Food & Nutrition Research <p>As one of the first Open Access journals in its field,&nbsp;<em>Food &amp; Nutrition Research&nbsp;</em>offers an important forum for researchers&nbsp;to exchange the latest results from research on human nutrition broadly and food-related nutrition in particular. The&nbsp;Journal&nbsp;is widely indexed and has an&nbsp;<strong>Impact Factor of 2.039 (2016).</strong></p> en-US <p><span style="color: #4b7d92;">This work is licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a> <br>Authors retain copyright of their work, with first publication rights granted to SNF Swedish Nutrition Foundation.</span></p> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/ecsemiczky/88x31_CC_BY.png"></a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> (The Food & Nutrition Research Editorial Team) (Veronica Svärd) Thu, 10 Jan 2019 08:23:53 -0800 OJS 60 Role of intestinal microecology in the regulation of energy metabolism by dietary polyphenols and their metabolites <p><strong>Background</strong>: Polyphenols are a class of plant secondary metabolites with a variety of physiological functions. Polyphenols and their intestinal metabolites could greatly affect host energy metabolism via multiple mechanisms.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The objective of this review was to elaborate the role of intestinal microecology in the regulatory effects of dietary polyphenols and their metabolites on energy metabolism.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: In this review, we illustrated the potential mechanisms of energy metabolism regulated by the crosstalk between polyphenols and intestinal microecology including intestinal microbiota, intestinal epithelial cells, and mucosal immune system.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Polyphenols can selectively regulate the growth of susceptible microorganisms (eg. reducing the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroides, promoting the growth of beneficial bacteria and inhibiting pathogenic bacteria) as well as alter bacterial enzyme activity. Moreover, polyphenols can influence the absorption and secretion of intestinal epithelial cells, and alter the intestinal mucosal immune system.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The intestinal microecology play a crucial role for the regulation of energy metabolism by dietary polyphenols.</p> Shaoling Lin, Zhengyu Wang, Ka-Lung Lam, Shaoxiao Zeng, Bee K. Tan, Jiamiao Hu ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 14 Feb 2019 04:18:29 -0800 Pomegranate peel polyphenols inhibits inflammation in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages via the suppression of TLR4/NF-κB pathway activation <p><strong>Backgrounds</strong>: Inflammatory response mediated by activated immune cells is a vital process in host defense system while responding to various stresses. Our previous studies have indicated that pomegranate peel polyphenols (PPPs) and their main components punicalagin (PC) and ellagic acid (EA) decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory mediators by regulating the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathway, but whether these tested polyphenols play an important role in NF-κB signaling pathway, another crucial pathway of inflammation, remains unclear.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: In this study, we analyzed the anti-inflammatory effect of these polyphenols via TLR4-NF-κB pathway in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 macrophages.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Different concentrations of PPPs, PC, and EA were pre-incubated with RAW264.7 macrophages and then stimulated with LPS (1 μg/mL), and the effects of reactive oxygen species and TLR4 were investigated. Moreover, NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation and phosphorylation, and degradation of IκB were measured by Western blot. Furthermore, the influence of pro-inflammatory cytokines was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Our data showed that PPPs, PC, and EA inhibited LPS-induced intracellular ROS production and suppressed the mRNA and protein expression levels of TLR4 in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory mechanism was involved in blocking LPS-induced phosphorylation, degradation of IκB, and nuclear translocation of p65. Additionally, PPPs and PC exhibited a stronger anti-inflammatory effect than that of EA.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The results indicated that PPPs possess potent anti-inflammatory effect, and PC was the main effective component in PPPs, which provided new insights into the utilization of PPPs to prevent inflammation- associated disorders.</p> Lin Du, Jianke Li, Xitong Zhang, Lifang Wang, Weimin Zhang, Mi Yang, Chen Hou ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 23 Apr 2019 06:11:01 -0700 Chrysanthemum extract attenuates hepatotoxicity via inhibiting oxidative stress <em>in vivo</em> and <em>in vitro</em> <p><strong>Background</strong>: ‘<em>Bianliang ziyu</em>’, a famous chrysanthemum variety commonly planted in Kaifeng, China, is often consumed by local residents. However, the hepatoprotective effects of Bianliang ziyu and their underlying mechanisms are not clear.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: In this study, we investigated the hepatoprotective and antioxidative effects of Bianliang ziyu extract (BZE) on liver injury and explored its molecular mechanisms.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: Sprague-Dawley rats were administered BZE by intragastric administration for 8–9 days, and then alcohol or carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) was administered by gavage to induce acute liver injury. The activities of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, superoxide dismutase, and malondialdehyde in the rats were measured, and the liver of each rat was examined for histopathological changes. In vitro, HL-7702 cells were pretreated with BZE for 24 h and then exposed to 30 mmol•L−1 acetaminophen (APAP) for 12 h. The survival rate of the cells and the alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities were determined. Then, we investigated the effects of BZE on oxidative stress, apoptosis, and the activation of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling in HL-7702 cells induced by APAP.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The results showed that BZE prevented alcohol-, CCl4-, and APAP-induced liver injury and suppressed hepatic oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo. BZE was also observed to significantly inhibit the reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential and regulate the expression of Bcl-2, Bax and Caspase-3 in APAP-induced HL-7702 cells. In addition, BZE significantly promoted nuclear translocation and the expression of Nrf2 as well as its downstream gene hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) in vitro. Furthermore, the findings showed that Nrf2 siRNA reversed the effects of BZE on cell survival and apoptosis-related protein expression in APAP-induced HL-7702 cells.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: BZE plays an important role in preventing hepatotoxicity by inhibiting oxidative stress and apoptosis through activation of Nrf2 signaling. BZE could be developed as an effective functional food for protecting the liver.</p> Zixia Tian, Haiyan Jia, Yuezhen Jin, Minghui Wang, Jiejian Kou, Chunli Wang, Xuli Rong, Xinmei Xie, Guang Han, Xiaobin Pang ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0700 Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis and phase angle in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy <p><strong>Background</strong>: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a disease characterized by progressive loss of functional muscle mass followed by changes in body composition.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: This study aimed to describe and evaluate bioimpedance parameters in boys with DMD. Design: This cross-sectional, descriptive study investigated children and adolescents diagnosed with DMD. Age, weight, height, resistance, and reactance data were collected. Phase angle and bioelectrical impedance vector analysis were calculated based on resistance and reactance values.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: We analyzed 43 boys aged between 2.7 and 19.8 years. Low-phase angle values were observed during the investigation of bioimpedance parameters. Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis showed that approximately 87% of the subjects presented vectors outside the tolerance ellipses, and only one patient presented vectors located within the 50% tolerance ellipse, indicating normally hydrated and a good body cell mass. Compared with the reference population, boys with DMD had lower levels of body cell mass.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Based on the evidence, compared with the reference population, patients with DMD had lower levels of body cell mass. This evidence points to bioimpedance parameters as useful tools for the nutritional evaluation and clinical management of patients with DMD.</p> Karina M. Vermeulen, Márcia M.G.D. Lopes, Evellyn C. Grilo, Camila X. Alves, Richele J.A. Machado, Lucia L. Lais, José Brandão-Neto, Sancha H.L. Vale ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 10 Apr 2019 04:03:13 -0700 Nutritional properties and biological activities of kiwifruit (<em>Actinidia</em>) and kiwifruit products under simulated gastrointestinal <em>in vitro</em> digestion <p><strong>Background</strong>: Kiwifruit is one of the most commercialized fruits on the international market, which has notable high nutritional and medicinal value with many health benefits. In addition to being consumed fresh, numerous kiwifruit products are popular, such as kiwifruit juice, vinegar, dried slices, jam, wine, yogurt, and jelly. Although many studies have described the nutritional properties of kiwifruit, investigations on the nutritional properties of kiwifruit products remain limited, especially for kiwifruit products made from raw kiwifruit.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Nutritional properties and biological activities of kiwifruit and kiwifruit products, as well as the digestive and absorption characteristics of their nutritional substances, were investigated.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Kiwifruit, juice, wine, and vinegar were observed to be rich in vitamin C (VC) and polyphenol and exhibited high biological activities, whereas dried kiwifruit slices and jam showed higher amounts of mineral elements. During oral digestion, VC and polyphenol showed similar absorption characteristics, while mineral elements exhibited a number of different trends. A good release rate of all nutritional substances was observed during stomach digestion, while the release rate decreased in serum-available, colon-available, and post-colonic fractions. Eating dried slices and jam supplied high amounts of mineral elements, while eating kiwifruit supplied the most comprehensive nutritional substances. The biological activities detected in raw foodstuffs were much higher than those detected after in vitro digestion. Furthermore, kiwifruit and wine showed the highest biological activities, while dried kiwifruit slices showed the lowest biological activities.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: These results increased our understanding of the nutritional properties of kiwifruit and its products, providing new information and scientific recommendations to consumers for kiwifruit consumption and to producers for kiwifruit production.</p> Tingting Ma, Tian Lan, Tonghui Geng, Yanlun Ju, Guo Cheng, Zhiluo Que, Guitian Gao, Yulin Fang, Xiangyu Sun ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 08 Apr 2019 06:27:50 -0700 Childhood obesity in relation to sweet taste perception and dental caries – a cross-sectional multicenter study <p><strong>Background</strong>: Obesity is a multifactorial disease that is increasing worldwide and is caused by different environmental and genetic factors, with an increase in the consumption of high-energy–containing food and a decrease in physical activity constituting two of the main reasons. Sweet taste perception may have an effect on the subject’s dietary choices and affect his or her predisposition to obesity.</p> <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: The aim was to study the sweet taste perception and dental caries in relation to body mass index (BMI) in 13–15-year-old schoolchildren from three different countries and to compare the BMI among the countries.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: The sweet taste perception level, determined as the sweet taste threshold and preference, was assessed in a total of 669 schoolchildren from Italy, Mexico and Saudi Arabia, examined in school settings. Height and weight were collected and BMI was calculated, after which the children were grouped as underweight, normal, overweight, and obese. For caries registration, the International Caries Detection and Assessment System and Decayed Missing Filled Surfaces indices were used.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: A statistically significant difference was found for BMI among the children from the three countries (p &lt; 0.001), with the highest mean found among Saudi children, followed by Mexican and Italian children. A statistically significant difference regarding sweet taste threshold when comparing the BMI groups was only found for Saudi Arabia (p &lt; 0.01). No significant correlation was found between BMI and sweet taste threshold or preference and dental caries variables, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: BMI was found to differ between countries, with a further significant difference among the groups among the Saudi Arabia schoolchildren.</p> Heba Ashi, Guglielmo Campus, Gunilla Klingberg, Heléne Bertéus Forslund, Peter Lingström ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 04 Apr 2019 11:15:16 -0700 Effect of chronic administration of arachidonic acid on the performance of learning and memory in aged rats <p><strong>Background</strong>: Arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4, ω-6) is a ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and plays diverse roles in cell signaling. Numerous reports on the effects of ω-3 PUFAs, such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6, ω-3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5, ω-3) on learning and memory impairments of rats are available, however, the role of AA on brain cognition is largely unknown.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: In this study, our aim was to investigate the effect of oral administration of AA on spatial memory- related learning ability in aged (100 weeks) male rats.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: One group was per orally administered 240 mg/kg per day AA oil and the other group was administered the similar volume of control oil. Five weeks after the start of the administration, rats were tested with the partially baited eight-arm radial maze to evaluate two types of spatial memory-related learning ability displayed by reference memory errors (RMEs) and working memory errors (WMEs). Also, the time required to complete the task was recorded. The levels of lipid peroxide (LPO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured, as an indicator oxidative stress in the plasma and brain corticohippocampal brain tissues.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The scores of RMEs and WMEs, which are analogous to long-term and short-term memory, respectively, were not affected, however, the trial time was shorter in the AA-administered rats than that of the controls. AA also significantly increased the degree of oxidative stress both in the plasma and corticohippocampal brain tissues.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Our results suggest that though AA deposition in the corticohippocampal tissues of senescent rats caused a faster performance activity, which is reminiscent to hyperactive behavior of animals, the spatial learning ability-related memory of the rats, however, was not improved.</p> Takayuki Inoue, Masanori Katakura, Shahdat Hossain, Kentaro Matsuzaki, Osamu Shido ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 25 Mar 2019 06:02:10 -0700 Cod protein powder lowered serum nonesterified fatty acids and increased total bile acid concentrations in healthy, lean, physically active adults: a randomized double-blind study <p><strong>Background</strong>: Fish fillet consumption is associated with beneficial health effects; however, little is known about whether consuming other parts of the fish such as head, backbone, skin, cut-offs, and entrails (collectively known as residuals) will provide comparable effects.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The aim of the study was to investigate if daily supplementation with cod residual protein powder would impact lipid metabolism in healthy adults.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Forty healthy, lean, physically active participants (18 women, 22 men) with normal body mass index consumed 8.1 g of proteins daily from cod residual protein powder (Cod-RP) or placebo (control) for 8 weeks.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Cod residual protein powder supplementation lowered fasting serum nonesterified fatty acids and increased serum total bile acid concentrations significantly when compared with control supplementation. Fasting serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein (Apo) B concentrations, as well as the total cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and ApoB:ApoA1 ratios, were significantly decreased within the Cod-RP group, but these changes were not different from the control group. Fasting serum concentrations of triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and ApoA1 were not changed within or between groups.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Eight weeks of daily supplementation with 8.1 g Cod-RP seems to be sufficient to affect lipid metabolism in healthy, lean, physically active adults.</p> Iselin Vildmyren, Alfred Halstensen, Åge Oterhals, Oddrun A. Gudbrandsen ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 11 Mar 2019 04:09:16 -0700 Enhancement of glucose and bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats fed with germinated pigmented rice with giant embryo (<em>Oryza sativa</em> L. cv. Keunnunjami) <p><strong>Background</strong>: Menopause induces various metabolic disorders due to the rapid decrease of the ovarian hormone estrogen. It is involved in increased risk of obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and osteoporosis. The pigmented giant embryo cultivar is a promising food product for menopause-induced metabolic disorders.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The effects of non-germinated and germinated Keunnunjami, a new blackish purple pigmented rice with a giant embryo, on glucose and bone metabolisms in ovariectomized rats were investigated.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: The animals were fed with normal control diet (NC group) or control diet supplemented with either non-germinated Keunnunjami (KN group) or germinated Keunnunjami (GKN group) powder for 8 weeks.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The blood glucose and plasma insulin levels, adipokine concentrations, hepatic glucose-regulating enzyme activities, and bone resorption biomarker levels significantly decreased in KN and GKN groups compared to those of the control animals.</p> <p><strong>Discussion</strong>: These findings illustrate that GKN group showed greater hypoglycemic activity and lower bone resorption than KN group, suggesting that germination could further improve the physiological property of Keunnunjami.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Germinated Keunnunjami may have therapeutic potential against hyperglycemia and bone turnover imbalance caused by menopause.</p> Soo Im Chung, Xingyue Jin, Mi Young Kang ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 06 Mar 2019 00:00:00 -0800 Seasonality in associations between dietary diversity scores and nutrient adequacy ratios among pregnant women in rural Malawi – a cross-sectional study <p><strong>Background</strong>: Dietary diversity scores (DDS) are simple indicators often used as proxies for nutrient adequacy. A 10-food group indicator is proposed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations as a global standard for measuring dietary diversity among women in low-resource settings. However, its validity as a proxy for nutrient adequacy across different agricultural seasons for pregnant women has not been determined.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: We studied associations between DDS and nutrient adequacy ratios (NAR) across two different agricultural seasons (pre- and post-harvest seasons) for pregnant women in rural Malawi and assessed whether a 1-day DDS or a 3-day DDS would be the best indicator of nutrient adequacy.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: Dietary intakes of 330 pregnant women were assessed between gestational weeks 28 and 35. Intakes of energy, macronutrients, and 11 micronutrients were estimated using three repeated interactive 24-h diet recalls, and DDS were also calculated from these days. Correlation coefficients (r) between DDS, NAR, and mean adequacy ratio (MAR) of the 11 micronutrients were determined.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: After energy adjustments, we found significant correlations between DDS and MAR with both DDS indicators in the preharvest season (r = 0.22–0.23; p &lt; 0.001) but not in the post-harvest season (p &gt; 0.05). For individual energy-adjusted NARs, correlations were not consistently significant across the two seasons and the two DDS indicators.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Our results suggest that DDS could be used to predict overall nutrient adequacy during the preharvest season. As similar correlations were found using both the 1- and 3-day indicators, we recommend using a 1-day DDS, for simplicity. However, as the indicators are sensitive to seasonality they should be used with care in this study setting.</p> Katrine G. Hjertholm, Gerd Holmboe-Ottesen, Per O. Iversen, Ibrahimu Mdala, Alister Munthali, Kenneth Maleta, Zumin Shi, Elaine Ferguson, Penjani Kamudoni ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 27 Feb 2019 01:36:07 -0800 Cereal fiber improves blood cholesterol profiles and modulates intestinal cholesterol metabolism in C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet <p><strong>Background</strong>: Dietary intake of cereal fiber has been reported to benefit lipid metabolism through multiple mechanisms. The present study aimed to discover the potential mechanisms by which cereal fiber could modify the intestinal cholesterol metabolism.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a reference chow (RC) diet; high-fat, high-cholesterol (HFC) diet; HFC plus oat fiber diet; or HFC plus wheat bran fiber diet for 24 weeks. Serum lipids were measured by enzymatic methods. Western blot was used to determine the protein expressions involved in intestinal cholesterol metabolism.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Our results showed that HFC-induced elevations of serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were normalized in both groups that received cereal fiber. At the protein level, compared with the HFC diet group, the two cereal fibers, especially the oat fiber, significantly increased the protein expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, liver X receptor alpha, sterol regulatory element- binding protein (SREBP) 2, low-density lipoprotein receptor, adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette A1, and ATP-binding cassette G1, while decreasing the protein expression of Niemann-Pick C1-like protein 1, SREBP-1, fatty acid synthase, and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase, which were involved in intestinal cholesterol metabolism.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Taken together, increased intake of cereal fiber improved blood cholesterol profiles and increased the intestinal cholesterol efflux and cholesterol clearance in C57BL/6 mice fed a HFC diet. Oat fiber had a stronger effect than wheat bran fiber on cholesterol metabolism by modulating the PPARα, LXRα, and SREBP signaling pathways.</p> Shufen Han, Wei Zhang, Ru Zhang, Jun Jiao, Chunling Fu, Xing Tong, Weiguo Zhang, Liqiang Qin ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 25 Feb 2019 08:27:08 -0800 The extent, nature, and nutritional quality of foods advertised to children in Lebanon: the first study to use the WHO nutrient profile model for the Eastern Mediterranean Region <p><strong>Objective</strong>: Exposure to food marketing may influence children’s food preferences and consumption patterns and may increase the risk of childhood obesity. The WHO Office for the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) has recently released a regional nutrient profile model (WHO EMR) for the purpose of regulating the marketing of food and beverages to children. This study aimed at 1) analyzing the frequency and types of food and drink advertisements during children’s viewing time in Lebanon; 2) examining the nutritional content of the advertised food products in reference to the nutrient thresholds specified by the WHO EMR model; and 3) assessing the proportion of food advertisements that included health messages.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: This study consisted of a cross-sectional content analysis of food advertisements on local TV channels, during children’s viewing time. Setting: Three local Lebanese channels with the highest viewership among 4- to 14-year-olds were selected. Recorded broadcasts (September 2016 through January 2017) were analyzed between 3 pm and 10 pm on weekdays and between 8 am and 10 pm on weekend days.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Approximately 31% of advertisements were for foods or drinks. The proportion of food advertisements was the highest during children’s programs (43%) compared to general viewing (32%) and parental guidance (29%) programs. Approximately 8 out of 10 food advertisements were for products that did not meet the standards of the WHO EMR model. Of concern was the heavy advertisement of alcoholic beverages during programs for general audiences. The majority of the advertisements that comprised a health claim were for foods that did not meet the WHO EMR’s nutritional standards (79%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: The findings of this study, which is the first to utilize the new WHO EMR profile model, should be viewed as a foundation for the development of food marketing policies aimed at reducing children’s exposure to TV food advertisements in Lebanon, a country that harbors a high burden of childhood obesity.</p> Lara Nasreddine, Mandy Taktouk, Massar Dabbous, Jad Melki ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 19 Feb 2019 04:29:47 -0800 <em>Ganoderma lucidum</em> polysaccharide improves rat DSS-induced colitis by altering cecal microbiota and gene expression of colonic epithelial cells <p><strong>Background</strong>: The effects of β-glucan on colitis mice are contradictory in previous reports. As a result, it is still unclear whether there is an anti-colitis effect in Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide (GLP), which is mainly composed of β-glucan. Moreover, the association between GLP function and gut microbiota remains to be elucidated.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: This study aimed to investigate whether GLP consumption improved rat dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis by regulating gut microbiota and altering colonic epithelial expression.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: The disease activity index (DAI) scores and the cecal short chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels of DSS-induced colitis rats fed with a GLP diet (Group GLP, n = 6) and a control diet (Group Con, n = 6) were investigated and analyzed. Moreover, the profiles of gut microbiota and colonic epithelial expression were analyzed using metagenomics and transcriptomics.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: GLP consumption significantly lowered animal DAI scores by producing more SCFAs by increasing SCFA-producing bacteria such as Ruminococcus_1 and reducing pathogens such as Escherichia-Shigella in both the small intestine and cecum of rat. Moreover, GLP consumption regulated 11 genes, including six upregulated (Ccl5, Cd3e, Cd8a, Il21r, Lck, and Trbv) and five downregulated (Ccl3, Gro, Il11, Mhc2, and Ptgs) genes enriched in six inflammation-related Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways, resulting in enhancement of immunity and reduction of inflammatory response and colonic cancer risk.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: GLP consumption alleviated DSS-induced colitis and may have potential for ulcerative colitis relief.</p> Jinli Xie, Yanghanxiu Liu, Bohui Chen, Guangwen Zhang, Shiyi Ou, Jianming Luo, Xichun Peng ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 12 Feb 2019 11:52:47 -0800 Determinants of dietary diversity among women of reproductive age in two different agro-ecological zones of Rongai Sub-County, Nakuru, Kenya <p><strong>Background: </strong>&nbsp;Empirical evidence on the link between agro-biodiversity and dietary diversity appears to be inconclusive. Thus, arises a need to determine other factors that could significantly influence dietary diversity in different agro-ecological zones as factors may vary from region to region.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: This study assessed the determinants of dietary diversity (DD) among women of reproductive age in two different agro-ecological zones of Rongai Sub-County in Kenya; with agrobiodiversity being the main independent predictor.</p> <p><strong>Design:</strong> A cross-sectional study targeting 400 women aged 18-49 years was conducted. Agro-biodiversity was measured using Shannon-Wiener index, species richness/count and production diversity score. A 24-hour dietary recall was used to determine minimum dietary diversity for women (MDD-W) of reproductive age.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Although the level of agrobiodiversity was different between the low and high agro-ecological zones (using Shannon-Wiener index); the women dietary diversity was not different (P&gt;0.05) between low (3.78 ± 0.99) and high potential areas (3.84 ± 1.05). In multivariate logistic regression, there was no association (P&gt;0.05) between agro-biodiversity indicators and dietary diversity across the two agricultural zones. Other factors influenced dietary diversity and varied across the two agro-ecological zones. In low potential areas, women education level positively influenced dietary diversity while in high potential areas household gender, women education level, woman’s age and household size influenced MDD-W.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This paper informs that factors other than agrobiodiversity influenced dietary diversity among women of reproductive age and these determinants varied across the agro-ecological zones. Therefore, it is recommended that nutrition interventions focusing on lessening malnutrition and improving dietary quality should pay special attention to differences in agro-ecological zones to develop region specific interventions instead of generalized interventions.</p> Maureen Wanjiru Gitagia, Rose Chepchirchir Ramkat, Dorothy M Mituki, Celine Termote, Namukolo Covic, Maureen Jepkorir Cheserek ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 18 Jan 2019 00:11:27 -0800 <em>In vitro</em> and <em>in vivo</em> antitumour effects of coconut water vinegar on 4T1 breast cancer cells <p><strong>Background</strong>: Coconut water and vinegars have been reported to possess potential anti-tumour and immunostimulatory effects. However, the anti-tumour, anti-inflammatory and immunostimulatory effects of coconut water vinegar have yet to be tested.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: This study investigated the <em>in vitro</em> and <em>in vivo</em> anti-tumour effects of coconut water vinegar on 4T1 breast cancer cells. Methods: The 4T1 cells were treated with freeze-dried coconut water vinegar and subjected to MTT cell viability, BrdU, annexin V/PI apoptosis, cell cycle and wound healing assays for the<em> in vitro</em> analysis. For the in vivo chemopreventive evaluation, mice challenged with 4T1 cells were treated with 0.08or 2.00 mL/kg body weight of fresh coconut water vinegar for 28 days. Tumour weight, apoptosis of tumour cells, metastasis and immunity of untreated mice and coconut water vinegar-treated 4T1 challenged mice were compared.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Freeze-dried coconut water vinegar reduced the cell viability, induced apoptosis and delayed the wound healing effect of 4T1 cells <em>in vitro</em>. <em>In vivo</em>, coconut water vinegar delayed 4T1 breast cancer progression in mice by inducing apoptosis and delaying the metastasis. Furthermore, coconut water vinegar also promoted immune cell cytotoxicity and production of anticancer cytokines. The results indicate that coconut water vinegar delays breast cancer progression by inducing apoptosis in breast cancer cells, suppressing metastasis and activating anti-tumour immunity.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Coconut water vinegar is a potential health food ingredient with a chemopreventive effect.</p> Nurul Elyani Mohamad, Swee Keong Yeap, Nadiah Abu, Kian Lam Lim, Nur Rizi Zamberi, Noraini Nordin, Shaiful Adzni Sharifuddin, Kamariah Long, Noorjahan Banu Alitheen ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 10 Jan 2019 08:20:08 -0800