Food & Nutrition Research <p>As one of the first Open Access journals in its field,&nbsp;<em>Food &amp; Nutrition Research&nbsp;</em>offers an important forum for researchers&nbsp;to exchange the latest results from research on human nutrition broadly and food-related nutrition in particular. The&nbsp;Journal&nbsp;is widely indexed and has an&nbsp;<strong>Impact Factor of 2.553 (2018).</strong></p> Swedish Nutrition Foundation en-US Food & Nutrition Research 1654-6628 <p><span style="color: #4b7d92;">This work is licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a> <br>Authors retain copyright of their work, with first publication rights granted to SNF Swedish Nutrition Foundation.</span></p> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/ecsemiczky/88x31_CC_BY.png"></a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Effects of eating breakfast on children and adolescents: A systematic review of potentially relevant outcomes in economic evaluations <p><strong>Background</strong>: Breakfast is often described as the most important meal of the day. Several studies have focused on examining if breakfast habits have any short-term effects on school attendance, academic achievement, and general health in children and adolescents. Informed decisions of whether to promote eating breakfast or not require a more long-term perspective.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of scientific publications studying the effects identified as potentially relevant for the economic evaluation of eating breakfast in children and adolescents.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: A systematic literature review was conducted. Studies were identified by searching the electronic databases PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, and PsycINFO between January 2000 and October 2017. The inclusion criteria applied were published articles from peer-reviewed journals with full text in English, quantitative studies collecting primary data with school-aged children, and adolescents aged from 6 to 18 years as participants, performed entirely or partly in countries with advanced economies, except Japan and Taiwan.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Twenty-six studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and studies that were judged to be of at least moderate quality were included in the analysis. The results of the review of eating breakfast studies showed positive and conclusive effects on cognitive performance, academic achievement, quality of life, well-being and on morbidity risk factors.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: The overall assessment of the studies indicated positive effects of eating breakfast. How the identified effects influence societal costs and an individual’s quality-adjusted life years require further research.</p> Martina Lundqvist Nicklas Ennab Vogel Lars-Åke Levin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-12 2019-09-12 10.29219/fnr.v63.1618 Role of intestinal microecology in the regulation of energy metabolism by dietary polyphenols and their metabolites <p><strong>Background</strong>: Polyphenols are a class of plant secondary metabolites with a variety of physiological functions. Polyphenols and their intestinal metabolites could greatly affect host energy metabolism via multiple mechanisms.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The objective of this review was to elaborate the role of intestinal microecology in the regulatory effects of dietary polyphenols and their metabolites on energy metabolism.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: In this review, we illustrated the potential mechanisms of energy metabolism regulated by the crosstalk between polyphenols and intestinal microecology including intestinal microbiota, intestinal epithelial cells, and mucosal immune system.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Polyphenols can selectively regulate the growth of susceptible microorganisms (eg. reducing the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroides, promoting the growth of beneficial bacteria and inhibiting pathogenic bacteria) as well as alter bacterial enzyme activity. Moreover, polyphenols can influence the absorption and secretion of intestinal epithelial cells, and alter the intestinal mucosal immune system.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The intestinal microecology play a crucial role for the regulation of energy metabolism by dietary polyphenols.</p> Shaoling Lin Zhengyu Wang Ka-Lung Lam Shaoxiao Zeng Bee K. Tan Jiamiao Hu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-14 2019-02-14 Duration of the flaxseed diet promotes deposition of n-3 fatty acids in the meat and skin of Peking ducks <p><strong>Background</strong>: Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), particularly n-3, have beneficial effects on human health, and for this reason foodstuffs with increased content of n-3 PUFA are now very common and widely available.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of the duration of a flaxseed diet on Peking duck’s growth performance, antioxidant status, gene expression, and fatty acid profile of the meat. A total of 792 12-day-old white Peking ducks were divided into four groups. In the control group, animals were provided with a basal diet. In the three experimental groups, animals were fed a 10% flax seed diet with vitamin E at 13, 23, and 33 days of age for 30, 20, and 10 days, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The growth performance of the ducks decreased with flaxseed diet’s duration. Both body weight and body weight gain decreased linearly while Feed conversion ratios (FCR) increased in the group of ducks fed flaxseed compared to control ducks. Serum triglycerides (TG), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) linearly decreased while high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels increased by feeding flaxseed up to 30 days. The expression of lipin-1 gene (LPIN-1) and fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2) linearly increased in ducks fed flaxseed for 30 days. Linolenic acid (n-3) and its long-chain metabolites like eicosatetraenoic acid (ETA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and total n-3 fatty acids (FA) linearly increased while the ratio of n-6 to n-3 was reduced with increased duration of flaxseed supplementation.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Overall, we found that increasing the duration of flaxseed diet with vitamin E for more than 10 days had a mild adverse effect on duck’s growth performance but enrichedits meat with long-chain PUFA and decreased the n-6 to n-3 ratio, providing quality meat for health-conscious consumers. A period of 20 days is good for producing n-3 enriched Peking duck meat and skin.</p> Muhammad Suhaib Shahid Yuqin Wu Zhibin Xiao Tausif Raza Xiaoyu Dong Jianmin Yuan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-05 2019-12-05 10.29219/fnr.v63.3590 Effects of mineral waters on acid–base status in healthy adults: results of a randomized trial <p><strong>Background</strong>: The ‘Western diet’ typically consumed in industrialized countries is characterized by high amounts of processed cereal grains and animal products while being low in vegetables, tubers, and fruits. This dietary behavior leads to imbalances of acid–base status in favor of the acids and may cause low-grade metabolic acidosis (LGMA) that is associated with negative effects on health in the long run, including urolithiasis, bone loss, and even cardiometabolic diseases. Therefore, it has become of great interest to find dietary strategies that can be used to neutralize the acid load associated with Western diets.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the diet-dependent net acid load can be reduced by the daily consumption of mineral waters with different bicarbonate content and different potential renal acid load (PRAL).</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A single-centered, randomized trial including 129 healthy men and women aged from 18 to 75 years was conducted. Participants consumed 1,500–2,000 mL of one of four mineral waters with different bicarbonate content and different PRAL values daily for 4 weeks: low bicarbonate, high PRAL (LBHP, HCO3 −: 403.0 mg/L, PRAL: 10.7); medium-high bicarbonate, medium PRAL (MBMP, HCO3 − : 1816.0 mg/L, PRAL: −10.8); high bicarbonate, low PRAL (HBLP, HCO3 −: 2451.0 mg/L, PRAL: −19.3); medium-high bicarbonate, low PRAL (MBLP, HCO3 −: 1846.0 mg/L, PRAL: −22.1). Throughout the study, participants were asked to maintain their usual dietary habits. The primary outcome was the net acid excretion (NAE) measured in the 24-h urine output.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Consumption of the three mineral waters: MBMP, HBLP, and MBLP led to a significant decrease in NAE values. Within the MBMP group, the NAE could be reduced by 48% (<em>P</em> = 0.001), while consumption of HBLP led to a reduction of 68% (<em>P</em> &lt; 0.001) and MBLP to a reduction of 53% (<em>P</em> = 0.001). Moreover, a slight increase in serum bicarbonate could also be observed in the groups that drank HBLP (<em>P</em> = 0.057) and MBLP (<em>P</em> = 0.001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Daily consumption of at least 1,500–2,000 mL of mineral water rich in bicarbonate (&gt;1800.0 mg/L) with medium or low PRAL (&lt;−11 mEq/L) can effectively reduce the NAE level by reducing the dietary acid load under free-living conditions in healthy adults..</p> Paulina Wasserfurth Inga Schneider Alexander Ströhle Josefine Nebl Norman Bitterlich Andreas Hahn ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-03 2019-12-03 10.29219/fnr.v63.3515 Association of multiple mineral and vitamin B group intake with blood glucose using quantile regression analysis: NHANES 2007–2014 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Hyperglycaemia and diabetes have become major public health problems worldwide. There is increasing evidence that minerals and the vitamin B group might play specific roles in hyperglycaemia and the pathogenesis and progression of diabetes or metabolic complications.</p> <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: The main aim of this study is to investigate the effect of mineral and vitamin B group supplementation on the blood glucose levels of different populations.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: This was a cross-sectional study. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–2014 were used in this study. A total of 8,322 participants (4,169 men and 4,153 women) were included in the study. Quantile regression (QR) was performed to identify the influence of mineral and vitamin B group intake on the level of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in individuals in different quantiles of FPG.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: After adjusting for age, income, education, race, smoking, and alcohol consumption, FPG had a negative association with folic acid in individuals with normal or high FPG, with calcium in individuals with normal FPG, and with magnesium in males. FPG was negatively associated with folic acid and calcium in individuals with normal FPG, and magnesium in most of the quantiles for females. Discussion: Hyperglycaemia and diabetes are currently becoming popular research topics. However, little is known about how the whole continuum of blood glucose is associated with commonly researched nutrient supplementation in terms of hyperglycaemia and diabetes.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: The intake of calcium, folic acid and magnesium was negatively associated with blood glucose levels in individuals in different quantiles of FPG. Appropriate prevention and treatment strategies should be developed for people with different blood glucose levels.</p> Shoumeng Yan Meng Li Xiaoyu Ma Shan Jiang Mengzi Sun Changcong Wang Yingan Pan Chong Sun Yan Yao Lina Jin Bo Li ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-03 2019-12-03 10.29219/fnr.v63.3560 Antioxidative and antidiabetic effects of germinated rough rice extract in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C57BLKS/J-<em>db/db</em> mice <p><strong>Background</strong>: To overcome disadvantages of germinated brown rice, we germinated rough rice and tested effects of its useful ingredients on prevention of diabetes.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: This study investigated the in vitro antioxidant and in vivo antidiabetic effects of rough rice (Oryza sativa L.) with hulls, before and after germination. Rough rice was germinated for 4 days and extracted with water at 120°C.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: This study measured antioxidants and antioxidative effects and inhibitory activities against α-amylase and α-glucosidase of rough rice before and after germination and investigated antidiabetic effects of rough rice through animal experiments.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: All these factors increased after germination. Also, α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition and glucose uptake by 3T3-L1 adipocytes were significantly increased after germination. Oral administration of the germinated rough rice extract for 8 weeks significantly increased insulin levels and decreased blood glucose levels in a C57BLKS/J-db/db mice model. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that germinated rough rice effectively protected against liver, kidney, and pancreatic tissue damage.</p> <p><strong>Discussion</strong>: Useful ingredients in germinated rough rice could be used to prevent diabetes.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: These results suggest that germinated rough rice extract had a beneficial effect on diabetes by increasing the antioxidant activity and further purification studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanism of the extract’s antidiabetic activity.</p> Heon Sang Jeong Youn Ri Lee Sang Hoon Lee Gwi Yeong Jang Yoon Jeong Lee Min Young Kim Yun-Bae Kim Junsoo Lee ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-28 2019-11-28 10.29219/fnr.v63.3603 Understanding the physicochemical properties and degradation kinetics of nicotinamide riboside, a promising vitamin B<sub>3</sub>nutritional supplement <p>Nicotinamide riboside (NR), a newly recognised form of vitamin B3 and a precursor to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), has been demonstrated to show therapeutic potential and the possibility of becoming a drug compound in addition to its proven role in rejuvenating ageing cells in mice. However, current literature is devoid of information relating to the physicochemical characterisation of NR and its respective impact upon formulation and final product processing. Here we report physicochemical properties of NR including pKa, log P, solubility, melting point, degradation mechanics, and kinetics, with a special focus on its stability under thermal and physiologically relevant conditions. A simple and rapid HPLC method confirms a base-catalysed hydrolysis degradation of NRCl to nicotinamide and sugar in simulated gastrointestinal (GI) fluids. Given the antagonising effect of nicotinamide against NR, the presented data have a profound impact on how NRCl should be handled both during formulation and storage to prevent formation and to limit accumulation of nicotinamide. The innovative combinatorial use of 1H NMR and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was employed to investigate thermal events during NR melting. NRCl degrades upon melting and in solution undergoes hydrolysis in a buffer and in simulated intestinal environments. The results suggest that a proper and evidence-based formulation of NRCl is vital to enable further investigation and clinical analysis of this promising and novel nutrient. Any formulation would need to promote the stability of NRCl and protect it from hostile environments to prevent the accumulation of a potentially antagonistic degradation product. With the current work, we have filled a niche but vital gap in NR literature and the data presented may prove useful in furthering the understanding, specifically the formulation and processing of NRCl.</p> Michael T.D. Campbell David S. Jones, Professor Gavin P. Andrews Shu Li ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-21 2019-11-21 10.29219/fnr.v63.3419 Blood biomarkers of various dietary patterns correlated with metabolic indicators in Taiwanese type 2 diabetes <p><strong>Background</strong>: Metabolic alterations correlate with adverse outcomes in type 2 diabetes. Dietary modification serves as an integral part in its treatment.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: We examined the relationships among dietary patterns, dietary biomarkers, and metabolic indicators in type 2 diabetes (n = 871).</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: Diabetic patients (n = 871) who provided complete clinical and dietary data in both 2008 and 2009 were selected from a cohort participating in a diabetic control study in Taiwan. Dietary data were obtained using a short, semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires, and dietary pattern identified by factor analysis. Multiple linear regressions were used to analyze the association between dietary biomarkers (ferritin, folate, and erythrocyte n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids [n-3 PUFAs]) and metabolic control upon adjusting for confounders.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Three dietary patterns (high-fat meat, traditional Chinese food–snack, and fish–vegetable) were identified. Ferritin correlated positively with high-fat meat factor scores (P for trend &lt;0.001). Erythrocyte n-3 PUFAs (eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] + docosahexaenoic acid [DHA], n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio) correlated positively with fish–vegetable factor scores (all P for trends &lt;0.001). Multiple linear regressions revealed a positive relationship between ferritin concentrations and fasting plasma glucose (FPG), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and triglycerides, but a negative relationship with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Erythrocyte n-3 PUFA, EPA+DHA, and n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio were negatively linked to FPG, HbA1c, and triglycerides (all P &lt; 0.05) and positively with HDL-C (though n-3/n-6 ratio marginally correlated).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Ferritin and n-3 PUFA can serve as valid biomarkers for high-fat meat and fish–vegetable dietary patterns. Unlike ferritin, erythrocyte n-3 PUFA status was related to better glycemic and blood lipid profiles. Our results suggest that habitual consumption of diet pattern rich in fish and vegetables may contribute in part to a healthier metabolic profile in type 2 diabetes.</p> Meng-Chuan Huang Chaio-I Chang Wen-Tsan Chang Yen-Ling Liao Hsin-Fang Chung Chih-Cheng Hsu Shyi-Jang Shin Kun-Der Lin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-20 2019-11-20 10.29219/fnr.v63.3592 Antiphotoaging effect of boiled abalone residual peptide ATPGDEG on UVB-induced keratinocyte HaCaT cells <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: A previous study has shown that Ala–Thr–Pro–Gly–Asp–Glu–Gly (ATPGDEG) peptide identified from boiled abalone by-products has high antioxidant activities and antihypertensive effect.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: In this study, we further investigated its antiphotoaging activities by ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced HaCaT cells.</p> <p><strong>Result</strong>: UVB irradiation significantly increased the content of intercellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in HaCaT cells and decreased its content of collagen. First, the generation of intercellular ROS was reduced by abalone peptide in UVB-induced HaCaT cells. And activities of MMP-1 and MMP-9 were reduced by abalone peptide in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, western blot analysis demonstrated that abalone peptide downregulated the expression of p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinases, and extracellular signal-regulated kinases via mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and NF-κB signaling to protect type I pro collagen and DNA damage. Molecular docking simulation confirms that abalone peptide inhibited activities of MMP-1 and MMP-9 by docking their active site, among them N-terminal Ala, C-terminal Gly, and Pro at the third position of N-terminal made a great contribution.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion and recommendation</strong>: Abalone peptide could protect type I procollagen synthesis in UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells, and it is a potential peptide for the treatment of skin photoaging in the future.</p> Jiali Chen Peng Liang Zhenbang Xiao Meifang Chen Fang Gong Chengyong Li Chunxia Zhou Pengzhi Hong Won-Kyo Jung Zhong-Ji Qian ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-08 2019-11-08 10.29219/fnr.v63.3508 Protective effects of curcumin against chronic alcohol-induced liver injury in mice through modulating mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress <p><strong>Background</strong>: Curcumin is a major active ingredient extracted from powdered dry rhizome of Curcuma longa.<br>In Ayurveda and traditional Chinese medicine, it has been used as a hepatoprotective agent for centuries.<br>However, the underlying mechanisms are not clear.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The present study is to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of curcumin in chronic alcohol-induced liver injury and explore its mechanism.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: Alcohol-exposed Balb/c mice were treated with curcumin (75 and 150 mg/kg) once per day for 8 weeks. Tissue from individual was fixed with formaldehyde for pathological examination. The activities of mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes, Na+/k+-ATPase, Ca2+-ATPase, and Ca2+Mg2+-ATPase, were determined. The level of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP)<br>opening was also determined. The expression of PGC-1α, NRF1, Mn-SOD, GRP78, PERK, IRE1α, nuclear<br>NF-κB, and phosphorylated IκBα was quantified by western blot. The contents of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in<br>the liver were measured using the ELISA method.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Curcumin significantly promoted hepatic mitochondrial function by reducing the opening of MPTP,<br>thus increasing the MMP, promoting the activity of Na+/k+-ATPase, Ca2+-ATPase, and Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase,<br>and attenuating oxidative stress. Curcumin upregulated the expression of PGC-1α, NRF1, and Mn-SOD, and<br>downregulated the expression of GRP78, PERK, and IRE1α in hepatic tissue. Curcumin also attenuated inflammation by inhibiting the IκBα–NF-κB pathway, which reduced the production of TNF, IL-1β, and IL-6.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Curcumin attenuates alcohol-induced liver injury via improving mitochondrial function and attenuating endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammation. This study provides strong evidence for the beneficial effects of curcumin in the treatment of chronic alcohol-induced liver injury.</p> Baoying Wang Xiaolin Gao Baoguang Liu Yucheng Li Ming Bai Zhenqiang Zhang Erping Xu Zhang’e Xiong Yunlian Hu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-01 2019-11-01 10.29219/fnr.v63.3567 Sesamol intervention ameliorates obesity-associated metabolic disorders by regulating hepatic lipid metabolism in high-fat diet-induced obese mice <p><strong>Background</strong>: Obesity has currently become a serious social problem to be solved. Sesamol, a natural bioactive substance extracted from sesame oil, has shown multiple physiological functions, and it might have an effect on the treatment of obesity.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: This study was conducted to investigate the therapeutic effect and potential mechanisms of sesamol on the treatment of obesity and metabolic disorders in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: C57BL/6J male mice were fed HFD for 8 weeks to induce obesity, followed by supplementation with sesamol (100 mg/kg body weight [b.w.]/day [d] by gavage) for another 4 weeks. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to observe lipid accumulation in adipose tissues and liver. Chemistry reagent kits were used to measure serum lipids, hepatic lipids, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels. ELISA kits were used to determine the serum insulin and free fatty acid (FFA) levels. Western blotting was used to detect the protein levels involved in lipid metabolism in the liver.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Sesamol significantly reduced the body weight gain of obese mice and suppressed lipid accumulation in adipose tissue and liver. Sesamol also improved serum and hepatic lipid profiles, and increased insulin sensitivity. In the sesamol-treated group, the levels of serum ALT and AST decreased significantly. Furthermore, after sesamol treatment, the hepatic sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1c) decreased, while the phosphorylated hormone sensitive lipase (p-HSL), the carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1α (CPT1α), and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator-1α (PGC1α) increased, which were responsible for the fatty acid synthesis, lipolysis, and fatty acid β-oxidation, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Sesamol had a positive effect on anti-obesity and ameliorated the metabolic disorders of obese mice. The possible mechanism of sesamol might be the regulation of lipid metabolism in the liver.</p> Hong Qin Haiyan Xu Liang Yu Lina Yang Cui Lin Jihua Chen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-23 2019-10-23 10.29219/fnr.v63.3637 Acute effect of a cod protein hydrolysate on postprandial acylated ghrelin concentration and sensations associated with appetite in healthy subjects: a double-blind crossover trial <p><strong>Background</strong>: Fish protein hydrolysates are suggested to contain bioactive sequences capable of affecting metabolic pathways involved in the regulation of glucose metabolism and body weight when consumed in low doses. Modulation of the appetite-regulating hormone ghrelin may explain suppression of insulin secretion and weight loss observed in previous studies with fish protein hydrolysates.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: This study aimed to assess the effect of a single, low dose of cod protein hydrolysate (CPH) before a breakfast meal on postprandial acylated ghrelin concentration and sensations associated with appetite in healthy subjects.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: In this explorative trial with a crossover design, 41 healthy individuals (15 males and 26 females, age 51 ± 6 years) completed 2 study days separated by 4–7 days of washout. On both study days, a test drink containing 20 mg CPH or casein (control) per kg body weight was given immediately before a standardized breakfast meal. Acylated ghrelin concentrations were measured before test drink/breakfast (baseline) and at time 0, 20, 40, 80, and 180 min postprandially. Sensations associated with appetite were measured by a Visual Analog Scale (100 mm) at baseline and 0, 20, 40, and 180 min postprandially.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Statistically, no difference was observed between CPH and control for postprandial acylated ghrelin concentrations (mean difference geometric mean: 1.05 pg/mL, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.97–1.13, P = 0.266), or between the total area under the curve (tAUC) for acylated ghrelin after CPH (tAUC = 17518 pg/mL × min, 95% CI: 0–47941) and control (tAUC = 17272 pg/mL × min, 95% CI: 0–48048, P = 0.991). No differences were found between CPH and control for sensation of appetite, according to tAUC of postprandial scores for satiety (P = 0.794) and the feeling of fullness (P = 0.996).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: We did not find an effect of a single dose of CPH on postprandial concentrations of acylated ghrelin or sensations related to feeling of hunger, compared to control. Further studies should aim to evaluate the effect of a supplement with CPH given daily over a period of time.</p> Hanna Fjeldheim Dale Caroline Jensen Trygve Hausken Einar Lied Jan Gunnar Hatlebakk Ingeborg Brønstad Dag Arne Lihaug Hoff Gülen Arslan Lied ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-22 2019-10-22 10.29219/fnr.v63.3507 No correlation among expressed emotion, anxiety, stress and weight loss in patients with overweight and obesity <p><strong>Background</strong>: The onset of some types of obesity may correlate with specific familial relational patterns, and expressed emotion (EE), the family life’s ‘emotional temperature’, may play a role in obesity treatment compliance and outcome.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The aim of this study is to address the current gap in the literature about EE and obesity, assessing EE in a sample of patients with overweight or obesity and their relatives. A further objective is to assess patients’ weight loss, patients’ and relatives’ anxiety, perceived stress and their possible correlation with EE and diet compliance.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: A total of 220 patients with overweight or obesity and 126 relatives were recruited; their socio-demographic and clinical features were collected; and Level of Expressed Emotion Scale (LEE), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory 1 and 2 (STAI-Y1 and STAI-Y2) and Paykel Scale of Stressful Life Events were administered.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Patients’ baseline body mass index (BMI) was negatively correlated with educational level, but we failed to find any correlation between BMI and the other variables assessed. We found a positive correlation between EE median and stressful life events, as well as between median EE and state and trait anxiety.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Our results seem to suggest that other factors than the psychological ones we investigated may play a role in treatment adherence and outcome in patients with overweight and obesity.</p> Carla Gramaglia Eleonora Gattoni Camilla Vecchi Elisa Di Tullio Giampaolo Biroli Federico D'Andrea Sergio Riso Maria Rosaria Gualano Marco Marchetti Marco Sarchiapone Roberta Siliquini Patrizia Zeppegno ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-09 2019-10-09 10.29219/fnr.v63.3522 Vegetable but not animal protein intake is associated to a better physical performance: a study on a general population sample of adults <p><strong>Background</strong>: The research was conducted in the frame of a population-based, case control study, called Genes Environment Interaction in Respiratory Disease.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To assess the association between protein intake and physical performance in a general population sample.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: Researchers investigated the association between the participants’ dietary information and their physical performance using the 6-min walking test and the distance walked in metres (6MWD) as main outcome measure. Information on dietary intake was collected using the validated European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition food frequency questionnaires (FFQs). Then, daily intake of energy and macronutrients was estimated by means of the NAF software (nutritional analysis of FFQ). Linear regression models were used to evaluate the associations between vegetable, animal and total protein intakes and the 6MWD. The models were adjusted for socio-demographic features, total fats and available carbohydrate intakes.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The participants were 223 subjects (57% females) aged between 23 and 68 years. Their mean vegetable and animal proteins intake for gram/kg of body weight/day were, respectively, 0.4 and 0.7. After adjusting for all the potential confounders, there was a significant increase of 20.0 (95% CI 0.8; 39.2) m in the distance walked for an increase in 10 g/day of vegetable proteins and non-significant variations of −1.8 (95% CI −9.3; 5.7) m for an increase in 10 g/day of animal proteins and of 0.5 (95% CI −6.8; 7.7) for an increase in 10 g/day of total proteins. Discussion and conclusions: Our result suggests a positive role of vegetable proteins on physical performance. Whether this result is related to the high protein intake itself or may be a consequence of the other properties of plant-based foods deserves further investigation.</p> Diana Gazzani Francesco Zamboni Francesco Spelta Pietro Ferrari Veronica Mattioli Lucia Cazzoletti Elisabetta Zanolin Stefano Tardivo Marcello Ferrari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-19 2019-09-19 10.29219/fnr.v63.3422 Economic modeling for improved prediction of saving estimates in healthcare costs from consumption of healthy foods: the Mediterranean-style diet case study <p><strong>Background</strong>: By design, existing scenario-based nutrition economics studies on the financial benefits of healthy dietary behaviors generally report uncertainty in inputs and wide ranges of outcome estimates.</p> <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: This modeling exercise aimed to establish precision in prediction of the potential healthcare cost savings that would follow a reduction in the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) consistent with an increase in adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet (MedDiet).</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: Using a Monte Carlo simulation model on a cost-of-illness analysis assessing MedDiet adherence, CVD incidence reduction, and healthcare cost savings in the United States and Canada, short- and long-term cost savings that are likely to accrue to the American and Canadian healthcare systems were estimated using 20 and 80% increases in MedDiet adherence scenarios.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Increasing percentage of population adhering to a MedDiet by 20% beyond the current adherence level produced annual savings in CVD-related costs of US$8.2 billion (95% confidence interval [CI], $7.5–$8.8 billion) in the United States and Can$0.32 billion (95% CI, $0.29–$0.34 billion) in Canada. An 80% increase in adherence resulted in savings equal to US$31 billion (95% CI, $28.6–$33.3 billion) and Can$1.2 billion (95% CI, $1.11–$1.30 billion) in each respective country.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Computational techniques with stochastic parameter inputs, such as the Monte Carlo simulation, could be an effective way of incorporating variability of modeling parameters in nutrition economics studies for improved precision in estimating the monetary value of healthy eating habits.</p> Jason P. H. Jones Mohammad M. H. Abdullah Dallas Wood Peter J. H. Jones ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-17 2019-09-17 10.29219/fnr.v63.3418 <em>Rhus verniciflua</em> leaf extract suppresses obesity in high-fat diet-induced obese mice <p><strong>Background</strong>: Obesity is a serious health problem in the world. We thought that the activity and safety of natural plants and/or foods are very important in the management of therapy for obesity. Rhus verniciflua (R. verniciflua) is also known as lacquer tree in Japan and Korea, and it is consumed as food ingredients and/ or traditional herbal medicine. We prepared an extract from R. verniciflua leaves (Rv-PEM01-99) to develop a new functional food material and/or nutritional supplements.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: This study evaluated the anti-obesity effects of the Rv-PEM01-99 in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: Six-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups: group I (HFD group), group II (HFD + 1% Rv-PEM01-99 group), and group III (HFD + 2% Rv-PEM01-99 group). Throughout the 56-day treatment period, body weights of these mice were checked twice a week. After 56 days, blood biochemical analyses were performed.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: In animal studies, no death or abnormalities in food consumption were observed between groups I, II, and III. Body weight gain in the groups administered Rv-PEM01-99 was less than that in group I. In particular, body weight gain in group III was significantly less than that in group I after 52 days of Rv-PEM01-99 administration. In addition, intra-abdominal fat and leptin levels in group III were significantly lower than those in group I. HPLC and LC/MS analysis showed a quercetin derivative as an active compound in Rv-PEM01-99.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Rv-PEM01-99, containing a quercetin derivative, showed anti-obesity effect in HFD-fed mice. It could therefore be useful as food material and/or nutritional supplement for management of obesity.</p> Kohei Suruga Tsuyoshi Tomita Kazunari Kadokura Toshiro Arai ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-11 2019-09-11 10.29219/fnr.v63.3601 Pholidonone, an active stilbene derivative from Pholidota cantonensis, exhibits pro-apoptotic effect via induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress in human gastric cancer <p><em>Abstract</em></p> <p><strong><em>Backgroud:</em></strong> Gastric cancer (GC) has become the second leading cause of death due to the worldwide incidence, mortality and prevalence. Therefore, it is urgent to find new drugs with low toxicity and high efficacy for the treatment of gastric cancer. Natural products as well as functional foods have always been the rich source of potential antitumor agents. <em>Pholidota cantonensis </em>Rolfe, a well-known functional food and a folk medicine, has been used for a long time in China for inflammatory diseases. Previously, we have evaluated its possible antitumor potentials by screening different solvent extracts, and found that the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract showed much higher cytotoxicity on human GC cell line AGS with IC<sub>50</sub> value of 33.68 ± 1.68 μg/mL. In view of the poor knowledge concerning the phytochemical and pharmacological study of <em>P. cantonensis</em>, it is urgent to characterize the active compounds from EtOAc extract and the mechanisms of action underlying the anti-tumor effect of the herb.</p> <p><strong><em>Objective:</em></strong> This study aimed to identify the primary compounds in EtOAc extract of <em>P. cantonensis </em>involved in the antitumor activity of the plant by evaluating the cytotoxicity in two human GC cell lines including AGS and BGC-823 cells. Since endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced cell apoptosis represents attractive targets for cancer therapy recently, we focused on the underlying mechanisms associated with ER stress-induced cell apoptosis and related signaling pathways.</p> <p><strong><em>Methods: </em></strong>Various chromatographic techniques including silica gel, sephadex LH-20 and ODS C<sub>18 </sub>were used to separate the main active compound from EtOAc extract of <em>P. cantonensis</em>. The cell viability of AGS and BGC-823 cells upon purified compound treatment was determined by MTT assay. The alteration of cell morphology was observed using an inverted microscope. Cell apoptosis was determined by FITC-labeled annexin-V/PI double staining and flow cytometry analysis. Western blot analyses were performed to examine the levels of intracellular signaling molecules involved in ER stress-induced apoptosis.</p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong>A rare stilbene derivative pholidonone was isolated and identified. The results showed that pholidonone displayed potent cytotoxicity on human gastric cancer cells. The IC<sub>50</sub> values for 24 and 48 h in AGS cells were 26.54 ± 0.32 and 25.20 ± 3.67 μM, and the IC<sub>50</sub> values for 24 and 48 h in BGC-823 cells were 32.41 ± 3.83 and 17.28 ± 2.30 μM, respectively). Additionally, pholidonone had pro-apoptotic effect on AGS and BGC-823 cells, and it dose-dependently up-regulated the levels of proteins involved in ER stress, including BiP, PDI, Calnexin, Ero1-Lα, IRE1α, PERK, CHOP and cleaved-caspase-3 in AGS and BGC-823 cells.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong> Pholidonone can trigger ER stress-induced apoptosis through PERK and IRE1α signaling pathway. Pholidonone might be a potential naturally occurred antitumor agent.</p> Liang Liu Wei Wang Zhichen Zhao Chen Hu Li Tao Xianwen Zhang ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-06 2019-09-06 10.29219/fnr.v63.3553 Inclusion of microbe-derived antioxidant during pregnancy and lactation attenuates high-fat diet-induced hepatic oxidative stress, lipid disorders, and NLRP3 inflammasome in mother rats and offspring <p><strong>Objective</strong>: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of microbe-derived antioxidant (MA) on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic lipid disorders in mother rats and offspring.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A total of 36 female rats were randomly divided into three groups at the beginning of pregnancy: the control group (CG), HFD, and HFD with 2% MA. Mother rats were slaughtered at the first and 10th day of lactation (L1 and L10) and offspring were slaughtered at L10. The plasma and liver of mother rats, and liver of offspring were collected.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The results showed that MA reversed HFD-induced activities of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and antioxidative enzymes in liver of mother rats and offspring. In addition, MA reduced HFD-induced lipid accumulation through decreasing the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) content in plasma of mother rats and improving hepatic fatty acid synthase (FAS) in mother rats and offspring. MA decreased HFD-induced hepatic alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activity in liver of mother rats and offspring. Furthermore, MA reduced HFD-activated nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor containing pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in liver of mother rats and offspring.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: MA supplementation reversed HFD-induced hepatic oxidative stress, lipid accumulation, NLRP3 inflammasome, and function in mother rats and offspring, suggesting MA can be functional ingredients to improve maternal-fetal health.</p> Zhen Luo Xue Xu Sen Zhao Takami Sho Wenli Luo Jing Zhang Weina Xu Kong Hon Jianxiong Xu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-23 2019-08-23 10.29219/fnr.v63.3504 Aronia berry extract inhibits TNF-α-induced vascular endothelial inflammation through the regulation of STAT3 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Inflammation in endothelial cells induces production of inflammatory cytokines and monocytes adhesion, which are crucial events in the initiation of atherosclerosis. Aronia berry (Aronia meranocalpa), also called black chokeberry, contains abundant anthocyanins that have received considerable interest for their possible relations to vascular health.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The aim of this study was to investigate whether an anthocyanin-rich extract obtained from aronia berry can attenuate inflammatory responses in vascular endothelial cells.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: As a model of vascular endothelial inflammation, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) pretreated with aronia berry extract were stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). The expression levels of cytokines and adhesion molecules were analyzed. To investigate the effects of aronia berry extract on the adhesion of THP-1 monocytic cell, the static adhesion assay was carried out. The possible molecular mechanisms by which aronia berry extract regulated vascular inflammatory responses were explored.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The mRNA expressions of interleukins (IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) upregulated by TNF-α were significantly suppressed by pretreatment with aronia berry extract. Aronia berry extract decreased TNF-α-induced monocyte/endothelial adhesion and suppressed vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression, but did not affect intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression. Moreover, aronia berry extract decreased the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and the nuclear levels of STAT3 and interferon regulatory transcription factor-1 (IRF1). The nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) was not inhibited by aronia berry extract.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Aronia berry extract could exert anti-atherosclerotic effects on TNF-α-induced inflammation through inhibition of STAT3/IRF1 pathway in vascular endothelial cells.</p> Tomomi Iwashima Yuki Kudome Yoshimi Kishimoto Emi Saita Miori Tanaka Chie Taguchi Satoshi Hirakawa Nobu Mitani Kazuo Kondo Kaoruko Iida ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-16 2019-08-16 10.29219/fnr.v63.3361 Establishment of comprehensive quality evaluation model of fresh instant rice <p><strong>Background</strong>: Although the rice processing characteristics and processing quality evaluation technologies have been studied for many years in China, there have been few reports on the evaluation index system and evaluation method of fresh instant rice processing quality.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The aim of this study was to establish a comprehensive quality evaluation model of fresh instant rice to achieve the effective quantitative quality analysis.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A total of 108 japonica rice varieties were selected as the test samples, followed by the production of fresh instant rice. The color value, physicochemical quality, texture characteristic, and sensory quality of fresh instant rice were systematically analyzed. Difference analysis, correlation analysis, factor analysis, and cluster analysis were used to determine the representative quality indexes of fresh instant rice. Through initialization, forward, and normalization, the standardized indexes (0≤ Xi ≤1) were obtained. The discriminant matrix of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was used to confirm the weight (Wi) of each representative quality index, establishing the comprehensive quality evaluation model.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The variable coefficients of 12 out of 17 quality indexes were more than 10%. There were 136 correlation coefficients, including 15 cases with a significant difference at the level of α = 0.05 and 52 cases with a significant difference at the level of α = 0.01. Five representative quality indexes of fresh instant rice were selected by factor analysis and cluster analysis, including palatability, adhesiveness, b* value, resilience, and iodine color value. And the comprehensive quality evaluation model of fresh instant rice integrating representative indexes was obtained: <em>Y</em> = 0.5650 × palatability + 0.2294 × adhesiveness + 0.0328 × resilience + 0.1175 × b* value + 0.0533 × iodine color value.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The AHP combined with factor analysis and cluster analysis can convert a number of quality indexes into a comprehensive quality index, and thus establish the comprehensive quality evaluation model of fresh instant rice, effectively performing the quantitative quality analysis. This model not only provided a scientific basis for the accurate evaluation of fresh instant rice quality, but also laid the foundation for the formulation of fresh instant rice standards in the future.</p> Qinghong Meng Shouwen Zhang Song Yan Zhihong Zhang Liqun Wang Yinglei Zhang Haitao Guan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-07-22 2019-07-22 10.29219/fnr.v63.1420 Monosodium L-glutamate and fats change free fatty acid concentrations in intestinal contents and affect free fatty acid receptors express profile in growing pigs <p><strong>Background</strong>: Obesity and its related metabolic syndrome continue to be major public health problems. Monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) may cause metabolic diseases such as obesity. Meanwhile, the Chinese population has undergone rapid transition to a high-fat diet. There is little information available on the effect of MSG and fat alone, or in combination, on free fatty acids (FFAs), lipid metabolism and FFA receptors.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of MSG and fat alone, or in combination, on intestinal luminal FFAs and expression of gastrointestinal FFA receptors. The aim was also to test whether dietary fat and/or MSG could affect expression of genes related to fatty acid metabolism.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: A total of 32 growing pigs were used and fed with four iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric diets. Pigs in the four treatments received diets with one of two fat concentrations levels (4.4 and 9.4%) and one of two MSG dose levels (0 and 3%), in which most of the fat were brought by soybean oil. The concentration of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in cecum and colon, long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) in ileum, cecum and colon, and FFAs receptors expression in hypothalamus and gastrointestinal tract were determined.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: MSG and/or fat changed intestinal luminal SCFAs, levels of LCFAs, and showed an antagonistic effect on most of LCFAs. Simultaneously, MSG and/or fat decreased the expression of FFA receptors in hypothalamus and gastrointestinal tract. MSG and/or fat promoted fat deposition through different ways in back fat.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Our results support that MSG and/or fat can alter intestinal luminal FFAs composition and concentration, especially LCFAs, in addition, the expression of FFA receptors in ileum and hypothalamus could be decreased. Moreover, MSG and/or fat can promote protein deposition in back fat, and affect the distribution and metabolism of fatty acids in the body tissues and the body’s ability to perceive fatty acids; these results provide a reference for the occurrence of fat deposition and obesity caused by high-fat and monosodium glutamate diet.</p> Yun Su Zemeng Feng Yumin He Lingling Hong Gang Liu Tiejun Li Yulong Yin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-07-17 2019-07-17 10.29219/fnr.v63.1444 New data on nutrient composition in large selection of commercially available seafood products and its impact on micronutrient intake <p><strong>Background</strong>: Most foods, including seafood, undergo some sort of processing as an integrated part of the global food industry. The degree of processing depends on the type of product produced. Processed seafood products are an important part of the diet; thus, knowledge of nutrient content in seafood products is of great importance.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The aim of this study was to describe the content of selected nutrients in commercially available and market representative seafood products purchased from 3 different years. Methods: Seafood products from 2015 (n = 16), 2017 (n = 35), and 2018 (n = 35) were analyzed as composite samples for macro- and micronutrients using accredited methods at the Institute of Marine Research in Norway.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: This study confirms that seafood products are good sources of several key nutrients, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), vitamin D, vitamin B12, iodine, and selenium. Fatty fish products had the highest content of EPA, DHA, and vitamin D, while lean fish products had the highest content of vitamin B12 and minerals. However, some lean fish products, such as one portion of fish au gratin or fish cakes, also proved as good sources of EPA, DHA, and vitamin D, and contributed substantially to the recommended intake. Variations in nutrients were seen both within the same product category and between the same product category from different years.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: These data give valuable insights into seafood products as a source of essential micronutrients and highlight the importance of these products for nutrition and health.</p> Inger Aakre Synnøve Næss Marian Kjellevold Maria Wik Markhus Anita Røyneberg Alvheim Jorån Østerholt Dalane Ellen Kielland Lisbeth Dahl ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-07-08 2019-07-08 10.29219/fnr.v63.3573 Ethanol extracts of <em>Allium</em> sp. regulate cyclooxygenase-2 and E-cadherin expression in gastric cancer MKN74 cell line and enhance doxorubicin toxicity <p><strong>Background</strong>: Gastric cancer (GC) remains one of the leading causes of cancer-related death. Its aetiology is multifactorial, but the major risk factor is a high in salt diet. During gastric carcinogenesis, cadherin-1 (CDH1) down-expression and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) overexpression may be observed. The intensity of these alterations contributes to the GC invasion, its metastases and poor prognosis. As the diet plays a significant role in the aetiology of GC, it is reasonable to include the nutritional chemoprevention agents. One of the plant genus demonstrating chemoprotective properties is <em>Allium</em> genus, which includes garlic. The relationship between CDH1 and COX2 in GC cells treated with <em>Allium</em> species extract has never been evaluated.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: In this study, the MKN28 and MKN74 GC cell lines were treated with ethanol extracts of <em>Allium angulosum</em> L., <em>Allium lusitanicum</em> Lam., <em>Allium sativum</em> L. (from Malaysia and Poland), <em>Allium tibeticum</em> Rendle and <em>Allium ursinum</em> L. The cytotoxicity of the extracts and their influence on COX2 and CDH1 mRNA and protein expression were evaluated as well as their influence on doxorubicin’s (DOX) efficacy – a drug that has been used in GC treatment.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Among the tested species, ethanol extracts of <em>A. sativum</em> L. (Poland and Malaysia), <em>A. tibeticum</em> Rendle and <em>A. ursinum</em> L. influenced the levels of CDH1 and COX2, but only in the MKN74 cell line. Thus, it is possible that tumours with increased COX2 expression will be more susceptible to garlic treatment. Observed phenomenon was independent of <em>Allium</em> extract’s toxicity. In comparison to DOX, tested extracts were more toxic. Moreover, <em>A. sativum</em> revealed synergistic effect with the drug.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: In conclusion, the results indicate the potential application of <em>Allium</em> genus to GC chemoprevention and treatment support through CDH restoration and COX2 downregulation. This issue needs further investigations as it might be used in clinics.</p> Agnieszka Korga Marta Ostrowska Magdalena Iwan Małgorzata Skierucha Aleksandra Józefczyk Piotr Pawłowski Jaroslaw Dudka Ryszard Maciejewski Robert Sitarz ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-06-25 2019-06-25 10.29219/fnr.v63.3449 A novel polysaccharide from Lentinus edodes mycelia protects MIN6 cells against high glucose-induced damage via the MAPKs and Nrf2 pathways <p><strong>Background</strong>: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most widespread diseases in the world, high glucose can damage islet cells, it is important to discover new natural products to inhibit high glucose damage. The protective effects and mechanisms of a novel Lentinus edodes mycelia polysaccharide (LMP) against damage induced by high glucose in MIN6 cells were explored.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Cell viability, malondialdehyde (MDA) inhibition, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were evaluated under 40 mM glucose with or without LMP for 48 h. Cell signaling pathway analysis was performed to investigate the possible mechanisms of the protective effects of LMP in MIN6 cells.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The results showed that LMP could increase cell viability and the activity of SOD, decrease the reactive oxygen species ( ROS) production, and reduce the MDA content and LDH release in high glucose-induced MIN6 cells. Moreover, LMP prevented high glucose-induced apoptosis by decreasing the expression of Bax and the activation of caspase-1 and caspase-3. Cell signaling pathway analysis showed that p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and JNK pathways were inhibited and the Nrf2 pathway was activated after treated with LMP.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The protective effects of LMP against MIN6 cells damage induced by high glucose might rely on the regulation of the MAPK and Nrf2 pathways. These results indicated that LMP had great potential as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.</p> Xiangyu Cao Dan Liu Ying Xia Tiange Cai Yin he Jianli Liu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-06-06 2019-06-06 10.29219/fnr.v63.1598 Impact of cooking on the antioxidant activity of spice turmeric <p>Curcuminoids, as the main ingredient of turmeric, are popularly used in food additives and condiments, and are widely accepted to be beneficial for human health for their antioxidant activity. However, curcuminoids are highly susceptible in terms of thermal-induced degradation, and curry is usually boiled, roasted, or fried in the use of food additives and condiments. Thus, it is interesting to explore the effect of cooking on the antioxidant activity of curcuminoids. In the present study, the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) of cooked curcuminoids (boiled curcuminoids, roasted curcuminoids, and fried curcuminoids) processed through three heating conditions, and their protective effects against oxidative damage to rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells, a well-established neuronal model, were evaluated. It was found that cooking slightly lowered the T-AOC of curcuminoids, with boiled curcuminoids being relatively stronger than roasted curcuminoids, and fried curcuminoids being the weakest form. Both boiled and roasted curcuminoids could significantly improve cell viability, mitigate intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species and reduce malondialdehyde activity, reduce caspase-3 and caspase-9 protein expression, and increase superoxide dismutase activity of PC12 cells compared with the control group. In comparison with parent curcuminoids, the protective effects of cooked curcuminoids got relatively lower overall, with boiled curcuminoids being relatively stronger than roasted curcuminoids. In conclusion, the cooked curcuminoids, including boiled and roasted forms, still have antioxidant and neuroprotective activity.</p> Jian-Long Sun Hong-Fang Ji Liang Shen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-31 2019-05-31 10.29219/fnr.v63.3451 Effects of ad libitum consumed, low-fat, high-fiber plant-based diet supplemented with plant-based meal replacements on cardiovascular risk factors <p><strong>Background</strong>: Sustainable nutritional strategies to reduce risk factors of cardiovascular diseases are highly needed. Inclusion of meal replacements may increase adherence to plant-based diets (PBDs).</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The aim of this study was to test the effects of a transition from a western-type diet to a new nutritional paradigm with a PBD from predominately unrefined whole food sources, eaten ad libitum and including nutrient-enriched plant-based meal replacements twice daily.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: This was a single-arm, prospective interventional trial for 10 weeks in 36 participants with extension to 36 weeks in 18 participants. The main endpoint was serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol measured at baseline, after 10 weeks (phase 1), and after 36 weeks (phase 2). Secondary endpoints included total, non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and HDL-cholesterol, fasting glucose, uric acid, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1).</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The mean reduction in LDL-cholesterol was 0.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.3–0.8) mmol/L (−15%, P &lt; 0.001) at the end of phase 1, with no further change by the end of phase 2. Similar reductions were noted for non-HDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol. HDL-cholesterol was reduced by 0.16 mmol/L (95% CI, 0.1–0.2). There was a borderline reduction in fasting glucose (5.2 to 5 mmol/L in phase 1, P = 0.08) and a small significant rise in serum uric acid levels of 15 (95% CI, 1–28) μmol/L, P &lt; 0.05. Median baseline value for IGF-1 concentration was 156 μg/L. Participants with baseline IGF-1 below median had a significant increase in IGF-1 value from baseline 110 ± 31 to 132 ± 39 at the end of phase 1 (mean change of +22 μg/L, 95% CI, 11–33, P = 0.001). Participants with baseline IGF-1 above median had no significant change in IGF-1. Significant reductions in body weight, body fat, and visceral fat were observed.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Supplemented, unrefined PBD eaten ad libitum was effective in improving total and LDL-cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol, and IGF-1 in low baseline IGF-1 subgroup. This trial is registered as NCT02905448 at, registered 19.9.2016, https://clinicaltrials. gov/ct2/show/NCT02905448.</p> Boštjan Jakše Barbara Jakše Jernej Pajek Maja Pajek ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-21 2019-05-21 10.29219/fnr.v63.1560 Inadequate nutrient intakes in Filipino schoolchildren and adolescents are common among those from rural areas and poor families <p><strong>Background</strong>: Adequate nutrition during childhood and adolescence is essential to promote growth and development.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: This study evaluated usual energy and nutrient intakes of Filipino schoolchildren and adolescents.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: Food and beverage intakes were collected from a nationally representative sample of schoolchildren aged 6–9 and 10–12 years (n = 3,594 and n = 2,971, respectively) and adolescents aged 13–18 years (n = 5,447) using 24-h dietary recalls. The distributions of usual energy and nutrient intakes and the prevalence of inadequate intakes, which is defined as the percent of children with intakes less than estimated average requirements or acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges, were estimated using the Personal Computer Software for Intake Distribution Estimation (PC-SIDE) program.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The results showed that the mean energy intakes were 19–35% lower than estimated energy requirement. High prevalence of inadequate intakes was found for most macro- and micronutrients. Prevalence of inadequacies was as follows: protein 12–47%, total fat (as percentage of energy) 38–52%, calcium 92–94%, iron 75–90%, vitamin C 68–96%, folate 61–93%, vitamin A 58–81%, riboflavin 58–91%, thiamin 27–75%, and phosphorus 18–91%.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Generally, prevalence of inadequacy of key nutrients were relatively high among adolescents and schoolchildren, especially those from poor families and rural areas. This study demonstrated that nutrient intakes of Filipino schoolchildren and adolescents were highly inadequate, particularly among the poor and those living in rural areas.</p> Imelda Angeles-Agdeppa Liya Denney Marvin B. Toledo Virgillyn Anne Obligar Emma F. Jacquier Alicia L. Carriquiry Mario V. Capanzana ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-16 2019-05-16 10.29219/fnr.v63.3435 VMP35 MNC, a novel iron-free supplement, enhances cytoprotection against anemia in human subjects: a novel hypothesis <p><strong>Background</strong>: The American Society of Hematology reported that according to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) anemia is the most common blood disorder, which affects more than 3 million Americans, while the Global Burden of Disease 2016 (GBD 2016) reported that iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is the leading cause of anemia, which affects 1.93 billion people worldwide. Anemia is intricately linked to chronic inflammation, chronic kidney disease, gastrointestinal and gynecological malignancies, and autoimmune disorders. Hemorrhagic anemia results in substantial loss of blood, which causes significant alterations in all blood parameters, including reduced iron. The other type of anemia is chronic anemia syndrome (CAS), which is a constellation of disorders and chronic inflammatory events caused by an increasing anaerobic/acidic environment (promoting the growth of anaerobic organisms), inducing a defensive expenditure of alkalinizing buffers in hemoglobin (i.e. histidine), to prevent a dangerous lowering of blood pH. In this process, iron is cleaved from heme groups and transferred out of blood circulation into other organs, like the liver, appearing to be IDA, where excessive accumulation can lead to hemochromatosis, also known as ‘iron overload anemia’.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: A pilot clinical study was conducted in 38 subjects (men = 10; women = 28; age = 22–82 years) to evaluate the rate of absorption and effects on blood of VMP35 multi-nutrient complex (MNC), a non-iron containing liquid nutraceutical supplement. Subjects consumed either placebo or VMP35 (30 mL) over a period of 0, 5, or 30 min.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Changes in peripheral blood smears from 38 subjects were observed using live blood cell imaging (LBCI) with phase contrast microscopy. Adverse events were rigorously monitored.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: VMP35 caused positive changes in the blood, including morphological, hematological (including restoration of hemoglobin), and rheological changes following 5 min of administration, which were sustained for at least 30 min.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Overall, the non-iron containing VMP35 can induce improvements in blood properties and potential benefits for subjects even with compromised digestive systems. No adverse events were reported. Further research studies are in progress to explore the mechanistic insight.</p> Jean-Ronel Corbier Berrnard William Downs Steve Kushner Ted Aloisio Debasis Bagchi Manashi Bagchi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-09 2019-05-09 10.29219/fnr.v63.3410 Health-related messages in the labeling of processed meat products: a market evaluation <p><strong>Background</strong>: Food labeling is an important communication tool for the exposure of nutrition information in foods.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The presence of labeling messages related to nutrients, health properties, allergens, and additives in meat products marketed in Spain was analyzed in this work. The data collection was done through the web pages of six Spanish meat industries, and 642 products were gathered. The following labeling information was collected: the presence of nutrition claims, the presence of health claims, messages indicating the absence of additives, and those reporting the absence or presence of allergenic substances.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: A total of 1,254 messages were found with the following distribution: 72% were related to the presence/ absence of allergens, 19% were nutrition claims, 8% were messages related to the absence of additives, and only 0.4% were health claims. Fat was the nutrient most frequently referred in the nutrition claims, accounting for a 63.5% of this type of claims, with the expression ‘low-fat’, as the most used (42% of total nutrition claims). Prevalence of processed meat products that showed nutrition claims was 29%, whereas the percentage of products that showed information about allergenic compounds was 83%.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: This work provides information about the presence of health-related messages in a high number of meat products, which could be useful as a tool for marketing purposes or for consumer trends evaluation studies.</p> Diana Ansorena Sandivel Cama Marta Alejandre Iciar Astiasaran ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-02 2019-05-02 10.29219/fnr.v63.3358 Suppressive effect of glycyrrhizic acid against lipopolysaccharideinduced neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment in C57 mice via toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway <p><strong>Background</strong>: Glycyrrhizinic acid (GA), a major active ingredient enriched in the roots of licorice, possesses well-confirmed anti-inflammatory effects.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To evaluate the underlying mechanisms of GA against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced chronic neuroinflammation and memory impairment.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: We explored to investigate the effects of GA on neuroinflammation and memory impairment in an LPS-induced Alzheimer’s mouse model.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Data of micro-PET/CT imaging and morris water maze test suggested that GA, when administrated orally, could reverse LPS-induced abnormalized glucose intake and metabolism in the brain and alleviate LPS-induced memory loss and cognitive defects in mice. Histological and immunohistochemical staining results revealed that GA treatment suppressed overexpressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines of IL-1 β and TNF-α in the brain of C57 mice by inhibiting toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway activation.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Our findings suggest that GA may be a therapeutic agent for the treatment of neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment.</p> Wenfeng Liu Shun Huang Yonglian Li Kun Zhang Xi Zheng ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-29 2019-04-29 10.29219/fnr.v63.1516 Antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiproliferative activitybased comparative study of peel and flesh polyphenols from <em>Actinidia chinensis</em> <p><strong>Background</strong>: Kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) peel has been always considered as useless because of the harsh taste. To promote the full utilization of kiwifruit resources it is essential to explore the nutritional benefits of kiwifruit peel.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: Our studies explored the difference in polyphenolic composition and biological activity including antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiproliferative activity of the flesh and peel of kiwifruit.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: Antioxidant activity of the extracted polyphenols of the peel and flesh of A. chinensis was checked by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2’-azino-bis3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS), hydroxyl ion reduction, and ion chelating ability. Antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus and antiproliferative activity against HepG2 was tested in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) chromatogram of the peel and flesh further differentiated the phenolic acid profile.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The pericarp of kiwifruit was found to be more abundant in polyphenols and flavonoids than the flesh, with contents of 12.8 mg/g and 2.7 mg/g, respectively. LC/MS analysis revealed that the catachin, quercetin and epigallocatechin content (the main polyphenols in kiwifruit) in the peel was significantly higher than in the flesh (P &lt; 0.05). The antioxidant and antibacterial activity of the peel was significantly higher when compared to the flesh. Moreover, the proliferation of HepG2 cells was time- and dose-dependently inhibited by kiwifruit polyphenols, with IC50 values of 170 μg/mL and 291 μg/mL for peel and flesh polyphenols after 72 h of treatment time, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Kiwifruit peel, with higher content of phenolics and flavonoids, exerts more potent antioxidant, antibacterial, and anticancer activity than the flesh. Our study provides scientific evidence for the development of kiwifruit, especially peel-based, novel natural products with excellent bioactivity.</p> Aamina Alim Ting LI Tanzeela Nisar Daoyuan Ren Xichuan Zhai Yaxing Pang Xingbin Yang ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-26 2019-04-26 10.29219/fnr.v63.1577 Pomegranate peel polyphenols inhibits inflammation in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages via the suppression of TLR4/NF-κB pathway activation <p><strong>Backgrounds</strong>: Inflammatory response mediated by activated immune cells is a vital process in host defense system while responding to various stresses. Our previous studies have indicated that pomegranate peel polyphenols (PPPs) and their main components punicalagin (PC) and ellagic acid (EA) decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory mediators by regulating the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathway, but whether these tested polyphenols play an important role in NF-κB signaling pathway, another crucial pathway of inflammation, remains unclear.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: In this study, we analyzed the anti-inflammatory effect of these polyphenols via TLR4-NF-κB pathway in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 macrophages.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Different concentrations of PPPs, PC, and EA were pre-incubated with RAW264.7 macrophages and then stimulated with LPS (1 μg/mL), and the effects of reactive oxygen species and TLR4 were investigated. Moreover, NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation and phosphorylation, and degradation of IκB were measured by Western blot. Furthermore, the influence of pro-inflammatory cytokines was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Our data showed that PPPs, PC, and EA inhibited LPS-induced intracellular ROS production and suppressed the mRNA and protein expression levels of TLR4 in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory mechanism was involved in blocking LPS-induced phosphorylation, degradation of IκB, and nuclear translocation of p65. Additionally, PPPs and PC exhibited a stronger anti-inflammatory effect than that of EA.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The results indicated that PPPs possess potent anti-inflammatory effect, and PC was the main effective component in PPPs, which provided new insights into the utilization of PPPs to prevent inflammation- associated disorders.</p> Lin Du Jianke Li Xitong Zhang Lifang Wang Weimin Zhang Mi Yang Chen Hou ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-23 2019-04-23 10.29219/fnr.v63.3392 Chrysanthemum extract attenuates hepatotoxicity via inhibiting oxidative stress <em>in vivo</em> and <em>in vitro</em> <p><strong>Background</strong>: ‘<em>Bianliang ziyu</em>’, a famous chrysanthemum variety commonly planted in Kaifeng, China, is often consumed by local residents. However, the hepatoprotective effects of Bianliang ziyu and their underlying mechanisms are not clear.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: In this study, we investigated the hepatoprotective and antioxidative effects of Bianliang ziyu extract (BZE) on liver injury and explored its molecular mechanisms.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: Sprague-Dawley rats were administered BZE by intragastric administration for 8–9 days, and then alcohol or carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) was administered by gavage to induce acute liver injury. The activities of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, superoxide dismutase, and malondialdehyde in the rats were measured, and the liver of each rat was examined for histopathological changes. In vitro, HL-7702 cells were pretreated with BZE for 24 h and then exposed to 30 mmol•L−1 acetaminophen (APAP) for 12 h. The survival rate of the cells and the alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities were determined. Then, we investigated the effects of BZE on oxidative stress, apoptosis, and the activation of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling in HL-7702 cells induced by APAP.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The results showed that BZE prevented alcohol-, CCl4-, and APAP-induced liver injury and suppressed hepatic oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo. BZE was also observed to significantly inhibit the reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential and regulate the expression of Bcl-2, Bax and Caspase-3 in APAP-induced HL-7702 cells. In addition, BZE significantly promoted nuclear translocation and the expression of Nrf2 as well as its downstream gene hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) in vitro. Furthermore, the findings showed that Nrf2 siRNA reversed the effects of BZE on cell survival and apoptosis-related protein expression in APAP-induced HL-7702 cells.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: BZE plays an important role in preventing hepatotoxicity by inhibiting oxidative stress and apoptosis through activation of Nrf2 signaling. BZE could be developed as an effective functional food for protecting the liver.</p> Zixia Tian Haiyan Jia Yuezhen Jin Minghui Wang Jiejian Kou Chunli Wang Xuli Rong Xinmei Xie Guang Han Xiaobin Pang ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-15 2019-04-15 10.29219/fnr.v63.1667 Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis and phase angle in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy <p><strong>Background</strong>: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a disease characterized by progressive loss of functional muscle mass followed by changes in body composition.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: This study aimed to describe and evaluate bioimpedance parameters in boys with DMD. Design: This cross-sectional, descriptive study investigated children and adolescents diagnosed with DMD. Age, weight, height, resistance, and reactance data were collected. Phase angle and bioelectrical impedance vector analysis were calculated based on resistance and reactance values.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: We analyzed 43 boys aged between 2.7 and 19.8 years. Low-phase angle values were observed during the investigation of bioimpedance parameters. Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis showed that approximately 87% of the subjects presented vectors outside the tolerance ellipses, and only one patient presented vectors located within the 50% tolerance ellipse, indicating normally hydrated and a good body cell mass. Compared with the reference population, boys with DMD had lower levels of body cell mass.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Based on the evidence, compared with the reference population, patients with DMD had lower levels of body cell mass. This evidence points to bioimpedance parameters as useful tools for the nutritional evaluation and clinical management of patients with DMD.</p> Karina M. Vermeulen Márcia M.G.D. Lopes Evellyn C. Grilo Camila X. Alves Richele J.A. Machado Lucia L. Lais José Brandão-Neto Sancha H.L. Vale ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-10 2019-04-10 10.29219/fnr.v63.1615 Nutritional properties and biological activities of kiwifruit (<em>Actinidia</em>) and kiwifruit products under simulated gastrointestinal <em>in vitro</em> digestion <p><strong>Background</strong>: Kiwifruit is one of the most commercialized fruits on the international market, which has notable high nutritional and medicinal value with many health benefits. In addition to being consumed fresh, numerous kiwifruit products are popular, such as kiwifruit juice, vinegar, dried slices, jam, wine, yogurt, and jelly. Although many studies have described the nutritional properties of kiwifruit, investigations on the nutritional properties of kiwifruit products remain limited, especially for kiwifruit products made from raw kiwifruit.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Nutritional properties and biological activities of kiwifruit and kiwifruit products, as well as the digestive and absorption characteristics of their nutritional substances, were investigated.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Kiwifruit, juice, wine, and vinegar were observed to be rich in vitamin C (VC) and polyphenol and exhibited high biological activities, whereas dried kiwifruit slices and jam showed higher amounts of mineral elements. During oral digestion, VC and polyphenol showed similar absorption characteristics, while mineral elements exhibited a number of different trends. A good release rate of all nutritional substances was observed during stomach digestion, while the release rate decreased in serum-available, colon-available, and post-colonic fractions. Eating dried slices and jam supplied high amounts of mineral elements, while eating kiwifruit supplied the most comprehensive nutritional substances. The biological activities detected in raw foodstuffs were much higher than those detected after in vitro digestion. Furthermore, kiwifruit and wine showed the highest biological activities, while dried kiwifruit slices showed the lowest biological activities.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: These results increased our understanding of the nutritional properties of kiwifruit and its products, providing new information and scientific recommendations to consumers for kiwifruit consumption and to producers for kiwifruit production.</p> Tingting Ma Tian Lan Tonghui Geng Yanlun Ju Guo Cheng Zhiluo Que Guitian Gao Yulin Fang Xiangyu Sun ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-08 2019-04-08 10.29219/fnr.v63.1674 Childhood obesity in relation to sweet taste perception and dental caries – a cross-sectional multicenter study <p><strong>Background</strong>: Obesity is a multifactorial disease that is increasing worldwide and is caused by different environmental and genetic factors, with an increase in the consumption of high-energy–containing food and a decrease in physical activity constituting two of the main reasons. Sweet taste perception may have an effect on the subject’s dietary choices and affect his or her predisposition to obesity.</p> <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: The aim was to study the sweet taste perception and dental caries in relation to body mass index (BMI) in 13–15-year-old schoolchildren from three different countries and to compare the BMI among the countries.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: The sweet taste perception level, determined as the sweet taste threshold and preference, was assessed in a total of 669 schoolchildren from Italy, Mexico and Saudi Arabia, examined in school settings. Height and weight were collected and BMI was calculated, after which the children were grouped as underweight, normal, overweight, and obese. For caries registration, the International Caries Detection and Assessment System and Decayed Missing Filled Surfaces indices were used.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: A statistically significant difference was found for BMI among the children from the three countries (p &lt; 0.001), with the highest mean found among Saudi children, followed by Mexican and Italian children. A statistically significant difference regarding sweet taste threshold when comparing the BMI groups was only found for Saudi Arabia (p &lt; 0.01). No significant correlation was found between BMI and sweet taste threshold or preference and dental caries variables, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: BMI was found to differ between countries, with a further significant difference among the groups among the Saudi Arabia schoolchildren.</p> Heba Ashi Guglielmo Campus Gunilla Klingberg Heléne Bertéus Forslund Peter Lingström ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-04 2019-04-04 10.29219/fnr.v63.1682 Effect of chronic administration of arachidonic acid on the performance of learning and memory in aged rats <p><strong>Background</strong>: Arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4, ω-6) is a ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and plays diverse roles in cell signaling. Numerous reports on the effects of ω-3 PUFAs, such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6, ω-3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5, ω-3) on learning and memory impairments of rats are available, however, the role of AA on brain cognition is largely unknown.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: In this study, our aim was to investigate the effect of oral administration of AA on spatial memory- related learning ability in aged (100 weeks) male rats.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: One group was per orally administered 240 mg/kg per day AA oil and the other group was administered the similar volume of control oil. Five weeks after the start of the administration, rats were tested with the partially baited eight-arm radial maze to evaluate two types of spatial memory-related learning ability displayed by reference memory errors (RMEs) and working memory errors (WMEs). Also, the time required to complete the task was recorded. The levels of lipid peroxide (LPO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured, as an indicator oxidative stress in the plasma and brain corticohippocampal brain tissues.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The scores of RMEs and WMEs, which are analogous to long-term and short-term memory, respectively, were not affected, however, the trial time was shorter in the AA-administered rats than that of the controls. AA also significantly increased the degree of oxidative stress both in the plasma and corticohippocampal brain tissues.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Our results suggest that though AA deposition in the corticohippocampal tissues of senescent rats caused a faster performance activity, which is reminiscent to hyperactive behavior of animals, the spatial learning ability-related memory of the rats, however, was not improved.</p> Takayuki Inoue Michio Hashimoto Masanori Katakura Shahdat Hossain Kentaro Matsuzaki Osamu Shido ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-25 2019-03-25 10.29219/fnr.v63.1441 Cod protein powder lowered serum nonesterified fatty acids and increased total bile acid concentrations in healthy, lean, physically active adults: a randomized double-blind study <p><strong>Background</strong>: Fish fillet consumption is associated with beneficial health effects; however, little is known about whether consuming other parts of the fish such as head, backbone, skin, cut-offs, and entrails (collectively known as residuals) will provide comparable effects.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The aim of the study was to investigate if daily supplementation with cod residual protein powder would impact lipid metabolism in healthy adults.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Forty healthy, lean, physically active participants (18 women, 22 men) with normal body mass index consumed 8.1 g of proteins daily from cod residual protein powder (Cod-RP) or placebo (control) for 8 weeks.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Cod residual protein powder supplementation lowered fasting serum nonesterified fatty acids and increased serum total bile acid concentrations significantly when compared with control supplementation. Fasting serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein (Apo) B concentrations, as well as the total cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and ApoB:ApoA1 ratios, were significantly decreased within the Cod-RP group, but these changes were not different from the control group. Fasting serum concentrations of triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and ApoA1 were not changed within or between groups.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Eight weeks of daily supplementation with 8.1 g Cod-RP seems to be sufficient to affect lipid metabolism in healthy, lean, physically active adults.</p> Iselin Vildmyren Alfred Halstensen Åge Oterhals Oddrun A. Gudbrandsen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-11 2019-03-11 10.29219/fnr.v63.3437 Enhancement of glucose and bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats fed with germinated pigmented rice with giant embryo (<em>Oryza sativa</em> L. cv. Keunnunjami) <p><strong>Background</strong>: Menopause induces various metabolic disorders due to the rapid decrease of the ovarian hormone estrogen. It is involved in increased risk of obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and osteoporosis. The pigmented giant embryo cultivar is a promising food product for menopause-induced metabolic disorders.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The effects of non-germinated and germinated Keunnunjami, a new blackish purple pigmented rice with a giant embryo, on glucose and bone metabolisms in ovariectomized rats were investigated.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: The animals were fed with normal control diet (NC group) or control diet supplemented with either non-germinated Keunnunjami (KN group) or germinated Keunnunjami (GKN group) powder for 8 weeks.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The blood glucose and plasma insulin levels, adipokine concentrations, hepatic glucose-regulating enzyme activities, and bone resorption biomarker levels significantly decreased in KN and GKN groups compared to those of the control animals.</p> <p><strong>Discussion</strong>: These findings illustrate that GKN group showed greater hypoglycemic activity and lower bone resorption than KN group, suggesting that germination could further improve the physiological property of Keunnunjami.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Germinated Keunnunjami may have therapeutic potential against hyperglycemia and bone turnover imbalance caused by menopause.</p> Soo Im Chung Xingyue Jin Mi Young Kang ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-06 2019-03-06 10.29219/fnr.v63.1612 Seasonality in associations between dietary diversity scores and nutrient adequacy ratios among pregnant women in rural Malawi – a cross-sectional study <p><strong>Background</strong>: Dietary diversity scores (DDS) are simple indicators often used as proxies for nutrient adequacy. A 10-food group indicator is proposed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations as a global standard for measuring dietary diversity among women in low-resource settings. However, its validity as a proxy for nutrient adequacy across different agricultural seasons for pregnant women has not been determined.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: We studied associations between DDS and nutrient adequacy ratios (NAR) across two different agricultural seasons (pre- and post-harvest seasons) for pregnant women in rural Malawi and assessed whether a 1-day DDS or a 3-day DDS would be the best indicator of nutrient adequacy.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: Dietary intakes of 330 pregnant women were assessed between gestational weeks 28 and 35. Intakes of energy, macronutrients, and 11 micronutrients were estimated using three repeated interactive 24-h diet recalls, and DDS were also calculated from these days. Correlation coefficients (r) between DDS, NAR, and mean adequacy ratio (MAR) of the 11 micronutrients were determined.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: After energy adjustments, we found significant correlations between DDS and MAR with both DDS indicators in the preharvest season (r = 0.22–0.23; p &lt; 0.001) but not in the post-harvest season (p &gt; 0.05). For individual energy-adjusted NARs, correlations were not consistently significant across the two seasons and the two DDS indicators.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Our results suggest that DDS could be used to predict overall nutrient adequacy during the preharvest season. As similar correlations were found using both the 1- and 3-day indicators, we recommend using a 1-day DDS, for simplicity. However, as the indicators are sensitive to seasonality they should be used with care in this study setting.</p> Katrine G. Hjertholm Gerd Holmboe-Ottesen Per O. Iversen Ibrahimu Mdala Alister Munthali Kenneth Maleta Zumin Shi Elaine Ferguson Penjani Kamudoni ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-27 2019-02-27 10.29219/fnr.v63.2712 Cereal fiber improves blood cholesterol profiles and modulates intestinal cholesterol metabolism in C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet <p><strong>Background</strong>: Dietary intake of cereal fiber has been reported to benefit lipid metabolism through multiple mechanisms. The present study aimed to discover the potential mechanisms by which cereal fiber could modify the intestinal cholesterol metabolism.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a reference chow (RC) diet; high-fat, high-cholesterol (HFC) diet; HFC plus oat fiber diet; or HFC plus wheat bran fiber diet for 24 weeks. Serum lipids were measured by enzymatic methods. Western blot was used to determine the protein expressions involved in intestinal cholesterol metabolism.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Our results showed that HFC-induced elevations of serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were normalized in both groups that received cereal fiber. At the protein level, compared with the HFC diet group, the two cereal fibers, especially the oat fiber, significantly increased the protein expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, liver X receptor alpha, sterol regulatory element- binding protein (SREBP) 2, low-density lipoprotein receptor, adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette A1, and ATP-binding cassette G1, while decreasing the protein expression of Niemann-Pick C1-like protein 1, SREBP-1, fatty acid synthase, and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase, which were involved in intestinal cholesterol metabolism.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Taken together, increased intake of cereal fiber improved blood cholesterol profiles and increased the intestinal cholesterol efflux and cholesterol clearance in C57BL/6 mice fed a HFC diet. Oat fiber had a stronger effect than wheat bran fiber on cholesterol metabolism by modulating the PPARα, LXRα, and SREBP signaling pathways.</p> Shufen Han Wei Zhang Ru Zhang Jun Jiao Chunling Fu Xing Tong Weiguo Zhang Liqiang Qin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-25 2019-02-25 10.29219/fnr.v63.1591 The extent, nature, and nutritional quality of foods advertised to children in Lebanon: the first study to use the WHO nutrient profile model for the Eastern Mediterranean Region <p><strong>Objective</strong>: Exposure to food marketing may influence children’s food preferences and consumption patterns and may increase the risk of childhood obesity. The WHO Office for the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) has recently released a regional nutrient profile model (WHO EMR) for the purpose of regulating the marketing of food and beverages to children. This study aimed at 1) analyzing the frequency and types of food and drink advertisements during children’s viewing time in Lebanon; 2) examining the nutritional content of the advertised food products in reference to the nutrient thresholds specified by the WHO EMR model; and 3) assessing the proportion of food advertisements that included health messages.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: This study consisted of a cross-sectional content analysis of food advertisements on local TV channels, during children’s viewing time. Setting: Three local Lebanese channels with the highest viewership among 4- to 14-year-olds were selected. Recorded broadcasts (September 2016 through January 2017) were analyzed between 3 pm and 10 pm on weekdays and between 8 am and 10 pm on weekend days.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Approximately 31% of advertisements were for foods or drinks. The proportion of food advertisements was the highest during children’s programs (43%) compared to general viewing (32%) and parental guidance (29%) programs. Approximately 8 out of 10 food advertisements were for products that did not meet the standards of the WHO EMR model. Of concern was the heavy advertisement of alcoholic beverages during programs for general audiences. The majority of the advertisements that comprised a health claim were for foods that did not meet the WHO EMR’s nutritional standards (79%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: The findings of this study, which is the first to utilize the new WHO EMR profile model, should be viewed as a foundation for the development of food marketing policies aimed at reducing children’s exposure to TV food advertisements in Lebanon, a country that harbors a high burden of childhood obesity.</p> Lara Nasreddine Mandy Taktouk Massar Dabbous Jad Melki ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-19 2019-02-19 <em>Ganoderma lucidum</em> polysaccharide improves rat DSS-induced colitis by altering cecal microbiota and gene expression of colonic epithelial cells <p><strong>Background</strong>: The effects of β-glucan on colitis mice are contradictory in previous reports. As a result, it is still unclear whether there is an anti-colitis effect in Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide (GLP), which is mainly composed of β-glucan. Moreover, the association between GLP function and gut microbiota remains to be elucidated.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: This study aimed to investigate whether GLP consumption improved rat dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis by regulating gut microbiota and altering colonic epithelial expression.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: The disease activity index (DAI) scores and the cecal short chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels of DSS-induced colitis rats fed with a GLP diet (Group GLP, n = 6) and a control diet (Group Con, n = 6) were investigated and analyzed. Moreover, the profiles of gut microbiota and colonic epithelial expression were analyzed using metagenomics and transcriptomics.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: GLP consumption significantly lowered animal DAI scores by producing more SCFAs by increasing SCFA-producing bacteria such as Ruminococcus_1 and reducing pathogens such as Escherichia-Shigella in both the small intestine and cecum of rat. Moreover, GLP consumption regulated 11 genes, including six upregulated (Ccl5, Cd3e, Cd8a, Il21r, Lck, and Trbv) and five downregulated (Ccl3, Gro, Il11, Mhc2, and Ptgs) genes enriched in six inflammation-related Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways, resulting in enhancement of immunity and reduction of inflammatory response and colonic cancer risk.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: GLP consumption alleviated DSS-induced colitis and may have potential for ulcerative colitis relief.</p> Jinli Xie Yanghanxiu Liu Bohui Chen Guangwen Zhang Shiyi Ou Jianming Luo Xichun Peng ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-12 2019-02-12 10.29219/fnr.v63.1559 Determinants of dietary diversity among women of reproductive age in two different agro-ecological zones of Rongai Sub-County, Nakuru, Kenya <p><strong>Background: </strong>&nbsp;Empirical evidence on the link between agro-biodiversity and dietary diversity appears to be inconclusive. Thus, arises a need to determine other factors that could significantly influence dietary diversity in different agro-ecological zones as factors may vary from region to region.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: This study assessed the determinants of dietary diversity (DD) among women of reproductive age in two different agro-ecological zones of Rongai Sub-County in Kenya; with agrobiodiversity being the main independent predictor.</p> <p><strong>Design:</strong> A cross-sectional study targeting 400 women aged 18-49 years was conducted. Agro-biodiversity was measured using Shannon-Wiener index, species richness/count and production diversity score. A 24-hour dietary recall was used to determine minimum dietary diversity for women (MDD-W) of reproductive age.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Although the level of agrobiodiversity was different between the low and high agro-ecological zones (using Shannon-Wiener index); the women dietary diversity was not different (P&gt;0.05) between low (3.78 ± 0.99) and high potential areas (3.84 ± 1.05). In multivariate logistic regression, there was no association (P&gt;0.05) between agro-biodiversity indicators and dietary diversity across the two agricultural zones. Other factors influenced dietary diversity and varied across the two agro-ecological zones. In low potential areas, women education level positively influenced dietary diversity while in high potential areas household gender, women education level, woman’s age and household size influenced MDD-W.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This paper informs that factors other than agrobiodiversity influenced dietary diversity among women of reproductive age and these determinants varied across the agro-ecological zones. Therefore, it is recommended that nutrition interventions focusing on lessening malnutrition and improving dietary quality should pay special attention to differences in agro-ecological zones to develop region specific interventions instead of generalized interventions.</p> Maureen Wanjiru Gitagia Rose Chepchirchir Ramkat Dorothy M Mituki Celine Termote Namukolo Covic Maureen Jepkorir Cheserek ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-18 2019-01-18 10.29219/fnr.v63.1553 <em>In vitro</em> and <em>in vivo</em> antitumour effects of coconut water vinegar on 4T1 breast cancer cells <p><strong>Background</strong>: Coconut water and vinegars have been reported to possess potential anti-tumour and immunostimulatory effects. However, the anti-tumour, anti-inflammatory and immunostimulatory effects of coconut water vinegar have yet to be tested.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: This study investigated the <em>in vitro</em> and <em>in vivo</em> anti-tumour effects of coconut water vinegar on 4T1 breast cancer cells. Methods: The 4T1 cells were treated with freeze-dried coconut water vinegar and subjected to MTT cell viability, BrdU, annexin V/PI apoptosis, cell cycle and wound healing assays for the<em> in vitro</em> analysis. For the in vivo chemopreventive evaluation, mice challenged with 4T1 cells were treated with 0.08or 2.00 mL/kg body weight of fresh coconut water vinegar for 28 days. Tumour weight, apoptosis of tumour cells, metastasis and immunity of untreated mice and coconut water vinegar-treated 4T1 challenged mice were compared.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Freeze-dried coconut water vinegar reduced the cell viability, induced apoptosis and delayed the wound healing effect of 4T1 cells <em>in vitro</em>. <em>In vivo</em>, coconut water vinegar delayed 4T1 breast cancer progression in mice by inducing apoptosis and delaying the metastasis. Furthermore, coconut water vinegar also promoted immune cell cytotoxicity and production of anticancer cytokines. The results indicate that coconut water vinegar delays breast cancer progression by inducing apoptosis in breast cancer cells, suppressing metastasis and activating anti-tumour immunity.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Coconut water vinegar is a potential health food ingredient with a chemopreventive effect.</p> Nurul Elyani Mohamad Swee Keong Yeap Nadiah Abu Kian Lam Lim Nur Rizi Zamberi Noraini Nordin Shaiful Adzni Sharifuddin Kamariah Long Noorjahan Banu Alitheen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-10 2019-01-10 10.29219/fnr.v63.1616