of reproductive age and these determinants varied across the agro-ecological zones. Therefore, it is recommended that nutrition interventions focusing on lessening malnutrition and improving dietary quality should pay special attention to differences in agro-ecological zones to develop region specific interventions instead of generalized interventions.</p> Maureen Wanjiru Gitagia Rose Chepchirchir Ramkat Dorothy M Mituki Celine Termote Namukolo Covic Maureen Jepkorir Cheserek ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-01-18 2019-01-18 10.29219/fnr.v63.1553 <em>In vitro</em> and <em>in vivo</em> antitumour effects of coconut water vinegar on 4T1 breast cancer cells https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/1616 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Coconut water and vinegars have been reported to possess potential anti-tumour and immunostimulatory effects. However, the anti-tumour, anti-inflammatory and immunostimulatory effects of coconut water vinegar have yet to be tested.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: This study investigated the <em>in vitro</em> and <em>in vivo</em> anti-tumour effects of coconut water vinegar on 4T1 breast cancer cells. Methods: The 4T1 cells were treated with freeze-dried coconut water vinegar and subjected to MTT cell viability, BrdU, annexin V/PI apoptosis, cell cycle and wound healing assays for the<em> in vitro</em> analysis. For the in vivo chemopreventive evaluation, mice challenged with 4T1 cells were treated with 0.08or 2.00 mL/kg body weight of fresh coconut water vinegar for 28 days. Tumour weight, apoptosis of tumour cells, metastasis and immunity of untreated mice and coconut water vinegar-treated 4T1 challenged mice were compared.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Freeze-dried coconut water vinegar reduced the cell viability, induced apoptosis and delayed the wound healing effect of 4T1 cells <em>in vitro</em>. <em>In vivo</em>, coconut water vinegar delayed 4T1 breast cancer progression in mice by inducing apoptosis and delaying the metastasis. Furthermore, coconut water vinegar also promoted immune cell cytotoxicity and production of anticancer cytokines. The results indicate that coconut water vinegar delays breast cancer progression by inducing apoptosis in breast cancer cells, suppressing metastasis and activating anti-tumour immunity.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Coconut water vinegar is a potential health food ingredient with a chemopreventive effect.</p> Nurul Elyani Mohamad Swee Keong Yeap Nadiah Abu Kian Lam Lim Nur Rizi Zamberi Noraini Nordin Shaiful Adzni Sharifuddin Kamariah Long Noorjahan Banu Alitheen ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-01-10 2019-01-10 10.29219/fnr.v63.1616 Role of intestinal microecology in the regulation of energy metabolism by dietary polyphenols and their metabolites https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/1518 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Polyphenols are a class of plant secondary metabolites with a variety of physiological functions. Polyphenols and their intestinal metabolites could greatly affect host energy metabolism via multiple mechanisms.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The objective of this review was to elaborate the role of intestinal microecology in the regulatory effects of dietary polyphenols and their metabolites on energy metabolism.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: In this review, we illustrated the potential mechanisms of energy metabolism regulated by the crosstalk between polyphenols and intestinal microecology including intestinal microbiota, intestinal epithelial cells, and mucosal immune system.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Polyphenols can selectively regulate the growth of susceptible microorganisms (eg. reducing the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroides, promoting the growth of beneficial bacteria and inhibiting pathogenic bacteria) as well as alter bacterial enzyme activity. Moreover, polyphenols can influence the absorption and secretion of intestinal epithelial cells, and alter the intestinal mucosal immune system.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The intestinal microecology play a crucial role for the regulation of energy metabolism by dietary polyphenols.</p> Shaoling Lin Zhengyu Wang Ka-Lung Lam Shaoxiao Zeng Bee K. Tan Jiamiao Hu ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-02-14 2019-02-14