Food & Nutrition Research <p>As one of the first Open Access journals in its field,&nbsp;<em>Food &amp; Nutrition Research&nbsp;</em>(FNR) offers an important forum for researchers to exchange the latest results from research on human nutrition broadly and food-related nutrition in particular. FNR is widely indexed by relevant services and databases, including PubMed Central/PubMed, Scopus, Science Citation Index, with an&nbsp;<strong>Impact Factor of 3.647 (2019)</strong>.</p> Swedish Nutrition Foundation en-US Food & Nutrition Research 1654-6628 <p><span style="color: #4b7d92;">Authors retain copyright of their work, with first publication rights granted to SNF Swedish Nutrition Foundation. Read the full <a href="">Copyright- and Licensing Statement</a>.</span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Anti-diabetic effects of the soluble dietary fiber from tartary buckwheat bran in diabetic mice and their potential mechanisms <p><strong>Background</strong>: Tartary buckwheat has beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the physiological effects of a soluble dietary fiber (SDF) from tartary buckwheat have rarely been studied, especially <em>in vivo</em>.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: This study aimed to examine the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of SDF from tartary buckwheat bran on high-fat diet/streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: The SDF of tartary buckwheat bran was collected according to the Association of Official Analytical Chemists method 991.43. Diabetic mice were treated with high-fat diets supplemented with 0.5, 1, and 2% SDF for 8 weeks. Parameters related to glucose and lipid metabolism and relevant mechanisms, including the excretion of short-chain fatty acids and the glycemic signaling pathway in the liver, were investigated. In addition, the structural characterization of a purified polysaccharide from SDF of tartary buckwheat bran was illustrated.</p> <p><strong>Result</strong>: Supplementation with SDF in the diet resulted in reduced levels of fasting blood glucose, improved oral glucose tolerance, increased levels of liver glycogen and insulin, as well as improved lipid profiles in both the serum and liver, in diabetic mice. The amelioration of glucose and lipid metabolism by SDF was accompanied by an increase in the short-chain fatty acid levels in the cecum and co-regulated by hepatic adenosine- 5′-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation. A neutral tartary buckwheat polysaccharide with an average molecular weight of 19.6 kDa was purified from the SDF, which consisted mainly of glucose with α-glycosidic bonds.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: The SDF of tartary buckwheat bran exhibits hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects in diabetic mice, contributing to the anti-diabetic mechanisms of tartary buckwheat.</p> Weijing Wu Zaigui Li Fei Qin Ju Qiu Copyright (c) 2021 Weijing Wu, Zaigui Li, Fei Qin, Ju Qiu 2021-01-08 2021-01-08 10.29219/fnr.v65.4998 Iron intake among Lebanese women: sociodemographic factors, iron-rich dietary patterns, and preparation of hummus, a Mediterranean dish <p><strong>Background</strong>: Plant-based foods such as hummus are alternative to animal protein, and when properly prepared, they help to alleviate nutritional iron deficiency that leads to anemia, a global health problem.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The objective was to assess iron intake among Lebanese women and related participant’s characteristics, discern iron-rich dietary patterns, evaluate their association with nutrients intake and participant’s sociodemographic characteristics, and identify the women preparing hummus traditionally and properly for an enhanced iron bioavailability.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: A cross-sectional study of 400 Lebanese women (18–74 years old) was conducted in Lebanon. Data from a questionnaire, including sociodemographic and health characteristics, dietary intake, and hummus preparation and consumption, were collected. Dietary data were obtained by a food frequency questionnaire and a 24-h recall. Dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis. Linear regression and binomial logistic regression models were used to explore the association between the intake of dietary iron, its patterns, and the participants’ characteristics.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: About 60% of the women had iron intake deficiency, especially with lower income (odds ratio [OR] = 1.88, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.107, 3.194). Four iron-rich dietary patterns were identified: legumes; organ/lunch meat and chicken; canned fish; and beef and hummus. The factor scores of the latter were positively correlated with protein, vitamin C, iron, folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin A with r = 0.195 and P &lt; 0.01 for all. No significant difference was shown among the women’s sociodemographic characteristics for the consumption of the hummus-related pattern. Only 9.2 and 22.7% of the women considered proper preparation of chickpea and hummus, respectively, which significantly (P &lt; 0.05) correlated with older women (66.7%).</p> <p><strong>Discussion &amp; Conclusion</strong>: The majority of the Lebanese women still have iron intake deficiency and the minority reported proper preparation of hummus. Intervention programs spreading awareness among Lebanese women are needed for encouraging adequate iron intake and considering proper steps to improve iron bioavailability from plant-based food.</p> Nour Doumani Jacqueline Maalouly Elias Bou-Maroun Nicolas Sok Philippe Cayot Maya Tueni Copyright (c) 2021 Nour Doumani, Jacqueline Maalouly, Elias Bou-Maroun, Nicolas Sok, Philippe Cayot, Maya Tueni 2021-01-06 2021-01-06 10.29219/fnr.v65.5556