Food & Nutrition Research https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr <p>As one of the first Open Access journals in its field,&nbsp;<em>Food &amp; Nutrition Research&nbsp;</em>(FNR) offers an important forum for researchers to exchange the latest results from research on human nutrition broadly and food-related nutrition in particular. FNR is widely indexed by relevant services and databases, including PubMed Central/PubMed, Scopus, Science Citation Index, with an&nbsp;<strong>Impact Factor of 3.89 (2020)</strong>.</p> en-US <p><span style="color: #4b7d92;">Authors retain copyright of their work, with first publication rights granted to SNF Swedish Nutrition Foundation. Read the full <a href="https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/oapolicy">Copyright- and Licensing Statement</a>.</span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> anneli.hovstadius@snf.ideon.se (The Food & Nutrition Research Editorial Team) veronica.svard@openacademia.net (Veronica Svärd) Mon, 03 Jan 2022 12:42:18 -0800 OJS 3.1.2.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Protein intake in children and growth and risk of overweight or obesity: A systematic review and meta-analysis https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/8242 <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objectives:</em></strong>&nbsp;The aim of this study was to examine the evidence for an association between the dietary protein intake in children and the growth and risk of overweight or obesity up to 18 years of age in settings relevant for the Nordic countries.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong>&nbsp;We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Scopus up to February 26, 2021 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or prospective cohort studies assessing for protein intake from foods (total and from different sources) in children. The outcomes include weight, height/length, adiposity indices, and/or risk of overweight and/or obesity. The risk of bias was evaluated with instruments for each respective design (Cochrane’s Risk of Bias 2.0 and RoB-NObS). A meta-analysis of five cohort studies was performed. The evidence was classified according to the criteria of the World Cancer Research Fund.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results:</em></strong>&nbsp;The literature search resulted in 9,132 abstracts, of which 55 papers were identified as potentially relevant. In total, 21 studies from 27 publications were included, of which five were RCTs and 16 were cohort studies. The RCTs found generally null effects of high-protein intake in infants on weight gain, nor that lower protein diets negatively affected growth. All included RCTs had some concern regarding the risk of bias and were limited by small sample sizes. Total protein intake and BMI were assessed in 12 cohorts, of which 11 found positive associations. The meta-analysis revealed a pooled effect estimate of 0.06 (95% CI 0.03, 0.1) kg/m<sup>2</sup>&nbsp;BMI per one E% increment in total protein (<em>I</em><sup>2</sup>&nbsp;= 15.5). Therefore, the evidence for a positive relationship between total protein intake and BMI was considered&nbsp;<em>probable</em>. Furthermore, there was&nbsp;<em>probable</em>&nbsp;evidence for an association between higher intake of animal protein and increased BMI. There was&nbsp;<em>limited, suggestive</em>&nbsp;evidence for an effect of total protein intake and higher risk of overweight and/or obesity, while no conclusions could be made on the associations between animal vs. plant protein intake and risk of overweight and/or obesity.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Discussion:</em></strong>&nbsp;In healthy, well-nourished children of Western populations, there is probably a causal relationship between a high-protein intake in early childhood (≤ 18 months) – particularly protein of animal origin – and higher BMI later in childhood, with consistent findings across cohort studies. A lack of RCTs precluded a stronger grading of the evidence.</p> Erik Kristoffer Arnesen, Birna Thorisdottir, Christel Lamberg-Allardt, Linnea Bärebring, Bright Nwaru, Jutta Dierkes, Alfons Ramel, Agneta Åkesson Copyright (c) 2022 Erik Kristoffer Arnesen, Birna Thorisdottir, Christel Lamberg-Allardt, Linnea Bärebring, Bright Nwaru, Jutta Dierkes, Alfons Ramel, Agneta Åkesson https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/8242 Mon, 21 Feb 2022 12:55:34 -0800 Capsaicin regulates lipid metabolism through modulation of bile acid/gut microbiota metabolism in high-fat-fed SD rats https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/8289 <p><span style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">Capsaicin (CAP) is one of the active ingredients found in chili peppers and has been shown to reduce fat. This study aimed to explore the mechanisms of CAP activity by investigating intestinal microorganisms and bile acids (BAs). This study utilized 16S RNA sequencing to detect gut microbiota in cecal contents, and BAs in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were also investigated. The results showed that 1) CAP increased the levels of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), deoxycholic acid (DCA), β-muricholic acid (β-MCA), and tauro-β-muricholic acid sodium salt (T-β-MCA), which can regulate farnesoid X receptor (FXR) to inhibit Fgf15, increased CYP7A1 expression to lower triglycerides (TG) and total cholesterol (TC); 2) CAP decreased the abundance of&nbsp;</span><em style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Firmicutes</em><span style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">&nbsp;and promoted the presence of specific fermentative bacterial populations, like&nbsp;</span><em style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Akkermansia</em><span style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">; meanwhile, less optimal dose can reduce&nbsp;</span><em style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Desulfovibrio</em><span style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">; 3) CAP decreased inflammatory factors IL-6 and IL-1β, and increased transient receptor potential channel of vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) to regulate lipid metabolism, fasting plasma glucose and insulin resistance. In conclusion, CAP can reduce fat accumulation by regulating BAs, microorganisms, and short-chain fatty acids.</span></p> Ting Gong, Haizhu Wang, Shanli Liu, Min Zhang, Xiong Liu Copyright (c) 2022 Ting Gong, Haizhu Wang, Shanli Liu, Min Zhang, Xiong Liu https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/8289 Thu, 26 May 2022 15:24:41 -0700 Troxerutin alleviates kidney injury in rats via PI3K/AKT pathway by enhancing MAP4 expression https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/8469 <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Troxerutin is a flavonoid compound and possesses potential anti-cancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. Besides, cisplatin is one of the most widely used therapeutic agents, but the clinical uses of cisplatin are often associated with multiple side effects, among which nephrotoxicity is more common.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective and design</em>:</strong>&nbsp;This study explored the protective effects of troxerutin (150 mg kg<sup>−1</sup>&nbsp;day<sup>−1</sup>&nbsp;for 14 days) against cisplatin-induced kidney injury and the potential mechanism using Wistar rats as an experimental mammalian model.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results</em>:</strong>&nbsp;We discovered that troxerutin could significantly alleviate cisplatin-induced renal dysfunction, such as increased levels of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine (<em>P</em>&nbsp;&lt; 0.01), as well as improved abnormal renal tissue microstructure and ultrastructure. Additionally, troxerutin significantly decreased malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>), NO, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) levels (<em>P &lt;</em>&nbsp;0.01), p-NF-κB p65/NF-κB p65, TNF-α, Pro-IL-1β, IL-6, B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2)/Bcl-xl associated death promoter (Bad), Cytochrome C (Cyt C), Cleaved-caspase 9, Cleaved-caspase 3, and Cleaved-caspase 8 protein levels (<em>P &lt;</em>&nbsp;0.01) in the kidney tissues of cisplatin-treated rats; and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) activities (<em>P &lt;</em>&nbsp;0.01), IL-10, Bcl-2 protein levels (<em>P &lt;</em>&nbsp;0.01).</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusion</em>:</strong>&nbsp;These results suggested that the underlying mechanism might be attributed to the regulation of Phosphoinositide 3 kinase/Protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) pathway via enhancing MAP4 expression to attenuate cellular apoptosis, alleviating oxidative stress and inflammatory response.</p> Tongxu Guan, Yingce Zheng, Shengzi Jin, Shuang Wang, Mengxin Hu, Xingyao Liu, Siqi Huang, Yun Liu Copyright (c) 2022 Tongxu Guan, Yingce Zheng, Shengzi Jin, Shuang Wang, Mengxin Hu, Xingyao Liu, Siqi Huang, Yun Liu https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/8469 Tue, 24 May 2022 00:00:00 -0700 Kimchi improves irritable bowel syndrome: results of a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/8268 <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) can be caused by abnormal bowel movements, altered brain-gut axis, gut microbiota change, and low levels of inflammation or immune activation. The intake of food containing much fiber and lactic acid bacteria (LABs) can alleviate IBS.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective</em>:</strong>&nbsp;This study was undertaken to confirm the alleviative effect of kimchi on symptoms of IBS.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Design</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Three types of kimchi (standard kimchi, SK; dead nano-sized&nbsp;<em>Lactobacillus plantarum</em>&nbsp;nF1 (nLp) added to standard kimchi, nLpSK; or functional kimchi, FK) were given to 30 individuals in each of three groups, that is, the SK group (<em>n</em>&nbsp;= 30), the nLpSK group (<em>n</em>&nbsp;= 30), or the FK group (<em>n</em>&nbsp;= 30) at 210 g a day for 12 weeks. Food intake records, serum levels of inflammatory factors, fecal levels of harmful enzymes, and microbiome changes were investigated over the 12-week study period.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results</em>:</strong>&nbsp;After intervention, dietary fiber intake was increased in all groups. Typical IBS symptoms (abdominal pain or inconvenience, desperation, incomplete evacuation, and bloating), defecation time, and stool type were also improved. In serum, all groups showed reductions in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (<em>P</em>&nbsp;&lt; 0.001) levels. In addition, serum IL-4 (<em>P</em>&nbsp;&lt; 0.001), IL-10 (<em>P</em>&nbsp;&lt; 0.001), and IL-12 (<em>P</em>&nbsp;&lt; 0.01) were significantly reduced in the nLpSK and FK groups, and serum monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 (<em>P</em>&nbsp;&lt; 0.05) was significantly reduced in the nLpSK group. Furthermore, activities of fecal β-glucosidase and β-glucuronidase were significantly decreased in all three groups, and these reductions were greatest in the nLpSK group. Gut microbiome analysis showed that kimchi consumption increased Firmicutes populations at the expense of Bacteroidetes and Tenericutes populations. In addition, the&nbsp;<em>Bifidobacterium adolescentis</em>&nbsp;population increased significantly in the FK group (<em>P</em>&nbsp;= 0.026).</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusion</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Kimchi intake helps alleviate IBS by increasing dietary fiber intake and reducing serum inflammatory cytokine levels and harmful fecal enzyme activities. Notably, nLp improved the immune system, and several functional ingredients in FK promoted the growth of&nbsp;<em>Bifidobacterium adolescentis</em>&nbsp;in gut.</p> Hee-Young Kim, Eui-Seong Park, Young Sik Choi, Seun Ja Park, Jae Hyun Kim, Hee Kyung Chang, Kun-Young Park Copyright (c) 2022 Hee-Young Kim, Eui-Seong Park, Young Sik Choi, Seun Ja Park, Jae Hyun Kim, Hee Kyung Chang, Kun-Young Park https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/8268 Mon, 23 May 2022 11:59:56 -0700 <em>Lactobacillus plantarum</em> FRT4 alleviated obesity by modulating gut microbiota and liver metabolome in high-fat diet-induced obese mice https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7974 <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Obesity has become a global epidemic recognized by the World Health Organization. Probiotics supplementation has been shown to contribute to improve lipid metabolism. However, mechanisms of action of probiotics against obesity are still not clear.&nbsp;<em>Lactobacillus plantarum</em>&nbsp;FRT4, a probiotic previously isolated from a kind of local yogurt, had good acid and bile salt tolerance and lowered cholesterol&nbsp;<em>in vitro</em>.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective</em>:</strong>&nbsp;This study aimed to evaluate the effect of&nbsp;<em>L. plantarum</em>&nbsp;FRT4 on serum and liver lipid profile, liver metabolomics, and gut microbiota in mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD).</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Design</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Mice were fed with either normal diet or HFD for 16 weeks and administered 0.2 mL of 1 × 10<sup>9</sup>&nbsp;or 1 × 10<sup>10</sup>&nbsp;CFU/mL dosage of&nbsp;<em>L. plantarum</em>&nbsp;FRT4 during the last 8 weeks of the diet. Cecal contents were analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing. Hepatic gene expression and metabolites were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and metabolomics, respectively.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results</em>:</strong>&nbsp;<em>L. plantarum</em>&nbsp;FRT4 intervention significantly reduced the HFD-induced body weight gain, liver weight, fat weight, serum cholesterol, triglyceride, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in the liver (<em>P &lt;</em>&nbsp;0.05). Liver metabolomics demonstrated that the HFD increased choline, glycerophosphocholine, and phosphorylcholine involved in the glycerophospholipid metabolism pathway. All these changes were reversed by FRT4 treatment, bringing the levels close to those in the control group. Further mechanisms showed that FRT4 favorably regulated gut barrier function and pro-inflammatory biomediators. Furthermore, FRT4 intervention altered the gut microbiota profiles and increased microbial diversity. The relative abundances of&nbsp;<em>Bacteroides</em>,&nbsp;<em>Parabateroides</em>,&nbsp;<em>Anaerotruncus</em>,&nbsp;<em>Alistipes</em>,&nbsp;<em>Intestinimonas</em>,&nbsp;<em>Butyicicoccus</em>, and&nbsp;<em>Butyricimonas</em>&nbsp;were significantly upregulated. Finally, Spearman’s correlation analysis revealed that several specific genera were strongly correlated with glycerophospholipid metabolites (<em>P &lt;</em>&nbsp;0.05).</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusions</em>:</strong>&nbsp;These findings suggested that&nbsp;<em>L. plantarum</em>&nbsp;FRT4 had beneficial effects against obesity in HFD-induced obese mice and can be used as a potential functional food for the prevention of obesity.</p> Hongying Cai, Zhiguo Wen, Lulu Zhao, Dali Yu, Kun Meng, Peilong Yang Copyright (c) 2022 Hongying Cai, Zhiguo Wen, Lulu Zhao, Dali Yu, Kun Meng, Peilong Yang https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7974 Mon, 09 May 2022 22:20:20 -0700 Short-term moderate caloric restriction in a high-fat diet alleviates obesity via AMPK/SIRT1 signaling in white adipocytes and liver https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7909 <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background</em></strong>: Obesity is a growing problem for public health worldwide. Calorie restriction (CR) is a safety and effective life intervention to defend against obesity. Short-term moderate CR may be a more favorable strategy against this pathology. However, the mechanisms behind the effects of CR remain to be clarified. Increased energy expenditure in the liver and brown adipose tissue could potentially be manipulated to modulate and improve metabolism in obesity. Moreover, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) are well-characterized metabolic modulators. We aim to explore the anti-obesity effects of short-term moderate CR by improving energy metabolism via the SIRT1/AMPK pathway in white adipocytes and liver in a mouse model of obesity.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Methods</em></strong>: Male C57BL/6 mice were randomized into two groups receiving either a standard or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks to induce obesity. The HFD-induced obese mice were further randomized into two groups: HFD group or CR group (received 75% of the food eaten by HFD group). Their energy metabolism, white adipose tissue (WAT) contents, hepatic fat deposition, the expression of AMPK, SIRT1, peroxisome proliferators γ-activated receptor coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in WAT, and hepatic tissues were determined.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results</em></strong>: After 4 weeks, body weight, total serum cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, and insulin levels were significantly lower in the CR group. Moreover, CR ameliorated hepatocyte steatosis, attenuated white adipogenesis, and increased energy expenditure and expressions of SIRT1, PGC-1α, and phosphorylated AMPK in subcutaneous WAT and the hepatic tissues. In addition, CR reduced the protein levels of NF-κB and increased the eNOS expression.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusion</em></strong>: Short-term moderate CR decreases obesity, increases the thermogenesis, and inhibits inflammation in a mouse model of obesity, probably via the activation of the AMPK/SIRT1 pathway in WAT and liver.</p> Shaohong Zhang, Shuoshuo Sun, Xiao Wei, Mengxiao Zhang, Yu Chen, Xiaodong Mao, Guofang Chen, Chao Liu Copyright (c) 2022 Shaohong Zhang, Shuoshuo Sun, Xiao Wei, Mengxiao Zhang, Yu Chen, Xiaodong Mao, Guofang Chen, Chao Liu https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7909 Tue, 03 May 2022 06:47:10 -0700 Resveratrol regulates Hsp60 in HEK 293T cells during activation of SIRT1 revealed by nascent protein labeling strategy https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/8224 <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Resveratrol, a well-known natural compound and nutrient, activates the deacetylation ability of SIRT1, demonstrating p53-dependent apoptosis functions in many diseases. However, the nascent proteomic fluctuation caused by resveratrol is still unclear.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective</em>:</strong>&nbsp;In this study, we investigated the effect of resveratrol on the nascent proteome and transcriptome initiated by SIRT1 activation, and we explored the mechanism of resveratrol in HEK 293T cells.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Methods</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Bioorthogonal noncanonical amino acid tagging (BONCAT) is a method used to metabolically label nascent proteins. In this strategy, L-azidohomoalanine (AHA) was used to replace methionine (Met) under different conditions. Taking advantage of the click reaction between AHA and terminal alkyne- and disulfide-functionalized agarose resin (TAD resin), we were able to efficiently separate stimulation responsive proteins from the pre-existing proteome. Resveratrol responsive proteins were identified by Liquid Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer/Mass Spectrometer (LC-MS/MS). Furthermore, changes in mRNA levels were analyzed by transcriptome sequencing.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Integrational analysis revealed a resveratrol response in HEK 293T cells and showed that Hsp60 was downregulated at both the nascent protein and mRNA levels. Knockdown of SIRT1 and Hsp60 provides evidence that resveratrol downregulated Hsp60 through SIRT1 and that Hsp60 decreased p53 through the Akt pathway.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusions</em>:</strong>&nbsp;This study revealed dynamic changes in the nascent proteome and transcriptome in response to resveratrol in HEK 293T cells and demonstrated that resveratrol downregulates Hsp60 by activating SIRT1, which may be a possible mechanism by which resveratrol prevents p53-dependent apoptosis by regulating Hsp60.</p> Tian Su, Zhen Wang, Zhengyi Zhang, Zhanwu Hou, Xiao Han, Fei Yang, Huadong Liu Copyright (c) 2022 Tian Su, Zhen Wang, Zhengyi Zhang, Zhanwu Hou, Xiao Han, Fei Yang, Huadong Liu https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/8224 Thu, 21 Apr 2022 13:29:57 -0700 Administration of Jerusalem artichoke reduces the postprandial plasma glucose and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) concentrations in humans https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7870 <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background</em>:</strong>&nbsp;The consumption of Jerusalem artichoke has multiple beneficial effects against diabetes and obesity.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective</em>:</strong>&nbsp;The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a single administration of Jerusalem artichoke tubers on postprandial glycemia and the concentrations of incretin hormones in humans.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Method</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Grated Jerusalem artichoke was administered prior to a meal (Trial 1; white rice for prediabetic participants,&nbsp;<em>n</em>&nbsp;= 10). Dose-dependent effect of Jerusalem artichoke (Trial 2; white rice for prediabetic participants,&nbsp;<em>n</em>&nbsp;= 4) and effect prior to the fat-rich meal were also investigated (Trial 3; healthy participants,&nbsp;<em>n</em>&nbsp;= 5) in this pilot study. Circulating glucose, insulin, triglyceride, glucagon, active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and active glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) concentrations were subsequently measured in all the trials.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Jerusalem artichoke significantly reduced the glucose and GIP concentrations after the consumption of either meal in Trial 1 and Trial 3, whereas there were no differences in the insulin, glucagon, and active GLP-1 concentrations. Also, there was no significant difference in the triglyceride concentration after the ingestion of the fat-rich meal in Trial 3. The glucose and GIP-lowering effects were dose-dependent, and the consumption of at least 100 g of Jerusalem artichoke was required to have these effects in Trial 2.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusion</em>:</strong>&nbsp;This study demonstrates that a single administration of Jerusalem artichoke tubers reduces postprandial glucose and active GIP concentrations in prediabetic and healthy individuals.</p> Hirokazu Takahashi, Akane Nakajima, Yuichi Matsumoto, Hitoe Mori, Kanako Inoue, Hiroko Yamanouchi, Kenichi Tanaka, Yuki Tomiga, Maki Miyahara, Tomomi Yada, Yumiko Iba, Yayoi Matsuda, Keiichi Watanabe, Keizo Anzai Copyright (c) 2022 Hirokazu Takahashi, Akane Nakajima, Yuichi Matsumoto, Hitoe Mori, Kanako Inoue, Hiroko Yamanouchi, Kenichi Tanaka, Yuki Tomiga, Maki Miyahara, Tomomi Yada, Yumiko Iba, Yayoi Matsuda, Keiichi Watanabe, Keizo Anzai https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7870 Mon, 04 Apr 2022 22:27:25 -0700 Effect of the supplementation of virgin coriander seed oil on reducing reactivity in healthy women with sensitive skin: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled pilot clinical study https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7730 <p><span style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">Sensitive skin is a common condition that affects many people in the world, especially women. This syndrome is defined by the occurrence of unpleasant sensations such as stinging and burning in response to stimuli that should not normally provoke such sensations. Coriander seed oil (CSO) is a 100% virgin oil of coriander seeds and boasts a specific composition of fatty acids, mainly petroselinic acid (60–75%). It has demonstrated its ability to regulate inflammation (NF-κB pathway) and nociception (TRPA1 pathway), two mechanisms supporting sensitive skin, in previous&nbsp;</span><em style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">in vitro</em><span style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">&nbsp;research. It was, therefore, a good candidate to be tested&nbsp;</span><em style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">in vivo</em><span style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">&nbsp;on sensitive skin conditions. A pilot clinical study was conducted to evaluate the effect of this ingredient on healthy women showing excessive skin reactions, mainly redness and discomfort when subjected to external stress. The results showed that the daily consumption of 200 mg of CSO for 28 days effectively reduced redness induced by stripping stress and itching induced by stinging stress. It also improved the perception of skin sensitivity and reactivity after 56 days of consumption. These clinical results confirmed that CSO is a promising ingredient to contribute to reducing reactivity in sensitive skin.</span></p> Catherine Kern, Christian Gombert, Alicia Roso, Christine Garcia Copyright (c) 2022 Catherine Kern, Christian Gombert, Alicia Roso, Christine Garcia https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7730 Wed, 23 Mar 2022 00:00:00 -0700 Association between parental feeding practices and children’s dietary intake: a cross-sectional study in the Gardermoen Region, Norway https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/8050 <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Parental feeding practices may be important determinants for children’s diets. In Norway, few studies have assessed this association and to our knowledge, no studies have included fish as an outcome.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective</em>:</strong>&nbsp;The purpose of this study was to explore the association between multiple parental feeding practices and children’s food intake.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Design</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Parents (n = 111) of preschool children aged 1–5 years in the Gardermoen Region in Norway were recruited. The parents completed a web–based questionnaire regarding the use of 12 feeding practices measured by the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire (CFPQ). Children’s weekly food intake was measured using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The association between parental feeding practices and food intake was assessed by logistic regression.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results</em>:</strong>&nbsp;The feeding practices involvement and environment increased the likelihood of children having a higher intake of fruit and berries (OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.15, 3.44 and OR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.17, 3.78, respectively) when controlling for potential confounders. A positive association was found between the feeding practice environment and the children’s intake of vegetables (OR = 2.94, CI = 1.55, 5.55), and between modeling and intake of vegetables (OR = 2.14, CI = 1.26, 3.63). Also, the feeding practice encourage balance and variety increased the likelihood of a higher consumption of vegetables (OR = 5.18, CI = 1.63, 16.5). Parents who more frequently encouraged the child to eat balanced and varied were more likely to have children with a higher consumption of fish (OR = 5.03, CI = 1.62, 15.7). If parents used more restriction for weight, the child was less likely to have a high SSB consumption (OR = 0.43, CI = 0.22, 0.83).</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusion</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Findings suggest that children’s intake of the favorite food item groups, fruit and berries, vegetables and fish, was associated with the use of positive feeding practices, such as involvement, environment, modeling and encouragement. For unfavorable food groups, only restriction for weight was negatively associated with SSB consumption. Findings should be interpreted carefully due to the relatively small sample size.</p> Marlene Mazza, Marianne Morseth, Liv Elin Torheim Copyright (c) 2022 Marlene Mazza, Marianne Morseth, Liv Elin Torheim https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/8050 Mon, 21 Mar 2022 14:27:17 -0700 Sesamol counteracts on metabolic disorders of middle-aged alimentary obese mice through regulating skeletal muscle glucose and lipid metabolism https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/8231 <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Globally, obesity is a significant public problem, especially when aging. Sesamol, a phenolic lignan present in sesame seeds, might have a positive effect on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity associated with aging.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective</em>:</strong>&nbsp;The purpose of current research study was to explore salutary effects and mechanisms of sesamol in treating alimentary obesity and associated metabolic syndrome in middle-aged mice.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Methods</em>:</strong>&nbsp;C57BL/6J mice aged 4–6 weeks and 6–8 months were assigned to the young normal diet group, middle-aged normal diet group, middle-aged HFD group, and middle-aged HFD + sesamol group. At the end of experiment, glucose tolerance test and insulin tolerance test were performed; the levels of lipids and oxidative stress-related factors in the serum and skeletal muscle were detected using chemistry reagent kits; lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle was observed by oil red O staining; the expressions of muscular glucose and lipid metabolism associated proteins were measured by Western blotting.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Sesamol decreased the body weight and alleviated obesity-associated metabolism syndrome in middle-aged mice, such as glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and oxidative stress. Moreover, muscular metabolic disorders were attenuated after treatment with sesamol. It increased the expression of glucose transporter type-4 and down-regulated the protein levels of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isozyme 4, implying the increase of glucose uptake and oxidation. Meanwhile, sesamol decreased the expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c and up-regulated the phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase and the level of carnitine palmityl transferase 1α, which led to the declined lipogenesis and the increased lipolysis and lipid oxidation. In addition, the SIRT1/AMPK signaling pathway was triggered by sesamol, from which it is understood how sesamol enhances glucose and lipid metabolism.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusions</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Sesamol counteracts on metabolic disorders of middle-aged alimentary obese mice through regulating skeletal muscle glucose and lipid metabolism, which might be associated with the stimulation of the SIRT1/AMPK pathway.</p> Min-Min Hu, Ji-Hua Chen, Quan-Quan Zhang, Zi-Yu Song, Horia Shaukat, Hong Qin Copyright (c) 2022 Min-Min Hu, Ji-Hua Chen, Quan-Quan Zhang, Zi-Yu Song, Horia Shaukat, Hong Qin https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/8231 Thu, 17 Mar 2022 02:55:46 -0700 Aged green tea reduces high-fat diet-induced fat accumulation and inflammation via activating the AMP-activated protein kinase signaling pathway https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7923 <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background:</em></strong>&nbsp;Obesity is a global public health concern and increases the risk of metabolic syndrome and other diseases. The anti-obesity effects of various plant-derived bioactive compounds, such as tea extracts, are well-established. The mechanisms underlying the anti-obesity activity of Jinxuan green tea (JXGT) from different storage years are still unclear.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective:</em></strong>&nbsp;The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of JXGTs from three different years on the high fat diet (HFD)-fed mouse model.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Design:</em></strong>&nbsp;The mice were divided into six groups, the control group received normal diet and the obese model group received HFD. We analyzed the effects of JXGTs from 2005, 2008, and 2016 on HFD-fed obese mice over a period of 7 weeks.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results:</em></strong>&nbsp;The JXGTs reduced the body weight of the obese mice, and also alleviated fat accumulation and hepatic steatosis. Mechanistically, JXGTs increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK)/AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) ratio, up-regulated carnitine acyl transferase 1A (CPT-1A), and down-regulated fatty acid synthase (FAS), Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3β), Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma co-activator-1alpha (PGC-1α), Interleukin 6 (IL-6), and Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα). Thus, JXGTs can alleviate HFD-induced obesity by inhibiting lipid biosynthesis and inflammation, thereby promoting fatty acid oxidation via the AMPK pathway.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Discussion:</em></strong>&nbsp;The anti-obesity effect of three aged JXGTs were similar. However, JXGT2016 exhibited a more potent activation of AMPK, and JXGT2005 and JXGT2008 exhibited a more potent inhibiting glycogen synthase and inflammation effect. Furthermore, the polyphenol (–)-epicatechin (EC) showed the strongest positive correlation with the anti-obesity effect of JXGT.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusions:</em></strong>&nbsp;These findings demonstrate that JXGT treatment has a potential protection on HFD-induced obesity mice via activating the AMPK/CPT-1A and down-regulating FAS/GSK-3β/PGC-1α and IL-6/TNFα. Our study results also revealed that different storage time would not affect the anti-obesity and anti-inflammation effect of JXGT.</p> Ruohong Chen, Xingfei Lai, Limin Xiang, Qiuhua Li, Lingli Sun, Zhaoxiang Lai, Zhigang Li, Wenji Zhang, Shuai Wen, Junxi Cao, Shili Sun Copyright (c) 2022 Ruohong Chen, Xingfei Lai, Limin Xiang, Qiuhua Li, Lingli Sun, Zhaoxiang Lai, Zhigang Li, Wenji Zhang, Shuai Wen, Junxi Cao, Shili Sun https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7923 Thu, 10 Mar 2022 02:37:14 -0800 Dietary risk factors of physical growth of Filipino school-aged children https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7873 <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background:</em></strong>&nbsp;Adequate nutrition during childhood is essential to promote child growth and development.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective:</em></strong>&nbsp;The study evaluated the relationship of habitual nutrient intake and protein adequacy to the prevalence of child malnutrition.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong>&nbsp;Data were derived from a nationally representative sample of children aged 6–12 years. Two nonconsecutive day 24-h dietary recalls (24hR) were collected to estimate the individual food intake. PC-SIDE version 1.0 software (Software for Intake Distribution Estimation) was used to estimate the habitual intake of key nutrients accounting for between- and within-person differences in dietary intake. The 2007 WHO Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) method was used to measure the protein quality or the utilizable protein intake. The nutritional status of the participants is reflected in the weight-for-age, height-for-age, and body mass index (BMI)-for-age z-scores using the WHO Growth Reference Standard (WHO, 2007).</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results:</em></strong>&nbsp;Undernourished school-aged children were found to have high protein inadequacy. Higher consumption of grains and cereal products, meat, and high-quality protein foods was associated with a lower risk of stunting. Higher intake of milk and milk products, grains and cereal products, high-quality protein foods, calcium, riboflavin, and vitamin C was associated with a lower risk of underweight. Higher consumption of grains and cereal products, riboflavin, thiamine, and fiber was associated with a lower risk of wasting. On the contrary, higher consumption of meat, milk and milk products, grains and cereal products, high-quality protein foods, and vitamin C was associated with a higher risk of obesity. Furthermore, linear growth of children was found to be associated with high-quality protein foods, calcium, vitamin B12, vitamin C, and vitamin D.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusions:</em></strong>&nbsp;Malnutrition among Filipino children is influenced by nutrient intakes. However, the existence of malnutrition among children may be specifically attributed to the quality of protein consumed. Therefore, the study suggests that nutrition interventions and policies focusing on child malnutrition should improve not just the quantity but also the quality of protein sources consumed by children to aid in proper growth and development.</p> Imelda Angeles-Agdeppa, Taro Nakamura, Mayu Sugita, Marvin Bangan Toledo, Pamela Castillo Sampaga, Jezreel Ann Taruc Zamora Copyright (c) 2022 Imelda Angeles-Agdeppa, Taro Nakamura, Mayu Sugita, Marvin Bangan Toledo, Pamela Castillo Sampaga, Jezreel Ann Taruc Zamora https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7873 Wed, 09 Mar 2022 03:08:01 -0800 Conjugated linoleic acid ameliorates hepatic steatosis by modulating intestinal permeability and gut microbiota in ob/ob mice https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/8226 <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background:</em></strong>&nbsp;Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is an effective supplement for reducing fat mass, but its effect on hepatic steatosis remains controversial.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective:</em></strong>&nbsp;This study aims to evaluate the effect of CLA on liver fat accumulation, inflammation, gut microbiome, and intestinal barrier integrity.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Design:</em></strong>&nbsp;Wild-type (WT) mice and ob/ob (OB) mice were randomly divided into four groups according to the treatment with/without 1% CLA: WT, WT mice treated with CLA (WT-CLA), OB, and OB mice treated with CLA (OB-CLA). Lipid metabolism and hepatic fat accumulation were evaluated by changes in histological and biochemical parameters. Gene expressions related to liver inflammation and intestinal barrier integrity were examined. The effect of CLA on the gut microbiota population was investigated.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results:</em></strong>&nbsp;The body weight, fatty tissue mass, and serum lipid levels of the WT-CLA group and OB-CLA group were separately lower than those of the WT group and OB group, but the livers of the WT-CLA group had more fatty lipids, higher triglyceride properties, and saturated fatty acid (FA) composition than those of the WT group, which was contrary to the effect of CLA on OB mice. Real time quantitative PCR results showed that CLA increased hepatic inflammation and intestinal permeability in the WT mice, while it significantly decreased the mRNA expression of liver TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-1β and markedly ameliorated intestinal tight junction proteins in the OB mice. The gut microbiota testing indicated a higher abundance of beneficial bacteria (e.g.,&nbsp;<em>Lachnoclostridium</em>,&nbsp;<em>Roseburia</em>,&nbsp;<em>Dubosiella</em>,&nbsp;<em>Oscillibacter</em>, and&nbsp;<em>Anaerostipes</em>) and a lower abundance of pro-inflammatory bacteria (e.g.,&nbsp;<em>Tyzzerella</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em>Alistipes</em>) in the OB-CLA group than those of the OB group. Correlation analysis suggested that gut microbiota correlated with liver inflammation, intestinal permeability, and hepatic FA composition.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong>&nbsp;CLA potentially contributed to ameliorating hepatic steatosis in OB mice via modulating liver inflammation, intestinal permeability, and gut microbiota, which suggests CLA is more suitable for people with obesity or overweight.</p> Shengli Gao, Yingying He, Liping Zhang, Lina Liu, Changfeng Qu, Zhou Zheng, Jinlai Miao Copyright (c) 2022 Shengli Gao, Yingying He, Liping Zhang, Lina Liu, Changfeng Qu, Zhou Zheng, Jinlai Miao https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/8226 Thu, 03 Mar 2022 08:50:04 -0800 Wheat oligopeptides enhance the intestinal mucosal barrier and alleviate inflammation via the TLR4/Myd88/MAPK signaling pathway in aged mice https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5690 <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background:</em></strong>&nbsp;Aging can induce oxidative stress, inflammation and mucosal impairment, and few works have been conducted to investigate the protective effects of WP on the natural intestinal aging process.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective:</em></strong>&nbsp;The present work aimed to examine the protective effect of wheat oligopeptides (WP) on intestine mucosal impairment in aged mice, and investigate the potential antioxidation, anti-inflammatory effects of WP.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Design:</em></strong>&nbsp;Seventy-two aged mice (24 months old) were randomly divided into six groups, 12 for each group. Twelve young mice (6 months old) were regarded as the young control group. WP (25, 50, 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg) or distilled water were administered daily by gavage for 30 days.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results:</em></strong>&nbsp;Histological observations showed that intestinal mucosal degeneration was attenuated by WP pretreatment. WP exhibited remarkable antioxidant activity via increasing superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, total antioxidant capacity and catalase activities, and decreasing the malondialdehyde levels in small intestine mucosa. WP pretreatment significantly suppressed intestinal mucosa inflammation through the reduction of TNF-α, TGF-β, IFN-γ IL-1β and IL-6. WP markedly protect the intestinal mucosal barrier by decreasing the ICAM-1 level, and increasing ZO-1 and JAMA-A levels. WP significantly down-regulated protein expression levels of TLR4, Myd88, and MAPK, suggesting that WP have a potential effect on inhibiting aging-induced inflammatory responses by blocking TLR4/Myd88/MAPK signal transduction.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong>&nbsp;WP administration effectively alleviated intestinal mucosal impairment in aged mice. The potential mechanism was associated with enhancement of antioxidation and anti-inflammatory action and protection of the intestinal mucosal barrier.</p> Yang Xian, Pan Da, Yang Chao, Xia Hui, Yang Ligang, Wang Shaokang, Sun Guiju Copyright (c) 2022 Yang Xian, Pan Da, Yang Chao, Xia Hui, Yang Ligang, Wang Shaokang, Sun Guiju https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5690 Mon, 14 Feb 2022 13:16:50 -0800 Lipid-based nutrient supplement at initiation of antiretroviral therapy does not substitute energy from habitual diet among HIV patients – a secondary analysis of data from a randomised controlled trial in Ethiopia https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5659 <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Introduction:</em></strong>&nbsp;Malnutrition is common among people with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Nutritional supplementation at initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) has shown beneficial effects, but it is not known if supplementation replaces or supplements the habitual energy intake in a context of food insecurity.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong>&nbsp;As part of a randomised controlled trial among people with HIV initiating ART in Ethiopia, we assessed whether the provision of a lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) affected energy intake from the habitual diet. People with HIV aged ≥18 years with a body mass index (BMI) &gt;17 were randomly allocated 2:1 to receive either early (month 1–3 after ART initiation) or delayed (month 4–6 after ART initiation) supplementation with LNS (≈4,600 kJ/day). Participants with BMI 16–17 were all allocated to early supplementation. The daily energy intake from the habitual diet (besides the energy contribution from LNS) was assessed using a 24-h food recall interview at baseline and at monthly follow-up visits. Linear mixed models were used to compare habitual energy intake in (1) early versus delayed supplementation groups and (2) supplemented versus unsupplemented time periods within groups.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results:</em></strong>&nbsp;Of 301 participants included, 67% of the participants were women, mean (±standard deviation [SD]) age was 32.9 (±8.9) years and 68% were living in moderately or severely food insecure households. Mean (±SD) reported habitual energy intake at baseline was 5,357 kJ/day (±2,246) for women and 7,977 kJ/day(±3,557) for men. Among all participants, there were no differences in mean habitual energy intake between supplemented and unsupplemented groups in neither the first 3 (<em>P</em>&nbsp;= 0.72) nor the following 3 months (<em>P</em>&nbsp;= 0.56). Furthermore, habitual energy intake did not differ within groups when comparing periods with or without supplementation (<em>P</em>&nbsp;= 0.15 and&nbsp;<em>P</em>&nbsp;= 0.20). The severity of food insecurity did not modify the effect of supplementation in habitual energy intake (<em>P</em>&nbsp;= 0.55). Findings were similar when participants with BMI 16–17 were excluded.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong>&nbsp;Our findings indicate that the LNS provided after ART initiation supplement, rather than substitute, habitual energy intake among people with HIV, even among those who are food insecure. This supports the feasibility of introducing nutritional supplementation as part of HIV treatment.</p> Nanna Buhl Schwartz, Daniel Yilma, Tsinuel Girma, Markos Tesfaye, Christian Mølgaard, Kim Fleischer Michaelsen, Pernille Kæstel, Henrik Friis , Mette Frahm Olsen Copyright (c) 2022 Nanna Buhl Schwartz, Daniel Yilma, Tsinuel Girma, Markos Tesfaye, Christian Mølgaard, Kim Fleischer Michaelsen, Pernille Kæstel, Henrik Friis , Mette Frahm Olsen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5659 Fri, 11 Feb 2022 14:27:00 -0800 <em>Lycium barbarum</em> polysaccharide attenuates Pseudomonas- aeruginosa pyocyanin-induced cellular injury in mice airway epithelial cells https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/4585 <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background</em>:</strong>&nbsp;<em>Lycium barbarum</em>&nbsp;berries have been utilized in Asia for many years. However, the mechanisms of its lung-defensive properties are indeterminate.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective</em>:</strong>&nbsp;We investigate whether&nbsp;<em>L. barbarum</em>&nbsp;polysaccharide (LBP) could weaken&nbsp;<em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>&nbsp;infection-induced lung injury.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Design</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Mice primary air-liquid interface epithelial cultures were pretreated with LBP and subsequently treated with pyocyanin (PCN). Lung injury, including apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress, was estimated by western blot, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay,&nbsp;<em>and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Real-time qPCR (Q-PCR)</em>. Flow cytometry was used to test cell apoptosis. Moreover, Balb/c mice were used to evaluate the tissue injury. We used hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunofluorescence to detect the expression of related proteins and tissue damage in mouse lungs and spleen.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results</em>:</strong>&nbsp;The flow cytometric analysis shows the potential of LBP to reduce time-dependent cell death by PCN. Mechanistically, LBP reduces PCN-induced expression of proapoptotic proteins and caspase3 and induces the activation of Bcl-2 in mice bronchial epithelial cells. Similarly, LBP reduces PCN-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Moreover, LBP inhibits the production of inflammatory cytokines, Interleukin (IL-1β), Tumor Necrosis Factor (<em>TNF)</em>, IL-6, and IL-8. Our study confirms the ability of LBP to retard PCN-induced injury in mice lung and spleen.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusions</em>:</strong>&nbsp;The inhibition of PCN-induced lung injury by LBP is capable of protecting mice cells from injury.</p> Xue Lin, Fuyang Song, Yiming Wu, Di Xue, Yujiong Wang Copyright (c) 2022 Xue Lin, Fuyang Song, Yiming Wu, Di Xue, Yujiong Wang https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/4585 Fri, 11 Feb 2022 14:15:01 -0800 Herbal extracts that induce type I interferons through Toll-like receptor 4 signaling https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5524 <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background:</em></strong>&nbsp;A mixture of five herbal extracts called internatural (INT), which is prepared from pumpkin seeds, purple turmeric, pearl barley, corn pistil, and cinnamon, is widely used by people in Japan and elsewhere for its immunity-enhancing effects and general health. Although anecdotal evidence indicates its efficacy, the mechanisms by which INT boosts immunity have remained unknown.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective:</em></strong>&nbsp;The aim of this study was to investigate whether INT induces type I interferons (IFNs) in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) and by what mechanism.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Design:</em></strong>&nbsp;We measured induction of type I IFNs (IFNβ and IFNα) in BMDMs treated with INT or other Toll-like receptor ligands: bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), dsRNA, poly(I:C), and CpG oligonucleotides. To investigate whether INT signals through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), we tested TLR4-specific inhibitor. We also tested if INT utilizes TLR4 adaptors, toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain-containing adaptor (TRIF), or myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), we examined INT induction of IFNβ in TRIF-KO and MyD88-KO BMDMs. We then investigated whether INT provides an antiviral effect upon fibroblasts either directly or indirectly using the encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) model.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results:</em></strong>&nbsp;We first observed that INT, when added to BMDMs, potently induces type I IFNs (IFNβ and IFNα) within 2 h. INT induction of IFN expression was mediated by TLR4, which signaled through the TRIF/MyD88 adaptors, similar to LPS. A high-molecular-weight fraction (MW &gt; 10,000) of INT extracts contained IFN-inducing activity. Supernatants from INT-treated BMDMs protected untreated fibroblast from EMCV infection as reduced viral titers.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusions:</em></strong>&nbsp;INT induced type I IFN mRNA and proteins in BMDMs and other cell types. This induction was mediated by TLR4, which transduces signals using the TRIF/MyD88 pathway. The high-MW component of INT contained type I IFN inducing activity. The supernatants from INT-treated cells displayed antiviral activity and protected cells from EMCV infection. These findings indicate that INT is a novel natural IFN inducer that strengthens host’s innate immunity.</p> Misa Nakasuji-Togi, Sumihito Togi, Keita Saeki, Yasuhiko Kojima, Keiko Ozato Copyright (c) 2022 Misa Nakasuji-Togi, Sumihito Togi, Keita Saeki, Yasuhiko Kojima, Keiko Ozato https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5524 Fri, 28 Jan 2022 14:26:40 -0800 Resveratrol derivative production by high-pressure treatment: proliferative inhibitory effects on cervical cancer cells https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7638 <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background:</em></strong>&nbsp;In recent years, functional food components have attracted considerable attention. Resveratrol, a food polyphenol, has been widely studied due to its various physiological activities. Previously, we identified a novel resveratrol derivative, named RK4, in food, which is formed by a chemical reaction involving resveratrol and caffeic acid. Furthermore, it was suggested that high-pressure treatment is an important factor in RK4 production.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objectives:</em></strong>&nbsp;The purpose of this study was to clarify relationships between high-pressure processing and component production and to compare RK4 with the known functional ingredient resveratrol to examine the physiological value of RK4. Through this research, we aimed to develop high-pressure treatment technology that adds new usefulness for food.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong>&nbsp;Resveratrol and caffeic acid were reacted under high-pressure treatment and in various conditions of concentration and temperature. RK4 levels in the reaction solution were quantitatively analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. In addition, HeLa cervical cancer cells were exposed to RK4 and resveratrol, and survival rates were measured using the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) method after culturing for 24 h. Activation of an apoptosis-inducing marker was detected by western blotting of cells cultured for 48 h after addition of the test compounds.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results:</em></strong>&nbsp;By reacting resveratrol and caffeic acid under high-pressure conditions (~100 MPa), the amount of RK4 produced was significantly increased. It was also found that the reaction temperature and time contributed to this reaction. RK4 exhibited stronger cytotoxicity to HeLa cells than resveratrol. It was also shown that RK4 activated p38, cleaved poly ADP ribose polymerase, and induced apoptosis.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusions:</em></strong>&nbsp;RK4 is a valuable component for further research as a novel compound with wider functionality than that of resveratrol. High-pressure treatment may substantially contribute to the production of novel food ingredients. Further elucidation of the relationships between high-pressure treatment and production of new ingredients has promising potential to guide development of new applications in food processing.</p> Yuki Sugahara, Toshiro Ohta, Yoshiki Taguchi, Sari Honda, Yasuhiro Kashima, Taiji Matsukawa, Shigenori Kumazawa, Wataru Kadowaki Copyright (c) 2022 Yuki Sugahara, Toshiro Ohta, Yoshiki Taguchi, Sari Honda, Yasuhiro Kashima, Taiji Matsukawa, Shigenori Kumazawa, Wataru Kadowaki https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7638 Thu, 27 Jan 2022 14:41:15 -0800 Bioactive compounds of pequi pulp and oil extracts modulate antioxidant activity and antiproliferative activity in cocultured blood mononuclear cells and breast cancer cells https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/8282 <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background:</em></strong>&nbsp;Pequi (<em>Caryocar brasiliense</em>&nbsp;Camb.) is a fruit from Brazilian Cerrado rich in bioactive compounds, such as phytosterols and tocopherols, which can modulate the death of cancer cells.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective:</em></strong>&nbsp;In the present study, the main bioactive compounds of hydrophilic and lipophilic extracts of pequi oil and pulp were identified and were verified if they exert modulatory effects on oxidative stress of mononuclear cells cocultured with MCF-7 breast cancer cells.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Study design:</em></strong>&nbsp;Identification and quantification of the main compounds and classes of bioactive compounds in pequi pulp and oil, hydrophilic, and lipophilic extracts were performed using spectroscopy and liquid chromatographic methods, while the beneficial effects, such as antioxidant capacity&nbsp;<em>in vitro</em>, were determined using methods based on single electron transfer reaction or hydrogen atom transfer, while for antioxidant and antiproliferative activities&nbsp;<em>ex vivo</em>, 20 healthy volunteers were recruited. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MN) were collected, and cellular viability assay by MTT&nbsp;<em>(3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide)</em>, superoxide anion evaluation, and&nbsp;<em>CuZn-superoxide dismutase determination (CuZn-SOD)</em>&nbsp;in MN cells, MCF-7 cells, and coculture of MN cells and MCF-7 cells in the presence and absence of pequi pulp or oil hydrophilic and lipophilic extracts were performed.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results:</em></strong>&nbsp;In the hydrophilic extract, the pequi pulp presented the highest phenolic content, while in the oil lipophilic extract, it had the highest content of carotenoids. The main phytosterol in pequi oil was β-sitosterol (10.22 mg/g), and the main tocopherol was γ-tocopherol (26.24 μg/g sample). The extracts that had highest content of bioactive compounds stimulated blood mononuclear cells and also improved SOD activity. By evaluating the extracts against MCF-7 cells and coculture, they showed cytotoxic activity.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong>&nbsp;The results support the anticarcinogenic activity of pequi extracts, in which the pequi pulp hydrophilic extracts presented better immunomodulatory potential.</p> Renata Brito, Milene Teixeira Barcia, Carla Andressa Almeida Farias, Rui Carlos Zambiazi, Patrícia Gelli Feres de Marchi, Mahmi Fujimori, Adenilda Cristina Honorio-França, Eduardo Luzia França, Paula Becker Pertuzatti Copyright (c) 2022 Renata Brito, Milene Teixeira Barcia, Carla Andressa Almeida Farias, Rui Carlos Zambiazi, Patrícia Gelli Feres de Marchi, Mahmi Fujimori, Adenilda Cristina Honorio-França, Eduardo Luzia França, Paula Moraes Pertuzatti https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/8282 Thu, 27 Jan 2022 07:28:31 -0800 Household food insecurity is associated with child’s dietary diversity score among primary school children in two districts in Ghana https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7715 <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Dietary diversity is generally considered as a good indicator of nutrient adequacy and is influenced by various factors at the national, household, and individual levels.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective</em>:</strong>&nbsp;The present study sought to determine the relationships between household food insecurity, primary caregivers’ nutrition knowledge, and dietary diversity of school-aged children in Ghana.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Methods</em>:</strong>&nbsp;This forms part of a longitudinal study conducted in the Ayawaso West Municipal district in Accra (urban setting) and the Upper Manya Krobo district (rural setting) in Ghana. Data were collected from a total of 116 caregiver-child dyads using 24-h dietary recall and a short version of the US 12-month Household Food Security Survey Module. Nutrition knowledge and sociodemographic data were obtained using a structured questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regression was used to check for factors associated with children’s dietary diversity.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Majority of households reported food insecurity, with a higher percentage of insecure households located in the rural area (88.9% vs. 46.5%,&nbsp;<em>P</em>&nbsp;≤ 0.0001), compared to the urban setting. Diet diversity among the study children was low, with a mean (standard deviation [SD]) of 5.8 (2.1) out of 14 food groups. Children living in food insecure households were three times more likely to have received low diverse diet compared to those from food secure households (adjusted odds ratio [OR] =3.3, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4–8.0). Caregivers’ nutrition knowledge was, however, not related to children’s dietary diversity.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Discussion and conclusion</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Household food insecurity was a main predictor of dietary diversity among school-age children in this study. Thus, caregiver knowledge in nutrition may not be enough, particularly in the presence of food insecurity to guarantee adequate nutrition for school-aged children.</p> Janet Antwi, Esi Quaidoo, Agartha Ohemeng, Boateng Bannerman Copyright (c) 2022 Janet Antwi, Esi Quaidoo, Agartha Ohemeng, Boateng Bannerman https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7715 Fri, 07 Jan 2022 14:21:19 -0800 A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the hypoglycemic efficacy of the mcIRBP-19-containing <em>Momordica charantia L. </em>fruit extracts in the type 2 diabetic subjects https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/3685 <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background:</em></strong>&nbsp;The fruits of&nbsp;<em>Momordica charantia</em>&nbsp;L., also named as bitter gourd or bitter melon in popular, is a common tropical vegetable that is traditionally used to reduce blood glucose. A peptide derived from bitter gourd,&nbsp;<em>Momordica charantia</em>&nbsp;insulin receptor binding peptid-19 (mcIRBP-19), had been demonstrated to possess an insulin-like effect&nbsp;<em>in vitro</em>&nbsp;and in the animal studies. However, the benefit of the mcIRBP-19-containing bitter gourd extracts (mcIRBP-19-BGE) for lowering blood glucose levels in humans is unknown.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective:</em></strong>&nbsp;This aim of this study was to evaluate the hypoglycemic efficacy of mcIRBP-19-BGE in subjects with type 2 diabetes who had taken antidiabetic medications but failed to achieve the treatment goal. Whether glucose lowering efficacy of mcIRBP-19-BGE could be demonstrated when the antidiabetic medications were ineffective was also studied.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Design:</em></strong>&nbsp;Subjects were randomly assigned to two groups: mcIRBP-19-BGE treatment group (<em>N</em>&nbsp;= 20) and placebo group (<em>N</em>&nbsp;= 20), and were orally administered 600 mg/day investigational product or placebo for 3 months. Subjects whose hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) continued declining before the trial initiation with the antidiabetic drugs were excluded from the subset analysis to further investigate the efficacy for those who failed to respond to the antidiabetic medications.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results:</em></strong>&nbsp;The oral administration of mcIRBP-19-BGE decreased with a borderline significance at fasting blood glucose (FBG;&nbsp;<em>P</em>&nbsp;= 0.057) and HbA1c (<em>P</em>&nbsp;= 0.060). The subgroup analysis (N = 29) showed that mcIRBP-19-BGE had a significant effect on reducing FBG (from 172.5 ± 32.6 mg/dL to 159.4 ± 18.3 mg/dL,&nbsp;<em>P</em>&nbsp;= 0.041) and HbA1c (from 8.0 ± 0.7% to 7.5 ± 0.8%,&nbsp;<em>P</em>&nbsp;= 0.010).</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong>&nbsp;All of these results demonstrate that mcIRBP-19-BGE possesses a hypoglycemic effect, and can have a significant reduction in FBG and HbA1c when the antidiabetic drugs are ineffective.</p> Yi-Sun Yang, Nian-Yi Wu, Edy Kornelius, Chien-Ning Huang, Nae-Cherng Yang Copyright (c) 2022 Yi-Sun Yang, Nian-Yi Wu, Edy Kornelius, Chien-Ning Huang, Nae-Cherng Yang https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/3685 Mon, 03 Jan 2022 12:41:29 -0800