Food & Nutrition Research https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr <p>As one of the first Open Access journals in its field,&nbsp;<em>Food &amp; Nutrition Research&nbsp;</em>(FNR) offers an important forum for researchers to exchange the latest results from research on human nutrition broadly and food-related nutrition in particular. FNR is widely indexed by relevant services and databases, including PubMed Central/PubMed, Scopus, Science Citation Index, with an&nbsp;<strong>Impact Factor of 3.89 (2020)</strong>.</p> en-US <p><span style="color: #4b7d92;">Authors retain copyright of their work, with first publication rights granted to SNF Swedish Nutrition Foundation. Read the full <a href="https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/oapolicy">Copyright- and Licensing Statement</a>.</span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> anneli.hovstadius@snf.ideon.se (The Food & Nutrition Research Editorial Team) veronica.svard@openacademia.net (Veronica Svärd) Tue, 24 Jan 2023 14:14:40 -0800 OJS 3.1.2.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Inositol hexaphosphate promotes intestinal adaptation in short bowel syndrome via an HDAC3-mediated epigenetic pathway https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/8694 <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Short bowel syndrome (SBS) has high morbidity and mortality rates, and promoting intestinal adaptation of the residual intestine is a critical treatment. Dietary inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) plays an important role in maintaining intestinal homeostasis, but its effect on SBS remains unclear. This study aimed at investigating the effect of IP6 on SBS and clarified its underlying mechanism.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Methods</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Forty male Sprague–Dawley rats (3-week-old) were randomly assigned into four groups (Sham, Sham + IP6, SBS, and SBS + IP6 groups). Rats were fed standard pelleted rat chow and underwent resection of 75% of the small intestine after 1 week of acclimation. They received 1 mL IP6 treatment (2 mg/g) or sterile water daily for 13 days by gavage. Intestinal length, levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3), histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) activity, and proliferation of intestinal epithelial cell-6 (IEC-6) were detected.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results</em>:</strong>&nbsp;IP6 treatment increased the length of the residual intestine in rats with SBS. Furthermore, IP6 treatment caused an increase in body weight, intestinal mucosal weight, and IEC proliferation, and a decrease in intestinal permeability. IP6 treatment led to higher levels of IP3 in feces and serum, and higher HDAC3 activity of the intestine. Interestingly, HDAC3 activity was positively correlated with the levels of IP3 in feces (<em>r</em>&nbsp;= 0.49,&nbsp;<em>P</em>&nbsp;= 0.01) and serum (<em>r</em>&nbsp;= 0.44,&nbsp;<em>P</em>&nbsp;= 0.03). Consistently, IP3 treatment promoted the proliferation of IEC-6 cells by increasing HDAC3 activity&nbsp;<em>in vitro</em>. IP3 regulated the Forkhead box O3 (FOXO3)/Cyclin D1 (CCND1) signaling pathway.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusion</em>:</strong>&nbsp;IP6 treatment promotes intestinal adaptation in rats with SBS. IP6 is metabolized to IP3 to increase HDAC3 activity to regulate the FOXO3/CCND1 signaling pathway and may represent a potential therapeutic approach for patients with SBS.</p> Weipeng Wang, Ying Wang, Ying Lu, Xinbei Tian, Shanshan Chen, Bo Wu, Jun Du, Yongtao Xiao, Wei Cai Copyright (c) 2023 Weipeng Wang, Ying Wang, Ying Lu, Xinbei Tian, Shanshan Chen, Bo Wu, Jun Du, Yongtao Xiao, Wei Cai https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/8694 Thu, 02 Feb 2023 05:20:39 -0800 Inhibition of castration-resistant prostate cancer growth by genistein through suppression of AKR1C3 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/9024 <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death among males in America. The patients’ survival time is significantly reduced after prostate cancer develops into castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). It has been reported that AKR1C3 is involved in this progression, and that its abnormal expression is directly correlated with the degree of CRPC malignancy. Genistein is one of the active components of soy isoflavones, and many studies have suggested that it has a better inhibitory effect on CRPC.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective</em>:</strong>&nbsp;This study aimed to investigate the antitumor effect of genistein on CRPC and the potential mechanism of action.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><img src="FNR-67-9024-F1.jpg" alt="FNR-67-9024-F1.jpg"></p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Design</em>:</strong>&nbsp;A xenograft tumor mouse model established with 22RV1 cells was divided into the experimental group and the control group, and the former was given 100 mg/kg.bw/day of genistein, with 22RV1, VCaP, and RWPE-1 cells cultured in a hormone-free serum environment and treated with different concentrations of genistein (0, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 μmol/L) for 48 h. Molecular docking was used to elucidate the molecular interactions between genistein and AKR1C3.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Genistein inhibits CRPC cell proliferation and in vivo tumorigenesis. The western blot analysis confirmed that the genistein significantly inhibited prostate-specific antigen production in a dose-dependent manner. In further results, AKR1C3 expression was decreased in both the xenograft tumor tissues and the CRPC cell lines following genistein gavage feeding compared to the control group, with the reduction becoming more obvious as the concentration of genistein was increased. When the genistein was combined with AKR1C3 small interfering ribonucleic acid and an AKR1C3 inhibitor (ASP-9521), the inhibitory effect on the AKR1C3 was more pronounced. In addition, the molecular docking results suggested that the genistein had a strong affinity with the AKR1C3, and that it could be a promising AKR1C3 inhibitor.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusion</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Genistein inhibits the progression of CRPC via the suppression of AKR1C3.</p> Xiaoping Yu, Jiali Yan, Yulu Li, Jing Chen, Lujie Zheng, Tianyu Fu, Yanfeng Zhu Copyright (c) 2023 Xiaoping Yu, Jiali Yan, Yulu Li, Jing Chen, Lujie Zheng, Tianyu Fu, Yanfeng Zhu https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/9024 Tue, 31 Jan 2023 00:00:00 -0800 A proprietary blend of <em>Sphaeranthus indicus</em> flower head and <em>Mangifera indica</em> bark extracts increases muscle strength and enhances endurance in young male volunteers: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/8972 <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background</em>:</strong>&nbsp;The demand for safe and efficacious botanical formulations to increase muscle mass, strength, and stamina is increasing among athletes and the general population. The nutraceutical supplements of medicinal plant origin exert minimal health concern.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective</em>:</strong>&nbsp;This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was aimed to evaluate the ergogenic potential of a proprietary, standardized formulation (LI12542F6) of&nbsp;<em>Sphaeranthus indicus</em>&nbsp;flower head and&nbsp;<em>Mangifera indica</em>&nbsp;stem bark extracts.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Methods</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Forty male participants 18–40 years of age were assigned to receive either a placebo (<em>n</em>&nbsp;= 20) or 650 mg/day LI12542F6 (<em>n</em>&nbsp;= 20) for 56 days. All participants performed a fixed set of resistance exercises during the intervention. The primary endpoint was the change from baseline muscle strength, assessed by one-repetition maximum (1-RM) bench and leg presses, and handgrip strength. The secondary endpoints included cable pull-down repetitions, time to exhaustion on a treadmill, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), body composition using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), and free testosterone and cortisol levels in serum.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Fifty-six days supplementation of LI12542F6 significantly improved baseline bench press (<em>P</em>&nbsp;&lt; 0.0001), leg press (<em>P</em>&nbsp;&lt; 0.0001), handgrip strength (<em>P</em>&nbsp;&lt; 0.0006), number of repetitions (<em>P</em>&nbsp;&lt; 0.0001), and time to exhaustion (<em>P</em>&nbsp;&lt; 0.0008), compared to placebo. Post-trial, the LI12542F6 group also showed significantly increased MUAC and improved body composition and serum hormone levels. The participants’ hematology, clinical chemistry, and vital signs were within the normal range. No adverse events were observed.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusion</em>:</strong>&nbsp;This study demonstrates that LI12542F6 supplementation significantly increases muscle strength and size and improves endurance in healthy men. Also, LI12542F6 is well-tolerated by the participants.</p> Meher Prasanna Rokkam, Olos Gora, Manikyeswara Rao Konda, Ajay Koushik Copyright (c) 2023 Meher Prasanna Rokkam, Olos Gora, Manikyeswara Rao Konda, Ajay Koushik https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/8972 Fri, 27 Jan 2023 14:14:05 -0800 The clinicians’ view of food-related obstacles for treating eating disorders: A qualitative study https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/8771 <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Good health requires healthy eating. However, individuals with eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa, require treatment to modify their dietary behaviours and prevent health complications. There is no consensus on the best treatment practices and treatment outcomes are usually poor. While normalising eating behaviour is a cornerstone in treatment, few studies have focused on eating and food-related obstacles to treatment.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective</em>:</strong>&nbsp;The aim of the study was to investigate clinicians’ perceived food-related obstacles to treatment of eating disorders (EDs).</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Design</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Qualitative focus group discussions were conducted with clinicians involved in eating disorder treatment to get an understanding of their perceptions and beliefs regarding food and eating among eating disorder patients. Thematic analysis was used to find common patterns in the collected material.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results</em>:</strong>&nbsp;From the thematic analysis the following five themes were identified: (1) ideas about healthy and unhealthy food, (2) calculating with calories, (3) taste, texture, and temperature as an excuse, (4) the problems with hidden ingredients and (5) the challenges of extra food.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Discussion</em>:</strong>&nbsp;All identified themes showed not only connections to each other but also some overlap. All themes were associated with a requirement of control, where food may be perceived as a threat, with the effects of food consumption resulting in a perceived net loss, rather than a gain. This mindset can greatly influence decision making.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusions</em>:</strong>&nbsp;The results of this study are based on experience and practical knowledge that could improve future ED treatments by enhancing our understanding the challenges certain foods pose for patients. The results may also help to improve dietary plans by including and explaining challenges for patients at different stages of treatment. Future studies could further investigate the causes and best treatment practices for people suffering from EDs and other eating disturbances.</p> Billy Langlet, Maria Nyberg, Karin Wendin, Modjtaba Zandian Copyright (c) 2023 Billy Langlet, Maria Nyberg, Karin Wendin, Modjtaba Zandian https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/8771 Wed, 25 Jan 2023 10:08:34 -0800 Seed-derived peptide lunasin suppressed breast cancer cell growth by regulating inflammatory mediators, aromatase, and estrogen receptors https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/8991 <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background:</em></strong>&nbsp;Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in women. Its pathology comprises tumor cells and nearby stromal cells, accompanied by cytokines and stimulated molecules, resulting in a favorable microenvironment for tumor progression. Lunasin is a seed peptide with multiple bioactivities derived from seeds. However, the chemopreventive effect of lunasin on different characteristics of breast cancer has not been fully explored.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective:</em></strong>&nbsp;This study aims to explore the chemopreventive mechanisms of lunasin through inflammatory mediators and estrogen-related molecules in breast cancer cells.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Design:</em></strong>&nbsp;Estrogen-dependent MCF-7 and independent MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells were used. The β-estradiol was used to mimic physiological estrogen. The gene expression, mediator secretion, cell vitality, and apoptosis impacting breast malignancy were explored.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results:</em></strong>&nbsp;Lunasin did not affect normal MCF-10A cell growth but inhibited breast cancer cell growth, increased interleukin (IL)-6 gene expression and protein production at 24 h, and decreased its secretion at 48 h. In both breast cancer cells, aromatase gene and activity and estrogen receptor (ER)α gene expression were decreased by lunasin treatment, while ERβ gene levels were significantly increased in MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, lunasin decreased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion and cell vitality and induced cell apoptosis in both breast cancer cell lines. However, lunasin only decreased leptin receptor (Ob-R) mRNA expression in MCF-7 cells. Additionally, β-estradiol increased MCF-7-cell proliferation but not the proliferation of other cells; in particular, lunasin still inhibited MCF-7-cell growth and cell vitality in the presence of β-estradiol.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong>&nbsp;Seed peptide lunasin inhibited breast cancer cell growth by regulating inflammatory, angiogenic, and estrogen-related molecules, suggesting that lunasin is a promising chemopreventive agent.</p> Chia-Chien Hsieh, Chi-Hao Wu, Shih-Han Peng, Chia-Hsin Chang Copyright (c) 2023 Chia-Chien Hsieh, Chi-Hao Wu, Shih-Han Peng, Chia-Hsin Chang https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/8991 Wed, 25 Jan 2023 10:51:02 -0800 The PPARα/CYP4A14 bile acid pathway is associated with lipid metabolism disorders caused by low birth weight with high-fat diet https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/8994 <p style="line-height: 1.5; color: #000000; font-family: -apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, 'Segoe UI', Roboto, Oxygen, Ubuntu, Cantarell, 'Fira Sans', 'Droid Sans', 'Helvetica Neue', sans-serif; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Purpose:</em></strong>&nbsp;To investigate possible mechanisms underlying the greater susceptibility of lipid metabolism disorders in low birth weight (LBW) mice fed with high-fat diets (HFDs).</p> <p style="line-height: 1.5; color: #000000; font-family: -apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, 'Segoe UI', Roboto, Oxygen, Ubuntu, Cantarell, 'Fira Sans', 'Droid Sans', 'Helvetica Neue', sans-serif; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong>&nbsp;LBW mice model was established by using the pregnancy malnutrition method. Male pups were selected from LBW and normal-birth weight (NBW) offspring at random. After 3 weeks of weaning, all offspring mice were fed with HFD. Serum triglycerides (TGs), cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL-C), total bile acid (TAB), non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), and mice fecal bile acid profiles were measured. Lipid deposition in liver sections was visualized by Oil Red O staining. The weight ratio of liver, muscle, and adiposity was calculated. Tandem mass tag (TMT) combined with LC-MS/MS was used to determine the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) of liver tissue in two groups. Bioinformatics was used for further analysis of DEPs to screen key target proteins, and then Western Blot (WB) and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) were performed to validate the expressions of DEPs.</p> <p style="line-height: 1.5; color: #000000; font-family: -apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, 'Segoe UI', Roboto, Oxygen, Ubuntu, Cantarell, 'Fira Sans', 'Droid Sans', 'Helvetica Neue', sans-serif; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results:</em></strong>&nbsp;LBW mice fed with HFD showed more severe lipid metabolism disorders in the childhood. In contrast to the NBW group, the serum bile acids and fecal ω-muricholic acid (ω-MCA) levels in the LBW group were significantly lower. LC-MS/MS analysis showed that downregulated proteins were associated with lipid metabolism, and further analysis found that these proteins are mainly concentrated in peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor (PPAR) and primary bile acid synthesis signaling pathways and are involved in cellular processes and metabolic processes through binding and catalytic functions. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that the level of Cytochrome P450 Family 46 Subfamily A Member 1 (CYP46A1), PPARα, key factors of cholesterol metabolism and bile acid synthesis, as well as downstream molecules Cytochrome P450 Family 4 Subfamily A Member 14 (CYP4A14), and Acyl-Coenzyme A Oxidase 2 (ACOX2) are markedly different in the liver of LBW individuals fed with HFD, and confirmed by WB and RT-qPCR.</p> <p style="line-height: 1.5; color: #000000; font-family: -apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, 'Segoe UI', Roboto, Oxygen, Ubuntu, Cantarell, 'Fira Sans', 'Droid Sans', 'Helvetica Neue', sans-serif; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong>&nbsp;LBW mice are more prone to dyslipidemia probably due to downregulated bile acid metabolism-related PPARα/CYP4A14 pathway, resulting in insufficient metabolism of cholesterol to bile acids, which, in turn, leads to elevated blood cholesterol.</p> Fei Zhou, Linquan Yang, Wenwen Sun, Xing Wang, Na Guo, Huijuan Ma, Linlin Yang Copyright (c) 2023 Fei Zhou, Linquan Yang, Wenwen Sun, Xing Wang, Na Guo, Huijuan Ma, Linlin Yang https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/8994 Tue, 24 Jan 2023 14:13:31 -0800