Food & Nutrition Research https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr <p>As one of the first Open Access journals in its field,&nbsp;<em>Food &amp; Nutrition Research&nbsp;</em>(FNR) offers an important forum for researchers to exchange the latest results from research on human nutrition broadly and food-related nutrition in particular. FNR is widely indexed by relevant services and databases, including PubMed Central/PubMed, Scopus, Science Citation Index, with an&nbsp;<strong>Impact Factor of 3.89 (2020)</strong>.</p> en-US <p><span style="color: #4b7d92;">Authors retain copyright of their work, with first publication rights granted to SNF Swedish Nutrition Foundation. Read the full <a href="https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/oapolicy">Copyright- and Licensing Statement</a>.</span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> anneli.hovstadius@snf.ideon.se (The Food & Nutrition Research Editorial Team) veronica.svard@openacademia.net (Veronica Svärd) Wed, 06 Jan 2021 07:46:53 -0800 OJS 3.1.2.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 The Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2022 – prioritisation of topics for de novo systematic reviews https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7828 <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background</em>:</strong>&nbsp;As part of the process of updating national dietary reference values (DRVs) and food-based dietary guidelines (FBDGs), the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2022 project (NNR2022) will select a limited number of topics for systematic reviews (SRs).</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective</em>:</strong>&nbsp;To develop and transparently describe the results of a procedure for prioritisation of topics that may be submitted for SRs in the NNR2022 project.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Design</em>:</strong>&nbsp;In an open call, scientists, health professionals, national food and health authorities, food manufacturers, other stakeholders and the general population in the Nordic and Baltic countries were invited to suggest SR topics. The NNR2022 Committee developed scoping reviews (ScRs) for 51 nutrients and food groups aimed at identifying potential SR topics. These ScRs included the relevant nominations from the open call. SR topics were categorised, ranked and prioritised by the NNR2022 Committee in a modified Delphi process. Existing qualified SRs were identified to omit duplication.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results</em>:</strong>&nbsp;A total of 45 nominations with suggestion for more than 200 exposure–outcome pairs were received in the public call. A number of additional topics were identified in ScRs. In order to omit duplication with recently qualified SRs, we defined criteria and identified 76 qualified SRs. The NNR2022 Committee subsequently shortlisted 52 PI/ECOTSS statements, none of which overlapped with the qualified SRs. The PI/ECOTSS statements were then graded ‘High’ (<em>n</em>&nbsp;= 21), ‘Medium’ (<em>n</em>&nbsp;= 9) or ‘Low’ (<em>n</em>&nbsp;= 22) importance, and the PI/ECOTSS statements with ‘High’ were ranked in a Delphi process. The nine top prioritised PI/ECOTSS included the following exposure–outcome pairs: 1) plant protein intake in children and body growth, 2) pulses/legumes intake, and cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, 3) plant protein intake in adults, and atherosclerotic/cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, 4) fat quality and mental health, 5) vitamin B<sup>12</sup>&nbsp;and vitamin B<sup>12</sup>&nbsp;status, 6) intake of white meat (no consumption vs. high consumption and white meat replaced with red meat), and all-cause mortality, type 2 diabetes and risk factors, 7) intake of n-3 LPUFAs from supplements during pregnancy, and asthma and allergies in the offspring, 8) nuts intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes in adults, 9) dietary fibre intake (high vs. low) in children and bowel function.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Discussion</em>:</strong>&nbsp;The selection of topics for&nbsp;<em>de novo</em>&nbsp;SRs is central in the NNR2022 project, as the results of these SRs may cause adjustment of existing DRVs and FBDGs. That is why we have developed this extensive process for the prioritisation of SR topics. For transparency, the results of the process are reported in this publication.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusion</em>:</strong>&nbsp;The principles and methodologies developed in the NNR2022 project may serve as a framework for national health authorities or organisations when developing national DRVs and FBDGs. This collaboration between the food and health authorities in Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway and Sweden represents an international effort for harmonisation and sharing of resources and competence when developing national DRVs and FBDGs.</p> Anne Høyer, Jacob Juel Christensen, Erik Kristoffer Arnesen, Rikke Andersen, Hanna Eneroth, Maijaliisa Erkkola, Eva Warensjö Lemming, Helle Margrete Meltzer, Þórhallur Ingi Halldórsson, Inga Þórsdóttir, Ellen Trolle, Ursula Schwab, Rune Blomhoff Copyright (c) 2021 Anne Høyer, Jacob Juel Christensen, Erik Kristoffer Arnesen, Rikke Andersen, Hanna Eneroth, Maijaliisa Erkkola, Eva Warensjö Lemming, Helle Margrete Meltzer, Þórhallur Ingi Halldórsson, Inga Þórsdóttir, Ellen Trolle, Ursula Schwab, Rune Blomhoff https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7828 Fri, 08 Oct 2021 04:56:22 -0700 The influence of acetylsalicylic acid and alcohol on absorption kinetics of hen ́s egg white in a human passive cutaneous anaphylaxis model https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7618 <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background:</em></strong>&nbsp;Despite the well-known fact that acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) can induce anaphylaxis in patients susceptible to wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis, few studies have sought to investigate the effects of cofactors on type-1 food allergy and none with ASA and hen’s egg and hen’s egg and alcohol combined.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Methods and results:</em></strong>&nbsp;We applied the experimental model of ‘passive cutaneous anaphylaxis’ in humans to study whether the absorption kinetics of egg white is altered while being treated with ASA or under the influence of alcohol. Donor sera from four egg allergic patients with specific immunoglobulin E (s-IgE) to ovalbumin (0.1–8.87–19.5–170 kUA/L) were injected intracutaneously into the forearm of 12 healthy volunteers who were then challenged separately to: 1) egg white 2) egg white + ASA and 3) egg white + alcohol. ‘Time to wheal’ and ‘wheal size’ were compared among the three experiments.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">We saw that ‘time to wheal’ with both ASA (<em>P</em>&nbsp;= 0.001) and alcohol (<em>P</em>&nbsp;= 0.019) added as cofactor significantly decreased compared with baseline.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong>&nbsp;In this passive cutaneous anaphylaxis model, ASA and alcohol affected both reaction time and size of reactions elicited after egg ingestion. This suggests that patients with egg allergy could have faster and more severe reactions during ASA treatment or under alcohol influence.</p> Nicolaj Brandt, Esben Eller, Anja Pahlow Mose, Carsten Bindslev-Jensen, Charlotte Mortz Copyright (c) 2021 Nicolaj Brandt, Esben Eller, Anja Pahlow Mose, Carsten Bindslev-Jensen, Charlotte Mortz https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7618 Wed, 24 Nov 2021 12:40:22 -0800 Reproducibility and feasibility of an online self-administered food frequency questionnaire for use among adult Norwegians https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7561 <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background:</em></strong>&nbsp;New methods of dietary assessment are increasingly making use of online technologies. The development of a new online food frequency questionnaire warranted investigation of its feasibility and the reproducibility of its results.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective:</em></strong>&nbsp;To investigate the feasibility and reproducibility of a newly developed online FFQ (WebFFQ).</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Design:</em></strong>&nbsp;The semiquantitative WebFFQ was designed to assess the habitual diet the previous year, with questions about frequency of intake and portion sizes. Estimations of portion sizes include both pictures and household measures, depending on the type of food in question. In two independent cross-sectional studies conducted in 2015 and 2016, adults were recruited by post following random selection from the general population. In the first study, participants (<em>n</em>&nbsp;= 229) filled in the WebFFQ and answered questions about its feasibility, and in two subsequent focus group meetings, participants (<em>n</em>&nbsp;= 9) discussed and gave feedback about the feasibility of the WebFFQ. In the second study, the WebFFQ’s reproducibility was assessed by asking participants (<em>n</em>&nbsp;= 164) to fill it in on two separate occasions, 12 weeks apart. Moreover, in the second study, participants were offered personal dietary feedback, a monetary gift certificate, or both, as incentives to complete the study.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results:</em></strong>&nbsp;In the feasibility study, evaluation form results showed that participants raised issues regarding the estimation of portion size and the intake of seasonal foods as being particularly challenging; furthermore, in the focus group discussions, personal feedback on diet was perceived to be a more motivating factor than monetary reward. In the reproducibility study, total food intake was lower in the second WebFFQ; however, 63% of the food groups were not significantly different from those in the first WebFFQ. Correlations of food intake ranged from 0.62 to 0.90, &gt;86% of the participants were classified into the same or adjacent quartiles, and misclassification ranged from 0 to 3%. Average energy intake was 3.5% lower (<em>p</em>&nbsp;= 0.001), fiber showed the least difference at 1.6% (<em>p</em>&nbsp;= 0.007), and sugar intake differed the most at −6.8% (borderline significant,&nbsp;<em>p</em>&nbsp;= 0.08). Percentage energy obtained from macronutrients did not differ significantly between the first and second WebFFQs.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong>&nbsp;Our results suggest that at group level, the WebFFQ showed good reproducibility for the estimations of intake of food groups, energy, and nutrients. The feasibility of the WebFFQ is good; however, revisions to further improve portion size estimations should be included in future versions. The WebFFQ is considered suitable for dietary assessments for healthy adults in the Norwegian population.</p> Monica Hauger Carlsen, Lene Frost Andersen, Anette Hjartåker Copyright (c) 2021 Monica Hauger Carlsen, Lene Frost Andersen, Anette Hjartåker https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7561 Thu, 11 Nov 2021 06:57:57 -0800 Concentrated extract of Prunus mume fruit exerts dual effects in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by inhibiting adipogenesis and inducing beiging/browning https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5492 <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background:</em></strong>&nbsp;The fruit&nbsp;<em>Prunus mume</em>&nbsp;has beneficial effects in the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome. However, its mechanism of action is unclear.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective:</em></strong>&nbsp;We assessed the effect of a concentrated water extract of&nbsp;<em>P. mume</em>&nbsp;fruit (CEPM) on adipogenesis and beiging/browning in 3T3-L1 cells.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong>&nbsp;The cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Lipid accumulation was assessed with Oil Red O (ORO) staining under different concentrations of CEPM. The effects of CEPM treatment during differentiation on beiging/browning and mitochondrial biogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells were investigated.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results:</em></strong>&nbsp;CEPM treatment suppressed differentiation and decreased lipid accumulation by downregulating the expression of key adipogenic genes, including PPARγ, C/EBPα, SREBP-1c, FAS, and perilipin A. In contrast, CEPM treatment increased the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content and mRNA levels of mitochondrial biogenesis genes, including&nbsp;<em>NAMPT</em>,&nbsp;<em>Nrf1</em>,&nbsp;<em>Nrf2,</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em>CPT1</em>α, and reduced reactive oxygen species levels. Importantly, CEPM increased the expression of brown/beige hallmark genes (<em>Pgc-1</em>α,&nbsp;<em>Ucp1</em>,&nbsp;<em>Cidea</em>,&nbsp;<em>Cox7α1</em>,&nbsp;<em>Cox8b</em>,&nbsp;<em>Cd137</em>, and&nbsp;<em>Pdk-4</em>), as well as proteins (UCP1, PGC-1α, NRF1, TBX1, and CPT1α). The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis reveals that CEPM contains mumefural, naringin, 5-HMF, citric acid, caffeic acid, and hesperidin.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong>&nbsp;The first evidence we provided showed that CEPM has a dual role in 3T3-L1 cells inhibiting adipogenesis and promoting beiging/browning, and hence, could be a potential agent in the fight against obesity.</p> Su Bu, Chunying Yuan, Fuliang Cao, Qifeng Xu, Yichun Zhang, Ronghua Ju, Longyun Chen, Zhong Li Copyright (c) 2021 Su Bu, Chunying Yuan, Fuliang Cao, Qifeng Xu, Yichun Zhang, Ronghua Ju, Longyun Chen, Zhong Li https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5492 Fri, 29 Oct 2021 12:46:33 -0700 Facilitators of and barriers to collaboration between universities and the food industry in nutrition research: a qualitative study https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7874 <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background:</em></strong>&nbsp;Unhealthy food is one of the main risk factors for non-communicable diseases. Improved knowledge about healthy and sustainable food products requires nutrition research in collaboration between universities and the food industry.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective:</em></strong>&nbsp;To investigate the facilitators of and barriers to university–industry collaborations in nutrition research.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Design:</em></strong>&nbsp;Semi-structured, individual interviews with five researchers in universities and five employees in the food industry were conducted in the Oslo region, Norway. Interviews were thematically analysed and guided by Braun and Clark.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results:</em></strong>&nbsp;This study showed positive experiences and attitudes towards a university–industry collaboration within nutrition research aiming for healthier food products. The main facilitators of good collaboration were common goals, the exchange of knowledge and the opportunity for research funding. Barriers to good collaboration were prejudices related to the food industry’s goals and previous experiences of time-consuming projects. Interestingly, collaboration agreements were identified as both facilitators of and barriers to good collaboration.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong>&nbsp;Stimulating university–food industry collaboration requires increased juridical assistance, provided that the lawyers involved understand the parties’ interests and the need to balance those interests and safeguard mutual trust. In addition, the food industry must take a clearer role in their engagement in public health to improve their trustworthiness in relation to research results.</p> Lisa Garnweidner-Holme, Helle Skoglund Lieberg, Harald Irgens-Jensen, Vibeke H. Telle-Hansen Copyright (c) 2021 Lisa Garnweidner-Holme, Helle Skoglund Lieberg, Harald Irgens-Jensen, Vibeke H. Telle-Hansen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7874 Wed, 27 Oct 2021 13:02:43 -0700 <em>Weissella cibaria</em> MG5285 and <em>Lactobacillus reuteri</em> MG5149 attenuated fat accumulation in adipose and hepatic steatosis in high-fat diet-induced C57BL/6J obese mice https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/8087 <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background:</em></strong>&nbsp;Excessive consumption of dietary fat is closely related to obesity, diabetes, insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Recently, probiotics have been highly proposed as biotherapeutic to treat and prevent diseases. Previously, there are studies that demonstrated the beneficial effects of probiotics against metabolic disorders, including obesity and diabetes.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective:</em></strong>&nbsp;We investigated the anti-obesity effect and mechanism of action of four human-derived lactic acid bacterial (LAB) strains (<em>Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus</em>&nbsp;MG4502,&nbsp;<em>Lactobacillus gasseri</em>&nbsp;MG4524,&nbsp;<em>Limosilactobacillus reuteri</em>&nbsp;MG5149, and&nbsp;<em>Weissella cibaria</em>&nbsp;MG5285) in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Design:</em></strong>&nbsp;Obesity was induced in mice over 8 weeks, with a 60% HFD. The four human-derived LAB strains (2&nbsp;× 10<sup>8</sup>&nbsp;CFU/mouse) were orally administered to male C57BL/6J mice once daily for 8 weeks. Body weight, liver and adipose tissue (AT) weights, glucose tolerance, and serum biochemistry profiles were determined. After collecting the tissues, histopathological and Western blot analyses were conducted.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results:</em></strong>&nbsp;Administration of these LAB strains resulted in decreased body weight, liver and AT weights, and glucose tolerance. Serum biochemistry profiles, including triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and leptin, pro-inflammatory cytokines, improved. Hepatic steatosis and TG levels in liver tissue were significantly reduced. In addition, the size of adipocytes in epididymal tissue was significantly reduced. In epididymal tissues,&nbsp;<em>Limosilactobacillus reuteri</em>&nbsp;MG5149 and&nbsp;<em>Weissella cibaria</em>&nbsp;MG5285 groups showed a significantly reduced expression of lipogenic proteins, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α, fatty acid synthase (FAS), and adipocyte-protein 2. In addition, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1-c and its downstream protein FAS in the liver tissue were significantly decreased. These strains attenuated fat accumulation in the liver and AT by upregulating the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase in HFD-fed mice.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong>&nbsp;We suggest that&nbsp;<em>L. reuteri</em>&nbsp;MG5149 and&nbsp;<em>W. cibaria</em>&nbsp;MG5285 could be used as potential probiotic candidates to prevent obesity.</p> Soo-Im Choi, SoHyeon You, SukJin Kim, GaYeong Won, Chang-Ho Kang, Gun-Hee Kim Copyright (c) 2021 Soo-Im Choi, SoHyeon You, SukJin Kim, GaYeong Won, Chang-Ho Kang, Gun-Hee Kim https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/8087 Wed, 27 Oct 2021 13:12:19 -0700 <em>Stauntonia hexaphylla</em> leaf extract (YRA-1909) suppresses inflammation by modulating Akt/NF-κB signaling in lipopolysaccharide-activated peritoneal macrophages and rodent models of inflammation https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7666 <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background</em></strong>: Inflammation is emerging as a key contributor to many vascular diseases and furthermore plays a major role in autoimmune diseases, arthritis, allergic reactions, and cancer. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which is a component constituting the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, is commonly used for an inflammatory stimuli to mimic inflammatory diseases. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) is a transcription factor and regulates gene expression particularly related to the inflammatory process.&nbsp;<em>Stauntonia hexaphylla</em>&nbsp;(Lardizabalaceae) is widely used as a traditional herbal medicine for rheumatism and osteoporosis and as an analgesic, sedative, and diuretic in Korea, Japan, and China.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective</em></strong>: The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of YRA-1909, the leaf aqueous extract of&nbsp;<em>Stauntonia hexaphylla</em>&nbsp;using LPS-activated rat peritoneal macrophages and rodent inflammation models.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results</em></strong>: YRA-1909 inhibited the LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and proinflammatory cytokine production in rat peritoneal macrophages without causing cytotoxicity and reduced inducible NO synthase and prostaglandin E<sub>2</sub>&nbsp;levels without affecting the cyclooxygenase-2 expression. YRA-1909 also prevented the LPS-stimulated Akt and NF-κB phosphorylation and reduced the carrageenan-induced hind paw edema, xylene-induced ear edema, acetic acid-induced vascular permeation, and cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation in a dose-dependent manner in mice and rats.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong>:&nbsp;<em>S. hexaphylla</em>&nbsp;leaf extract YRA-1909 had anti-inflammatory activity&nbsp;<em>in vitro</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em>in vivo</em>&nbsp;that involves modulation of Akt/NF-κB signaling. Thus, YRA-1909 is safe and effective for the treatment of inflammation.</p> Jaeyong Kim, Gyuok Lee, Huwon Kang, Ji-Seok Yoo, Yongnam Lee, Hak-sung Lee, Chul-yung Choi Copyright (c) 2021 Jaeyong Kim, Gyuok Lee, Huwon Kang, Ji-Seok Yoo, Yongnam Lee, Hak-sung Lee, Chul-yung Choi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7666 Tue, 26 Oct 2021 13:31:36 -0700 Dietary lactoferrin has differential effects on gut microbiota in young versus middle-aged APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice but no effects on cognitive function https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5496 <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background:</em></strong>&nbsp;Existing evidence suggest that lactoferrin might be beneficial for Alzheimer’s disease, while precise mechanisms are not fully elucidated.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective:</em></strong>&nbsp;To determine the effects of lactoferrin intervention on cognitive function from APPswe/PS1dE9 (APP/PS1) mice, and potential mechanisms involved.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Design:</em></strong>&nbsp;Both the young and middle-aged male APP/PS1 mice were divided into the control and lactoferrin intervention groups with 16 weeks’ intervention.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results:</em></strong>&nbsp;Lactoferrin had no effects on cognitive function for both the young and middle-aged mice, and no key markers involved in Aβ, tau pathology, neuro-inflammation and synaptic plasticity were altered after lactoferrin intervention. With regards to gut microbiota profiles, in the young APP/PS1 mice, lactoferrin elevated the α diversity index including ACE and Chao 1, and reduced the relative abundance of the genera&nbsp;<em>Bacteroides</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em>Alistipes</em>&nbsp;and elevated&nbsp;<em>Oscillibacter</em>; in addition,&nbsp;<em>Oscillibacter, Anaerotruncus, EF096579_g, EU454405_g, Mollicutes_RF39, EU474361_g, EU774448_g, and EF096976_g</em>&nbsp;were specifically abundant via linear discriminant analysis with effect size (LEfSe) analysis. In the middle-aged APP/PS1 mice, the relative abundance of the phylum&nbsp;<em>Proteobacteria</em>, as well as the genera&nbsp;<em>Oscillospira, Coprococcus</em>, and&nbsp;<em>Ruminococcus</em>&nbsp;was significantly reduced post lactoferrin; additionally,&nbsp;<em>S24_7</em>,&nbsp;<em>Bacteroidia</em>,&nbsp;<em>Bacteroidetes,</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em>Methylobacterium</em>&nbsp;were specific via LEfSe analysis in the lactoferrin group.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusions:</em></strong>&nbsp;Dietary lactoferrin might be beneficial for gut microbiota homeostasis although it might have no effects on cognition.</p> Huan-Huan Zhou, Guiping Wang, Lan Luo, Wei Ding, Jia-Ying Xu, Zengli Yu, Li-Qiang Qin, Zhongxiao Wan Copyright (c) 2021 Huan-Huan Zhou, Guiping Wang, Lan Luo, Wei Ding, Jia-Ying Xu, Zengli Yu, Li-Qiang Qin, Zhongxiao Wan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5496 Mon, 18 Oct 2021 14:20:13 -0700 Kiwifruit defense protein, kiwellin (Act d 5) percutaneously sensitizes mouse models through the epidermal application of crude kiwifruit extract https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7610 <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Kiwifruit is a popular fruit consumed worldwide and is also used as a cosmetic ingredient. However, it is known to cause allergic reactions in humans. Recent studies have suggested an association between food allergy and food allergens entering the body via the skin. However, percutaneously sensitizing kiwifruit allergens have not been identified in human studies or in animal models.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective</em>:</strong>&nbsp;This study aimed to identify kiwifruit proteins that percutaneously sensitized mice through the epidermal application of crude extracts from green and gold kiwifruit on the dorsal skin, and serum IgE and IgG1 levels were used as sensitization markers.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Design</em>:</strong>&nbsp;BALB/c mice were back-shaved and their skin was exposed to crude extracts from green and gold kiwifruit that contained sodium dodecyl sulfate. Specific IgE and IgG1 antibodies generated and secreted in response to antigens were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or immunoblotting.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Skin exposure to kiwifruit extract induced an increase in the levels of kiwifruit-specific IgE and IgG1, which are helper T cell 2-related allergenic antibodies in mice. These antibodies reacted with 18, 23, and 24 kDa proteins found in both green and gold kiwifruits. Thus, three percutaneously sensitizing allergens were identified and purified. Their amino acid sequences partially matched with that of kiwellin (Act d 5).</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Discussion and conclusion</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Kiwellin has been identified as a plant defense-related protein. Interestingly, many plant allergens are biodefense-related proteins belonging to the pathogenesis-related protein family. Kiwellin, which was discovered to be a transdermal sensitizing antigen, might also be categorized as a biodefense-related protein. This study is the first to identify kiwellin (Act d 5) as a percutaneously sensitizing kiwifruit allergen in a mouse model.</p> Serina Kinugasa, Shota Hidaka, Serina Tanaka, Eri Izumi, Nobuhiro Zaima, Tatsuya Moriyama Copyright (c) 2021 Tatsuya Moriyama, Serina Kinugasa, Shota Hidaka, Serina Tanaka, Eri Izumi, Nobuhiro Zaima https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7610 Fri, 15 Oct 2021 00:24:14 -0700 Synergistic antitumor effect of resveratrol and sorafenib on hepatocellular carcinoma through PKA/AMPK/eEF2K pathway https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/3602 <p><span style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">Although sorafenib (Sor) is the only effective drug for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), its therapeutic potential to date is mainly limited to the low tumor response. This study was designed to explore whether resveratrol (Res) could potentiate the anticancerous activity of Sor. We used HepG2 and Huh7 HCC cell lines and BALB/c nude mice for&nbsp;</span><em style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">in vitro</em><span style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">&nbsp;and&nbsp;</span><em style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">in vivo</em><span style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">&nbsp;studies, respectively. The cultured cell lines and tumor induction in the mice were treated with different concentrations of Res and Sor alone, and the combination of Res and Sor to observe the antitumor effects. Significant inhibitory effects were observed in the combined treatment of Res and Sor compared to Res and Sor alone treatments both&nbsp;</span><em style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">in vitro</em><span style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">&nbsp;and&nbsp;</span><em style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">in vivo</em><span style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">&nbsp;as demonstrated by significantly high number of S phase cells and apoptotic cells. Moreover, these findings were accompanied by the reduction of CDK2, CDC25A, PKA, p-AMPK, and eEF2K protein levels and the increment of cyclin A, cleavage caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 protein levels. The combinational treatment exhibited more significant anticancerous effect than the Res and Sor alone treatments in mice-bearing HepG2 xenograft. Overall, our results suggest that PKA/AMPK/eEF2K pathway is involved in the synergistic anticancerous activity of Res and Sor combination treatment in HCC cells. Thus, Res and Sor combination therapy may be promising in increasing the tumor response of Sor in the future.</span></p> Meili Gao, Chun Deng, Fan Dang Copyright (c) 2021 Meili Gao, Chun Deng, Fan Dang https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/3602 Wed, 13 Oct 2021 23:50:23 -0700 Effectiveness of a kindergarten-based intervention to increase vegetable intake and reduce food neophobia amongst 1-year-old children: a cluster randomised controlled trial https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7679 <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background:</em></strong>&nbsp;Children’s first years of life are crucial to their future health. Studies show that a varied diet with a high intake of vegetables is positive in several domains of health. The present low vegetable intake amongst children is, therefore, a concern. Food neophobia is a common barrier to vegetable intake in children. As most Norwegian children attend kindergarten from an early age, kindergartens could contribute to the prevention of food neophobia and the promotion of vegetable intake.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective:</em></strong>&nbsp;The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a cluster randomised trial amongst 1-year-old children in kindergarten to reduce food neophobia and promote healthy eating.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong>&nbsp;Kindergartens were randomly allocated to either a control group or one of two intervention groups. Both intervention groups (diet and diet + Sapere-method) were served a warm lunch meal including three alternating intervention vegetables, whilst the intervention group 2 (diet + Sapere) in addition received tools for weekly sensory lessons. The intervention was digitally administered via information and recipes on a study website. The control group did not receive any information. Parents completed digitally distributed questionnaires addressing food neophobia and food habits at baseline and post-intervention.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results:</em></strong>&nbsp;The parents of 144 1-year-old children in 46 kindergartens completed the questionnaires, which were included in the main analysis. The results suggested a higher intake of the intervention vegetables in group 2 (diet + Sapere) compared to the control group. The effect on total vegetable intake was inconclusive. No effect was observed on the level of food neophobia in either of the intervention group.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong>&nbsp;This digitally delivered dietary and sensory intervention promoted the intake of intervention-targeted vegetables with inconclusive effect on total vegetable intake due to large loss to follow-up. No effect on the level of food neophobia was detected.</p> Eli Anne Myrvoll Blomkvist, Andrew K. Wills, Sissel Heidi Helland, Elisabet Rudjord Hillesund, Nina Cecilie Øverby Copyright (c) 2021 Eli Anne Myrvoll Blomkvist, Andrew K. Wills, Sissel Heidi Helland, Elisabet Rudjord Hillesund, Nina Cecilie Øverby https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7679 Fri, 08 Oct 2021 05:30:08 -0700 DHA-rich n-3 PUFAs intake from the early- and mid-pregnancy decreases the weight gain by affecting the DNA methylation status among Chinese Han infants https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7548 <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Maternal exogenous docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) intake during the pregnancy, especially DHA, has inconsistent effects on reducing the fat storage of the infants in different clinical studies.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objectives</em>:</strong>&nbsp;We sought to determine the effects of maternal exogenous DHA-rich n-3 PUFAs capsule intake from the different pregnancy periods on the weight gain of their infants through modifying the DNA methylation status of obesity-associated genes in the umbilical cord blood.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Design</em>:</strong>&nbsp;A prospective 3-year follow-up study after the pregnancy was enrolled in this cohort from May to October 2016. They were divided into different groups according to the initial time of exogenous DHA capsule intake through the questionnaires (S1 – early trimester, S2 – mid-trimester, S3 – late trimester, and control – without). The concentrations and compositions of DHA were determined by gas chromatography. We applied quantitative DNA methylation states of the obesity-associated genes in the umbilical cord blood. The growth outcomes and relevant&nbsp;<em>Z</em>-scores were recorded at birth and 1 and 2 years. The correlations between DNA methylation status of the obesity-associated genes with the consents of DNA and body mass index (BMI) values were investigated as the measures.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results</em>:</strong>&nbsp;In total, 205 pregnant women and their infants were eligible for this follow-up study. The concentrations and compositions of DHA in the colostrum and umbilical cord blood were higher in the S1 and S2 groups than those in the control and S3 groups as well as the decreased weight, BMI, weight for age&nbsp;<em>Z</em>-score (WAZ) and BMI for age Z-score (BMI Z) at birth and 1 and/or 2 years, and higher levels of global DNA methylation and many CpG sites in the obesity-associated genes, such as CpG2, CpG9, CpG11, and CpG16 of PPAR-γ; CpG2,3, CpG4-6, CpG8, CpG9,10, CpG11, CpG15,16, and average of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBP-α); CpG1 and average of adiponectin; CpG1, CpG2, CpG3, CpG5, CpG6, CpG7, and average of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2); CpG6, CpG7, CpG9, CpG16, CpG23, and CpG24 of leptin, which were more obvious in the S1 group when compared with those in the S2 group. These above hypermethylation levels of CpG sites were negatively correlated with the BMI and positively related with the changes of DHA in the colostrum and umbilical cord blood.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusions</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Maternal exogenous DHA-rich n-3 PUFAs intake from early- and mid- trimesters of the pregnancy may avoid the development of obesity among Chinese Han infants until 2 years by modulating DNA methylation states of obesity-associated genes, which could provide attractive targets for prenatal prevention of the metabolic disorders.</p> Ping Li, Xiaoyu Chen, Tianyi Teng, Xiuqin Fan, Tiantian Tang, Rui Wang, Yurong Zhao, Kemin Qi Copyright (c) 2021 Ping Li, Xiaoyu Chen, Tianyi Teng, Xiuqin Fan, Tiantian Tang, Rui Wang, Yurong Zhao, Kemin Qi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7548 Thu, 07 Oct 2021 13:08:33 -0700 The effect of consuming voluntarily fortified food and beverages on usual nutrient intakes in the Canadian population https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5256 <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background</em>:</strong>&nbsp;In Canada, regulatory changes have expanded marketing opportunities for voluntarily fortified products (VFPs), with micronutrient additions permitted at levels well in excess of human requirements.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective</em>:</strong>&nbsp;To examine how the consumption of VFPs relates to usual nutrient intakes in the Canadian population.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Design</em>:</strong>&nbsp;The 2015 Canadian Community Health Survey comprises single 24-h dietary intake recalls on a population-representative sample of 20,487 individuals aged 1 year and older, with second recalls on a subset of 7,608. The intake data included 15 food codes denoting VFP (e.g. energy drinks, fortified beverages, cereals, and bars). We assessed VFP consumption and estimated usual intake distributions for riboflavin, niacin, zinc, and vitamins A, B6, B12, and C for VFP consumers and non-consumers 14–50 years old (<em>n</em>&nbsp;= 8,442) using the National Cancer Institute method. We applied the ‘shrink and add’ method to estimate usual intakes among supplement users and assessed apparent benefits and risks by comparing usual intake distributions to EARs and ULs.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Only 2.4% of the population reported any consumption of VFP on the first 24-h recall. VFP consumers were overrepresented in the upper quartile of population intake distributions for niacin, riboflavin, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and zinc. The median usual intakes of VFP consumers were 24–111% higher than the median usual intakes of non-consumers, and VFP consumers had significantly lower prevalence of inadequacy for riboflavin and vitamins A, B6, B12, and C. Irrespective of VFP consumption, usual intake distributions reached the ULs for vitamin A and zinc with the addition of supplement intakes.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Discussion</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Given the limited differentiation of VFP in this survey, we have likely underestimated nutrient exposure levels.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusions</em>:</strong>&nbsp;VFP consumption was associated with elevated usual nutrient intakes, but we found limited evidence that it protected consumers from nutrient inadequacies or propelled intakes above tolerable upper levels.</p> Valerie Tarasuk, Didier Brassard Copyright (c) 2021 Valerie Tarasuk, Didier Brassard https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5256 Mon, 04 Oct 2021 06:46:50 -0700 Evaluation of <em>Colocasia esculenta</em> Schott in anti-cancerous properties with proximity extension assays https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7549 <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background</em>:</strong>&nbsp;<em>Colocasia esculenta</em>&nbsp;Schott (called as Xiangshayu in Chinese) is an excellent local cultivar of the genus polymorpha in Jiangsu Province, China.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective</em>:</strong>&nbsp;In the present study, we have performed a comparative study before and after dietary consumption with&nbsp;<em>Colocasia esculenta</em>&nbsp;Schott to evaluate its anti-cancerous properties.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Design</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Forty-two healthy volunteers were recruited, and dietary consumption with 200 g of tap water cooked&nbsp;<em>Colocasia esculenta</em>&nbsp;Schott daily was conducted for 1 month. Plasma samples from the subjects before and after dietary consumption with&nbsp;<em>Colocasia esculenta</em>&nbsp;Schott were analyzed with proximity extension assays for the alteration of 92 proteins in relation with cancers, while blood samples were examined for physiological parameters with an automatic biochemical analyzer. Bioinformatic analyses were conducted using MalaCards and GEPIA.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results</em>:</strong>&nbsp;After taking dietary consumption with&nbsp;<em>Colocasia esculenta</em>&nbsp;Schott, circulating CYR61, ANXA1, and VIM protein levels in the subjects was found to be most significantly downregulated, while for ITGB5, EPHA2, and CEACAM1, it was upregulated. Alternation of these proteins was predicted to be associated with the development of tumors such as pancreatic adenocarcinoma and breast and prostate cancers.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusion</em>:</strong>&nbsp;The present study provides evidence that&nbsp;<em>Colocasia esculenta</em>&nbsp;Schott, as a healthy food, has anti-cancerous properties. Further investigation of phytochemistry in&nbsp;<em>Colocasia esculenta</em>&nbsp;Schott has been taken into our consideration.</p> Liang Wu, Yuxuan Wang, Xiaoyan Wang, Jun Liao, Hao Dong, Xiyunyi Cai, Yurong Wang, Harvest F. Gu Copyright (c) 2021 Liang Wu, Yuxuan Wang, Xiaoyan Wang, Jun Liao, Hao Dong, Xiyunyi Cai, Yurong Wang, Harvest F. Gu https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7549 Mon, 04 Oct 2021 04:13:42 -0700 Recombinant CRAMP-producing Lactococcus lactis attenuates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis by colonic colonization and inhibiting p38/NF-κB signaling https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5570 <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are generally characterized by persistent abdominal pain and diarrhea caused by chronic inflammation in the intestine. Cathelicidins are antimicrobial peptides with pleiotropic roles in anti-infection, wound healing, and immune modulation. However, the sensitivity to the acidic environment and short half-life of cathelicidins limit their application in IBD treatment. Recombinant cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP)-producing&nbsp;<em>Lactococcus lactis</em>&nbsp;may represent a potential approach for IBD therapy.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective</em>:</strong>&nbsp;The aim of this study was to develop recombinant CRAMP-producing&nbsp;<em>L. lactis</em>&nbsp;NZ9000 and explore the role and mechanism of recombinant&nbsp;<em>L. lactis</em>&nbsp;NZ9000 expressing CRAMP in colitis.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Design</em>:</strong>&nbsp;We constructed two strains of CRAMP-producing&nbsp;<em>L. lactis</em>&nbsp;NZ9000 with different plasmids pMG36e (<em>L.L</em>-pMU45CR) or pNZ8148 (<em>L.L-</em>pNU45CR), which use a Usp45 secretion signal to drive the secretion of CRAMP. Bacterial suspensions were orally supplemented to mice with a syringe for 4 days after dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) treatment. Body weight change, disease active score, colon length, and colonic histology were determined. The expression of tight junction (ZO-1, ZO-2, and Occludin) and cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-10) in colon was performed by qPCR. The expression of p-ERK, p-p38, and p-p65 was determined by Western blot analysis.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Both CRAMP-producing&nbsp;<em>L. lactis</em>&nbsp;NZ9000 strains protected against colitis, as shown by reduced weight loss and disease activity score, improved colon shortening, and histopathological injury. In addition, CRAMP-producing&nbsp;<em>L. lactis</em>&nbsp;NZ9000 restored gut barrier by upregulating ZO-1, ZO-2, and occludin. Moreover, CRAMP-producing&nbsp;<em>L. lactis</em>&nbsp;NZ9000 regulated the colonic cytokines profile with reduced IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α production, and increased IL-10 production. By further analysis, we found that CRAMP-producing&nbsp;<em>L. lactis</em>&nbsp;NZ9000 reduced the expression of p-p38 and p-p65.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusions</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Together, our data suggested that CRAMP-secreting&nbsp;<em>L. lactis</em>&nbsp;NZ9000 attenuated dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis by colonic colonization and inhibiting p38/NF-κB signaling. Orally administered recombinant CRAMP-secreting&nbsp;<em>L. lactis</em>&nbsp;NZ9000 represents a potential strategy for colitis therapy.</p> Jiahong Li, Shiwen Yu, Xiaohua Pan, Ming Zhang, Zhuwu Lv, Li-Long Pan, Jia Sun Copyright (c) 2021 Jiahong Li, Shiwen Yu, Xiaohua Pan, Ming Zhang, Zhuwu Lv, Li-Long Pan, Jia Sun https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5570 Mon, 27 Sep 2021 05:35:41 -0700 Nobiletin, a hexamethoxyflavonoid from citrus pomace, attenuates G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in hypoxia-induced human trophoblast cells of JEG-3 and BeWo via regulating the p53 signaling pathway https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5649 <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background:</em></strong>&nbsp;Hypoxia is associated with abnormal cell apoptosis in trophoblast cells, which causes fetal growth restriction and related placental pathologies. Few effective methods for the prevention and treatment of placenta-related diseases exist. Natural products and functional foods have always been a rich source of potential anti-apoptotic drugs. Nobiletin (NOB), a hexamethoxyflavonoid derived from the citrus pomace, shows an anti-apoptotic activity, which is a non-toxic constituent of dietary phytochemicals approved by the Food and Drug Administration. However, their effects on hypoxia-induced human trophoblast cells have not been fully studied.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective:</em></strong>&nbsp;The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of NOB on hypoxia-induced apoptosis of human trophoblast JEG-3 and BeWo cells, and their underlying mechanisms.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Design:</em></strong>&nbsp;First, the protective effect of NOB on hypoxia-induced apoptosis of JEG-3 and BeWo cells was studied. Cell viability and membrane integrity were determined by CCK-8 assay and lactate dehydrogenase activity, respectively. Real Time Quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and Western blot analysis were used to detect the mRNA and protein levels of HIF1α. Propidium iodide (PI)-labeled flow cytometry was used to detect cell cycle distribution. Cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry with Annexin V-FITC and PI double staining, and the expression of apoptosis marker protein cl-PARP was detected by Western blot analysis. Then, the molecular mechanism of NOB against apoptosis was investigated. Computer molecular docking and dynamics were used to simulate the interaction between NOB and p53 protein, and this interaction was verified&nbsp;<em>in vitro</em>&nbsp;by Ultraviolet and visible spectrum (UV-visible spectroscopy), fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism. Furthermore, the changes in the expression of p53 signaling pathway genes and proteins were detected by RT-qPCR and Western blot analysis, respectively.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results:</em></strong>&nbsp;Hypoxia treatment resulted in a decreased cell viability and cell membrane integrity in JEG-3 and BeWo cell lines, and an increased expression of HIF1α, cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase, and massive cell apoptosis, which were alleviated after NOB treatment. Molecular docking and dynamics simulations found that NOB spontaneously bonded to human p53 protein, leading to the change of protein conformation. The intermolecular interaction between NOB and human p53 protein was further confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism. After the treatment of 100 μM NOB, a down-regulation of mRNA and protein levels of p53 and p21 and an up-regulation of BCL2/BAX mRNA and protein ratio were observed in JEG-3 cells; however, there was also a down-regulation of mRNA and protein levels observed for p53 and p21 in BeWo cells after the treatment of NOB. The BCL2/BAX ratio of BeWo cells did not change after the treatment of 100 μM NOB.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong>&nbsp;NOB attenuated hypoxia-induced apoptosis in JEG-3 and BeWo cell lines and might be a potential functional ingredient to prevent pregnancy-related diseases caused by hypoxia-induced apoptosis. These findings would also suggest the exploration and utilization of citrus resources, and the development of citrus industry.</p> Mengling Zhang, Jian Liu, Rui Zhang, Zengenni Liang, Shenghua Ding, Huanling Yu, Yang Shan Copyright (c) 2021 Mengling Zhang, Jian Liu, Rui Zhang, Zengenni Liang, Shenghua Ding, Huanling Yu, Yang Shan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5649 Fri, 24 Sep 2021 13:32:30 -0700 Is preterm donor milk better than preterm formula for very-low-birth-weight infants? https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5346 <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Preterm human milk has advantages over preterm formula (PF), but it may compromise some functions after pasteurization.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective</em>:</strong>&nbsp;To explore the effects of preterm donor milk (DM) on growth, feeding tolerance, and severe morbidity in very-low-birth-weight infants.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Method</em>:</strong>&nbsp;This was a single-center, prospective cohort study that included 304 preterm infants weighing &lt;1,500 g or of gestational age &lt;32 weeks. If the mother’s own milk was insufficient, the parents decided to use PF (<em>n</em>&nbsp;= 155) or DM (<em>n</em>&nbsp;= 149). The two groups were uniformly managed according to the standard NICU protocol. Growth parameters, feeding tolerance, and severe morbidity such as necrotizing enterocolitis, were compared between the two groups.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results</em>:</strong>&nbsp;The daily weight gain and weekly head growth in the DM group were not different from those in the PF group (<em>P</em>&nbsp;&gt; 0.05). Feeding intolerance in the DM group was significantly lower than that in PF group (<em>P</em>&nbsp;&lt; 0.05), and parenteral nutrition time and hospitalization time were also shorter than that in the PF group (<em>P</em>&nbsp;&lt; 0.05). Moreover, the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis was also significantly lower in the DM group (<em>P</em>&nbsp;&lt; 0.05).</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusion</em>:</strong>&nbsp;The study indicated that preterm DM does not affect the growth of very-low-birth-weight infants. Further, it significantly reduces feeding intolerance, helps achieve full enteral feeding early, and has protective effects against necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis. Thus, compared with formula, preterm DM can lower the rate of infection in preterm infants and is worthy of promotion.</p> Lingyu Fang, Meili Zhang, Lianqiang Wu, Ruiquan Wang, Bangbang Lin, Jianfeng Yao, Dongmei Chen Copyright (c) 2021 Lingyu Fang, Meili Zhang, Lianqiang Wu, Ruiquan Wang, Bangbang Lin, Jianfeng Yao, Dongmei Chen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5346 Thu, 23 Sep 2021 12:47:06 -0700 Chronic liquid fructose supplementation does not cause liver tumorigenesis but elicits clear sex differences in the metabolic response in Sprague–Dawley rats https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7670 <p><strong><em>Background</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has increased over the last decades and may evolve into hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). As HCC is challenging to treat, knowledge on the modifiable risk factors for NAFLD/HCC (e.g. hyper caloric diets rich in fructose) is essential.</p> <p><strong><em>Objective and design</em>:</strong>&nbsp;We used a model of diethyl nitrosamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis to investigate the liver cancer-promoting effects of a diet supplemented with 10% liquid fructose, administered to male and female rats for 11 months. A subset of the fructose-supplemented rats received resveratrol (RVT) in the last 4 months of treatment.</p> <p><strong><em>Results and discussion</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Rat livers showed no&nbsp;<em>de visu</em>&nbsp;or histological evidence of liver tumorigenesis. However, we observed metabolic abnormalities that could be related to cancer development mainly in the female fructose-supplemented rats, such as increases in weight, adiposity and hepatic triglyceride levels, as well as hyperglycaemia, hyperuricemia, hyperleptinemia and a reduced insulin sensitivity index, which were partially reversed by RVT. Therefore, we performed a targeted analysis of 84 cancer-related genes in the female liver samples, which revealed expression changes associated with cancer-related pathways. Analysis of individual genes indicated that some changes increased the risk of hepatocarcinogenesis (<em>Sfrp2</em>,&nbsp;<em>Ccl5</em>,&nbsp;<em>Socs3</em>, and&nbsp;<em>Gstp1</em>), while others exerted a protective/preventive effect (<em>Bcl2</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em>Cdh1</em>).</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Our data clearly demonstrate that chronic fructose supplementation, as the sole dietary intervention, does not cause HCC development in rats.</p> Núria Roglans, Miguel Baena, Gemma Sangüesa, Ana Magdalena Velázquez, Christian Griñán-Ferré, Mercè Pallàs, Rosa María Sánchez, Marta Alegret, Juan Carlos Laguna-Egea Copyright (c) 2021 Núria Roglans, Miguel Baena, Gemma Sangüesa, Ana Magdalena Velázquez, Christian Griñán-Ferré, Mercè Pallàs, Rosa María Sánchez, Marta Alegret, Juan Carlos Laguna-Egea https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7670 Wed, 22 Sep 2021 13:30:15 -0700 Causal link between milk consumption and obesity? A 10-year longitudinal study and a Mendelian randomization study https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/6300 <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Obesity control and prevention remains challenging. Randomized controlled trials in western countries have demonstrated efficacy of dairy supplementation on fat mass reduction and lean mass increase, when combined with energy restriction protocols. However, there is scanty information on this issue among the East Asian population.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective</em>:</strong>&nbsp;The aim of this study is to investigate the association between milk consumption and weight status in Asian.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Design</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Firs<strong><em>t</em></strong>, we studied the association between milk intake and body mass index (BMI) changes in a 10-year longitudinal study of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factor Two-township Study (CVDFACTS) with 1,644 adults. Second, taking advantage of the genetic and phenotype data of 10,000 participants collected by Taiwan Biobank (TWB), we carried out a Mendelian randomization (MR) study to investigate the causal relationship between milk intake and BMI. A lactase persistence genetic marker (rs4954490) was used as the instrumental variable.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results</em>:</strong>&nbsp;We found in the longitudinal study that higher baseline milk consumption level was associated with lower odds of increasing BMI or maintaining overweight/obesity status. In the MR study, we found that G allele of the rs4954490, a surrogate of greater milk intake, was associated with lower odds of being obese (BMI &gt; 27 kg/m<sup>2</sup>); the odds ratio (OR) for the GG versus AA is 0.85 (<em>P</em>&nbsp;= 0.037), and the OR for the GA versus AA is 0.84 (<em>P</em>&nbsp;= 0.032).</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusions</em>:</strong>&nbsp;These findings support current food guide in Asian countries to include dairy group as one of the six food groups for nutrition recommendation.</p> Kuang-Mao Chiang, Wen-Harn Pan Copyright (c) 2021 Kuang-Mao Chiang, Wen-Harn Pan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/6300 Wed, 15 Sep 2021 13:59:13 -0700 Broccoli consumption attenuates inflammation and modulates gut microbiome composition and gut integrity-related factors in mice fed with a high-fat high-cholesterol diet https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7631 <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background:</em></strong>&nbsp;Nonalcoholic fatty-liver disease (NAFLD) is a global health problem associated with gut dysbiosis and intestinal permeability. Broccoli is a natural source of bioactive phytochemicals, characterized by health-promoting properties.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective:</em></strong>&nbsp;This study evaluated the effect of broccoli florets and stalks on liver fat accumulation, inflammation, gut microbiome, and intestinal barrier integrity.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Design:</em></strong>&nbsp;Male C57BL/6J mice (<em>n</em>&nbsp;= 32, 8-week-old) were fed with a high-fat high-cholesterol diet (HFCD) with/without 15% broccoli (florets or stalks) for 7 weeks. Liver damage was evaluated by changes in glucose response and histological and biochemical parameters. Protein and gene expressions related to liver inflammation were examined. The effect of broccoli on microbiota population together with genes related to barrier integrity in the gut was investigated.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results:</em></strong>&nbsp;Dietary broccoli improved the glycemic response assessed by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Histological evaluation showed no change in hepatic steatosis. Broccoli consumption also attenuated inflammation as revealed by lower inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and serum amyloid A1 (SAA1) expression levels in broccoli-supplemented groups. Gut microbiota analysis demonstrated elevated Acidifaciens and reduced&nbsp;<em>Mucispirillum schaedleri</em>&nbsp;abundance in the stalks group, whereas Proteobacteria strains abundance was increased in the florets group. Gut integrity remained unchanged.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong>&nbsp;Broccoli supplementation improves glucose tolerance, attenuates liver inflammation, and alters microbial composition, but does not affect gut integrity. This research provides new evidence on the effects of dietary broccoli under HFCD.</p> Gil Zandani, Sarit Anavi-Cohen, Noa Sela, Abraham Nyska, Zecharia Madar Copyright (c) 2021 Gil Zandani, Sarit Anavi-Cohen, Noa Sela, Abraham Nyska, Zecharia Madar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7631 Mon, 06 Sep 2021 11:33:43 -0700 Screening of potential tropical fruits in protecting endothelial dysfunction <em>in vitro</em> https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7807 <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background</em>:</strong>&nbsp;High consumption of antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables reduces the endothelial damage involved in cardiovascular disease pathogenesis.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective</em>:</strong>&nbsp;To evaluate the phytochemical content, antioxidant and scavenging activities (FRAP, ORAC, OH<sup>•</sup>, HOCl, H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>, and O<sub>2</sub><sup>−</sup>), endothelial H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>-cytoprotective effect, nitric oxide (NO) release activation potential, and endothelial wound healing properties of 10 tropical fruits, comprising pineapple, sugar apple, papaya fruit, longan, mangosteen, lychee, langsat, mango, rambutan, and guava.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Design</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Experimental study. The experiments were conducted&nbsp;<em>in vitro</em>&nbsp;using endothelial cell line EA.hy926.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results</em>:</strong>&nbsp;The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of gallic acid and quercetin in all fruits, along with the overall absence of ellagic acid. Chlorogenic acid was only detected in three fruits, that is, pineapple, ripe papaya, and guava. The antioxidant and scavenging activities of all fruits were concentration-dependent. Only the H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>&nbsp;scavenging activity exhibited broad positive associations with other ROS-scavenging activities. Sugar apple and unripe papaya induced a significant reduction in H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>-induced cell death in endothelial cells while pineapple, sugar apple, longan, and langsat activated NO release.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Discussion</em>:</strong>&nbsp;All the studied tropical fruits contained bioactive phytoantioxidants with wide ranges of antioxidant capacity and scavenging activities. The endothelial functional tests were relevant to the screening for fruits that may benefit cardiovascular health. Among the four fruits that promoted endothelial wound closure, only sugar apple and unripe papaya induced cell migration and vascular capillary-like tube formation.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusion</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Sugar apple and unripe papaya are potential functional fruits that can protect against oxidative cell death and enhance endothelial wound healing.</p> Suvara K. Wattanapitayakul, Khwandow Kunchana , Wattanased Jarisarapurin, Linda Chularojmontri Copyright (c) 2021 Suvara K. Wattanapitayakul, Khwandow Kunchana , Wattanased Jarisarapurin, Linda Chularojmontri https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7807 Wed, 01 Sep 2021 06:00:20 -0700 Associations of dietary anthocyanidins intake with body composition in Chinese children: a cross-sectional study https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/4428 <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Previous animal and&nbsp;<em>in vitro</em>&nbsp;studies indicated that anthocyanidins might contribute to the prevention of obesity, while epidemiological evidences were scarce and had not been conducted in children.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective</em>:</strong>&nbsp;We explored the associations between anthocyanidins and body composition in children.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Design</em>:</strong>&nbsp;A cross-sectional study involving 452 children aged 6–9 years in Guangzhou, China, was carried out. Dietary information was collected using a 79-items food frequency questionnaire. Fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM), and fat mass percentage (FMP) at multi-sites (whole body, trunk, limbs, android area, and gynoid area) were measured using a dual-energy X-ray scan. Abdominal obesity was defined as an age- and sex-specific abdominal FM ≥ 85th percentile. Handgrip strength was measured using a hydraulic hand dynamometer.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results</em>:</strong>&nbsp;After adjusted for several potential covariates, higher dietary intake of anthocyanidin (per one standard deviation increase) was associated with a 0.013–0.223 kg increase of LM, a 0.024–0.134 kg decrease of FM, and a 0.63–0.76% decrease of FMP at multi-sites (<em>P</em>&nbsp;&lt; 0.05). Results were similar and more pronounced for delphinidin and cyanidin, but less significant for peonidin. Higher dietary anthocyanidin intake (per standard deviation increase) was associated with a 41.0% (<em>OR</em>: 0.59,&nbsp;<em>95%CI</em>: 0.37, 0.94) decreased risk of abdominal obesity. However, no significant associations were observed between anthocyanidin and handgrip strengths.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusions</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Higher dietary intake of anthocyanidin and its components tended to be associated with better body composition, but not handgrip strength, in Chinese children at early age.</p> Gengdong Chen, Yan Li, Shujun Liang, Jinqiu Xiao, Xinyu Duan, Yuntao Zhou, Yangqing Zeng, Fanyiwen Sun, Shiksha Shrestha, Zheqing Zhang Copyright (c) 2021 Gengdong Chen, Yan Li, Shujun Liang, Jinqiu Xiao, Xinyu Duan, Yuntao Zhou, Yangqing Zeng, Fanyiwen Sun, Shiksha Shrestha, Zheqing Zhang https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/4428 Wed, 04 Aug 2021 13:38:12 -0700 Fish oil enhanced the efficacy of low-dose cyclophosphamide regimen for proliferative lupus nephritis: a randomized controlled double-blind trial https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7842 <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong>Background</strong>: Lupus nephritis (LN) is one of the most severe organ that damages the systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Cyclophosphamide is one of the main drugs used in the treatment of LN. Fish oil is a general term of all the oily substances in fish, whose main component is omega-3 fatty acid. This study aimed to investigate whether fish oil could be used as an adjunct to low-dose cyclophosphamide in proliferative LN treatment.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong>Methods</strong>: A total of 237 patients with proliferative LN were recruited and randomized into two groups: cyclophosphamide + placebo group and cyclophosphamide + fish oil group. In the cyclophosphamide + placebo group, participants received prednisone + cyclophosphamide + placebo. In the cyclophosphamide + fish oil group, participants received prednisone + cyclophosphamide + fish oil. Before and after treatment, the clinical parameters of the patients in both groups were evaluated.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong>Results</strong>: In the cyclophosphamide + fish oil group, the number of patients achieving complete remission (<em>n</em>&nbsp;= 45, 46.9%) was significantly higher than the cyclophosphamide + placebo group (<em>n</em>&nbsp;= 31, 32.6%). The number of patients achieving no response in the cyclophosphamide + fish oil group (<em>n</em>&nbsp;= 8, 8.3%) was significantly lower than the cyclophosphamide + placebo group (<em>n</em>&nbsp;= 22, 23.2%). Hematuria (<em>P</em>&nbsp;= 0.036), urine protein-creatinine ratio (uPCR) (<em>P</em>&nbsp;= 0.014), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (<em>P</em>&nbsp;= 0.027), and renal SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) (<em>P</em>&nbsp;= 0.009) improved more significantly in the cyclophosphamide + fish oil group. The number of patients with infection (<em>P</em>&nbsp;= 0.04) or urinary tract infection (<em>P</em>&nbsp;= 0.04) in the cyclophosphamide + fish oil group was lower than the cyclophosphamide + placebo group.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong>Conclusion</strong>: In conclusion, the treatment of fish oil in LN patients enhances the efficiency of cyclophosphamide, alleviates nephritis-related parameters, and inhibits infection and urinary tract infection during the treatment. Thus, fish oil may serve as a potential adjuvant drug in the treatment of LN.</p> Chi Zhang , Chang Ge, Junsheng Wang , Dong Sun Copyright (c) 2021 Chi Zhang , Chang Ge, Junsheng Wang , Dong Sun https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7842 Mon, 26 Jul 2021 23:57:32 -0700 L-arabinose and D-xylose: sweet pentoses that may reduce postprandial glucose and insulin responses https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/6254 <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong>Background</strong>: Diets inducing high fluctuations in plasma glucose levels are linked to type 2 diabetes. L-arabinose and D-xylose have been hypothesized to inhibit intestinal sucrase activity, delay sucrose digestion, and reduce glycaemic and insulinaemic responses. However, few human studies have assessed this using realistic foods.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong>Objective</strong>: We investigated the effects of the addition of L-arabinose and D-xylose on glucose homeostasis using a fruit-based drink and the effect of L-arabinose using a muffin.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong>Design</strong>: Fifteen males participated in two double-blind, randomized cross-over experiments. In experiment A, three drinks were tested: (1) L-arabinose, (2) D-xylose and (3) control drink. In experiment B, two muffins were tested: (1) L-arabinose and (2) control muffin. All products consisted of ~50 g available carbohydrates, and L-arabinose or D-xylose was added as 10% of sucrose. Pre- and post-ingestive plasma glucose and insulin levels were measured at fixed time points up to 180 min after consumption.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong>Results</strong>: Glucose and insulin peaks were lower after the L-arabinose and D-xylose drink than the control drink (<em>P</em>&nbsp;&lt; 0.01). After consumption of the muffin, glucose responses were not significantly different; however, the insulin peak and incremental area under the curve (iAUC) tended to be lower for the L-arabinose muffin.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong>Conclusion</strong>: L-arabinose and D-xylose are functional ingredients that can potentially lower the post-ingestive glycaemic and insulinaemic responses when added to realistic foods. However, the efficacy of applying L-arabinose appears to depend on the food matrix. Addition of these compounds needs further testing in other foods and in other populations, such as pre-diabetics.</p> Korrie Pol, Monica Mars Copyright (c) 2021 Korrie Pol, Monica Mars https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/6254 Fri, 23 Jul 2021 14:49:42 -0700 Free school meals as an opportunity to target social equality, healthy eating, and school functioning: experiences from students and teachers in Norway https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7702 <p><strong>Background</strong>: There are no national arrangements for free school meals provision in Norway despite this being an important opportunity to improve children’s and adolescents’ nutritional status and ultimately their physical and cognitive development. During a one academic year (2014–2015), a group of Norwegian sixth graders were served a free healthy school meal in a project called ‘The School Meal Project’.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To explore students’ and teachers’ experiences of receiving free school meals after the free school meal in 2015 and 5 years later.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: In-depth, semi-structured interviews with separate groups in 2015 and in 2020 were conducted face to face or via telephone or digital platforms. The findings are based on 13 students (aged 12–16) and 5 teacher interviews. Findings: Thematic analysis identified four main themes that describe the perceived benefits of receiving free school meals: 1) the meal as a social event where students made new friends and learned new skills; 2) as an aid to forming healthy eating habits; and as an opportunity to 3) improve school functioning and 4) increase social equality among students.</p> <p><strong>Discussion</strong>: Our analysis suggests that the free school meal may influence healthy behaviors not only at the individual level but also at the social-, physical-, and macro-levels. Methodological limitations, including self-selection bias, should be considered when interpreting our findings.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: This study provides unique insights into the social benefits for students of receiving free school meals. Our findings illustrate the potential of free school meals: eating healthy foods, sharing a meal together, and interaction between students and teachers at mealtime, to promote health, learning, and equality. In order to maximize these benefits through national implementation of free school meals, more understanding is needed of possible facilitators and barriers related to the provision and uptake of free school meals.</p> Kristine E. Illøkken, Berit Johannessen, Mary E. Barker, Polly Hardy-Johnson, Nina Cecilie Øverby, Frøydis Nordgård Vik Copyright (c) 2021 Kristine E. Illøkken, Berit Johannessen, Mary E. Barker, Polly Hardy-Johnson, Nina Cecilie Øverby, Frøydis Nordgård Vik https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7702 Fri, 09 Jul 2021 00:00:00 -0700 Effects of different doses of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on gut microbiota and immunity https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/6263 <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play beneficial roles in metabolism and health. Little is known about the effects of different doses of omega-3 PUFAs on gut microbiota.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective</em>:</strong>&nbsp;In this study, we focus on the effects of different doses of omega-3 PUFAs on gut microbiota and immunity.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Design</em>:</strong>&nbsp;BALB/c mice was first treated with ceftriaxone sodium for 7 days, and then they received saline or different doses of omega-3 PUFAs (30, 60 and 90 mg omega-3 PUFAs) via daily gavage for 21 days. Alterations of cecum microbiota; the tight junction proteins, zonula occludens 3 (ZO3) and occludin, in the ileal wall; serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS); Interleukin-10 (IL-10), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and Tumour Necrosis Factor α (TNF-α) ; mucus SIgA levels were measured.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Compared with the ceftriaxone sodium administration group, significant increases in bacterial richness and diversity were observed in the 60- and 90-mg omega-3 PUFA groups, while only a slight increase was observed in the 30-mg omega-3 PUFA group. A higher percentage of several genera, including&nbsp;<em>Lactobacillus</em>,&nbsp;<em>Helicobacter,</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em>Ruminococcus</em>, and a lower percentage of&nbsp;<em>Bacteroides</em>,&nbsp;<em>Clostridium,</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em>Prevotella</em>&nbsp;were observed in the 60- and 90-mg omega-3 PUFA groups when compared with those in the 30-mg group. The expression of ZO3 and occludin proteins increased in 60- and 90-mg omega-3 PUFA groups compared with the natural recovery group. The mucus SIgA and serum IL-10 levels were increased, and serum levels of LPS, IL-1β, and TNF-α were decreased in the 60- and 90-mg omega-3 PUFA groups when compared with those in the ceftriaxone sodium-treated group.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusion</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Different doses of omega-3 PUFAs have different therapeutic effects on the intestinal microbiota. The 60- and 90-mg omega-3 PUFA supplementation had better recovery effects on the gut microbiota and immunity than those of the 30 mg omega-3 PUFAs supplementation.</p> Xueliang Zhu, Zhichao Bi, Chen Yang, Yanhui Guo, Jieli Yuan, Longjie Li, Yanjie Guo Copyright (c) 2021 Xueliang Zhu, Zhichao Bi, Chen Yang, Yanhui Guo, Jieli Yuan, Longjie Li, Yanjie Guo https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/6263 Fri, 09 Jul 2021 14:31:42 -0700 A new way for punicalagin to alleviate insulin resistance: regulating gut microbiota and autophagy https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5689 <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Insulin resistance, defined as a diminished ability to respond to the stimulation of insulin, is the main line for a variety of metabolic-related diseases. Punicalagin (PU), a hydrolyzable tannin of pomegranate juice, exhibits multiple biological properties, including anti-oxidant, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective</em>:</strong>&nbsp;This research study aimed at determining the protective effect of PU on insulin resistance and to uncover the underlying mechanism based on the gut microbiota, IKKβ/NF-κB pathway, and autophagy.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Design</em>:</strong>&nbsp;An insulin resistance animal model was established using C57BL/6 mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks. The model included two groups continuing a HFD for 12 weeks with or without administering via gavage with PU 20 mg/kg/day. Changes in fasting plasma glucose levels, fasting serum insulin levels, glucose and insulin tolerance, glycolipid metabolism, gut microbiota composition (16S rRNA gene sequencing), inflammatory responses, and autophagy in the liver were evaluated. Body weight gain, glycolipid metabolic disorder, liver injury, as well as systemic and hepatic insulin sensitivity, were significantly attenuated after supplementing with PU.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results</em>:</strong>&nbsp;This research study revealed that PU alleviated HFD-induced glucose and lipid disorders, liver injury and insulin resistance; decreased the&nbsp;<em>Firmicutes/Bacteroides</em>&nbsp;ratio, decreased the abundance of&nbsp;<em>Coprococcus</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em>Anaerotruncus,</em>&nbsp;and increased&nbsp;<em>Rikenellaceae</em>; and decreased serum and liver tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1β levels, inhibited liver IKKβ and NF-κB phosphorylation; and increased liver autophagy-related proteins LC3-II, P62, and Beclin1, and increased the number of liver autophagosomes.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusion</em>:</strong>&nbsp;PU can improve HFD-induced insulin resistance, improved liver glucose and lipid metabolism disorder and liver injury, and the potential mechanism is that PU inhibited the IKKβ/NF-κB inflammatory pathway by regulating gut microbiota homeostasis and up-regulating liver autophagy</p> Yuan Cao, Guofeng Ren, Yahui Zhang, Hong Qin, Xin An, Yi Long, Jihua Chen, Lina Yang Copyright (c) 2021 Yuan Cao, Guofeng Ren, Yahui Zhang, Hong Qin, Xin An, Yi Long, Jihua Chen, Lina Yang https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5689 Thu, 01 Jul 2021 14:05:41 -0700 Decrease in abundance of bacteria of the genus Bifidobacterium in gut microbiota may be related to pre-eclampsia progression in women from East China https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5781 <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background:</em></strong>&nbsp;Pre-eclampsia (PE) can result in severe damage to maternal and fetal health. It has been reported that gut microbiota (GM) had important roles in regulating the metabolic and inflammatory responses of the mother. However, investigations on GM in PE are rare.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective</em></strong>: The objective of the present study was to investigate the changes of GM in PE and how to alter the GM composition in PE by dietary or dietary supplements.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Design</em></strong>: We analyzed the composition changes in GM as well as the relationship between bacteria of different genera and clinical indices by amplifying the V4 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene in 12 PE patients and eight healthy pregnant women in East China.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results</em></strong>: In the PE group, the Observed Species Index was lower than that in the control group, indicating that the α-diversity of the microbiome in the PE group decreased. At phylum, family, and genus levels, the relative abundance of different bacteria in PE patients displayed substantial differences to those from healthy women. We noted a decreased abundance of bacteria of the phylum Actinobacteria (<em>P</em>&nbsp;= 0.042), decreased abundance of bacteria of the family Bifidobacteriaceae (<em>P</em>&nbsp;= 0.039), increased abundance of bacteria of the genus&nbsp;<em>Blautia</em>&nbsp;(<em>P</em>&nbsp;= 0.026) and&nbsp;<em>Ruminococcus</em>&nbsp;(<em>P</em>&nbsp;= 0.048), and decreased abundance of bacteria of the genus&nbsp;<em>Bifidobacterium</em>&nbsp;(<em>P</em>&nbsp;= 0.038)<em>.</em>&nbsp;Among three enriched genera, bacteria of the genus&nbsp;<em>Bifidobacterium</em>&nbsp;showed a negative correlation with the systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and dyslipidemia, which involved glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, and the oxidative-phosphorylation pathway. The increased abundance of bacteria of the genera&nbsp;<em>Blautia</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em>Ruminococcus</em>&nbsp;was positively correlated with obesity and dyslipidemia, which involved lipid metabolism, glycosyltransferases, biotin metabolism, and the oxidative-phosphorylation pathways. Moreover, women in the PE group ate more than women in the control group, so fetuses were more prone to overnutrition in the PE group.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusion</em></strong>: There is a potential for GM dysbiosis in PE patients, and they could be prone to suffer from metabolic syndrome. We speculate that alterations in the abundance of bacteria of certain genera (e.g. increased abundance of&nbsp;<em>Blautia</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em>Ruminococcus</em>, and decreased abundance of&nbsp;<em>Bifidobacterium</em>) were associated with PE development to some degree. Our data could help to monitor the health of pregnant women and may be helpful for preventing and assisting treatment of PE by increasing dietary fiber or probiotics supplement.</p> Tingting Miao, Yun Yu, Jin Sun, Aiguo Ma, Jinran Yu, Mengjun Cui, Liping Yang, Huiyan Wang Copyright (c) 2021 Tingting Miao, Yun Yu, Jin Sun, Aiguo Ma, Jinran Yu, Mengjun Cui, Liping Yang, Huiyan Wang https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5781 Mon, 28 Jun 2021 14:14:24 -0700 A preliminary investigation of nutritional intake and supplement use in Australians with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome and the implications on health-related quality of life https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5730 <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a complex, multisystem illness without a currently recognized pharmacological treatment. Dietary supplementation and modification have been posited as potential management strategies; however, their efficacy is controversial.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective</em>:</strong>&nbsp;This study aimed to assess the nutritional intake and supplement use of Australian ME/CFS patients and the perceived effect on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) for the first time in an Australian patient population.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Design</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Between February 2019 and January 2020, ME/CFS patients across Australia volunteered in this cross-sectional study in response to online advertisements. Eligible respondents were invited to complete three online self-administered questionnaires investigating their supplement use, nutritional intake, and HRQoL. The study participants’ supplement use and nutritional intake were summarized and compared with the population data returned from the Australian Health Survey (2011–2012). Multiple linear regression analysis was also performed to determine the effect of participants’ supplement use and nutrient intake on HRQoL.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Results</em>:</strong>&nbsp;Twenty-four eligible ME/CFS patients (54.2% meeting the International Consensus Criteria, 79.2% female, mean age = 43.4 ± 10.5 years) completed the online questionnaires. Supplement use was highly prevalent among the study sample (87.5%) and considerably more common when compared with population data (31.9%). Daily total fats and caffeine intakes were significantly higher among ME/CFS patients when compared with the Australian population (<em>P</em>&nbsp;= 0.009 and&nbsp;<em>P</em>&nbsp;= 0.033, respectively), whereas daily intakes of total carbohydrates and alcohol were significantly lower (both&nbsp;<em>P</em>&nbsp;&lt; 0.001). No consistent trends between nutrition and supplement use with patients’ HRQoL could be identified.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusions</em>:</strong>&nbsp;The daily diet and supplement use of ME/CFS patients appear to vary considerably from those of the general Australian population. Although the role of nutritional intake and supplement use on ME/CFS patients’ HRQoL remains unclear, dietary changes and the use of supplements appear to be of value to ME/CFS patients.</p> Breanna Weigel, Natalie Eaton-Fitch, Rachel Passmore, Hélène Cabanas, Donald Staines, Sonya Marshall-Gradisnik Copyright (c) 2021 Breanna Weigel, Natalie Eaton-Fitch, Rachel Passmore, Hélène Cabanas, Donald Staines, Sonya Marshall-Gradisnik https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5730 Mon, 07 Jun 2021 13:49:04 -0700 Association of two types of dietary pattern scores with cardiovascular disease risk factors and serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D levels in Saudi Arabia https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5481 <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Background</em></strong>: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a main cause of mortality and disability worldwide. One of the key factors in the soaring prevalence of CVD globally has been nutrition transitions and changes in dietary patterns.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Objective</em></strong>: This study investigated the association between two diet scores, namely, a high-fat dietary (HFD) pattern score and a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) score, and CVD risk factors (obesity, hypertension, total cholesterol, and blood glucose) and serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D (25[OH]D) levels.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Methods</em></strong>: Three hundred twenty-one participants were included in this study. Fasting blood tests were collected from all participants for biochemical measurements. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were also taken. A validated, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to collect data on participants’ dietary intake. Dietary scores for the HFD pattern were calculated based on recommended food groups. MedDiet scores were calculated based on a previously validated method that contains 14 questions related to MedDiet. Both diet scores were classified into tertiles. Linear regression analyses were performed to assess the statistical significance of the tertile groups.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Result</em></strong>: A significant association was found between HFD score and obesity when comparing the lowest tertile (27.3±4.6 kg/m<sup>2</sup>) of HFD scores with the medium tertile (29.2±5.7 kg/m2;&nbsp;<em>P</em>&nbsp;= 0.02). A higher HFD score was significantly associated with lower 25(OH)D levels (<em>P</em>&nbsp;= 0.02). In addition, a significant association was observed between MedDiet scores and 25(OH)D levels, with an increase in MedDiet score resulting in an increase in 25(OH)D levels (<em>P</em>&nbsp;= 0.01). Furthermore, a significant negative association between MedDiet scores and low-density lipoprotein levels was reported only in participants with CVD (<em>P</em>&nbsp;= 0.03).</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusion</em></strong>: The results of this study revealed that HFD and MedDiet scores might have a role in the development of CVD and vitamin D deficiency among the Saudi Arabian population. Further studies are required using diet scores to assess the quality of dietary patterns and their association with an increased risk of diseases in Saudi Arabians.</p> Najlaa Aljefree, Noha M. Almoraie, Israa M. Shatwan Copyright (c) 2021 Najlaa Aljefree, Noha M. Almoraie, Israa M. Shatwan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5481 Wed, 02 Jun 2021 06:52:21 -0700 Effect of Eurycoma longifolia standardised aqueous root extract– Physta® on testosterone levels and quality of life in ageing male subjects: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicentre study https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5647 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Low testosterone levels cause physiological changes that compromise the quality of life in ageing men. A standardised water extract from the root of <em>Eurycoma longifolia</em> (EL), known as Physta<sup>®</sup>, is known to increase testosterone levels.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of Physta<sup>®</sup> in improving the testosterone levels and quality of life in ageing male subjects.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study enrolled 105 male subjects aged 50–70 years with a testosterone level &lt;300 ng/dL, BMI ≥ 18 and ≤30.0 kg/m<sup>2</sup>. The subjects were given either Physta<sup>®</sup> 100 mg, 200 mg or placebo daily for 12 weeks. The primary endpoints were changes in serum total and free testosterone levels. The secondary endpoints included changes in the level of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), dihydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), thyroid function tests (T3, T4, TSH and Free T3) and cortisol. Changes in Ageing Male Symptoms (AMS) score, Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) score and muscle strength are other secondary endpoints. The safety of the intervention products was measured by complete blood count, lipid profile, liver and renal function tests.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: There was a significant increase in the total testosterone levels at week 12 (<em>P</em> &lt; 0.05) in the Physta<sup>®</sup> 100 mg group and at weeks 4 (<em>P</em> &lt; 0.05), 8 (<em>P</em> &lt; 0.01) and 12 (<em>P</em> &lt; 0.001) in the Physta<sup>®</sup> 200 mg group compared to placebo. No significant between-group differences in free testosterone levels were observed but a significant within-group increase occurred at weeks 4 (<em>P</em> &lt; 0.01), 8 (<em>P</em> &lt; 0.001) and 12 (<em>P</em> &lt; 0.001) in the Physta<sup>®</sup>100 mg group and at weeks 2 (<em>P</em> &lt; 0.01), 4 (<em>P</em> &lt; 0.01), 8 (<em>P</em> &lt; 0.001) and 12 (<em>P</em> &lt; 0.001) in the Physta<sup>®</sup> 200 mg group. The AMS and FSS showed significant reduction (<em>P</em> &lt; 0.001) in total scores at all time-points within- and between-group in both Physta<sup>®</sup> groups. DHEA levels significantly increased (<em>P</em> &lt; 0.05) within-group in both Physta<sup>®</sup> groups from week 2 onwards. Cortisol levels significantly (<em>P</em> &lt; 0.01) decreased in the Physta<sup>®</sup> 200 mg group, while muscle strength significantly (<em>P</em> &lt; 0.001) increased in both Physta<sup>®</sup> groups at week 12 in the within-group comparison. There were no significant changes in SHBG. No safety related clinically relevant changes were observed.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Supplementation of Physta<sup>®</sup> at 200 mg was able to increase the serum total testosterone, reduce fatigue and improve the quality of life in ageing men within 2 weeks’ time.</p> <p><em>Trial registration</em>: This clinical study has been registered in ctri.nic.in (CTRI/2019/03/017959).</p> Sasikala M. Chinnappan, Annie George, Pragya Pandey, Govinda Narke, Yogendra Kumar Choudhary Copyright (c) 2021 Sasikala M. Chinnappan, Annie George, Pragya Pandey; Govinda Narke (Language Consultant); Yogendra Kumar Choudhary https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5647 Wed, 19 May 2021 14:16:58 -0700 The metabolic effect of fructose on normal rats in a mild dose with glucose and saccharose as control https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5589 <p><strong>Aims</strong>: To study the metabolic effects of fructose, glucose and saccharose in a moderate dose by analyzing changes of blood indicators, pancreas inflammation, liver fat accumulation and intestinal microbiota in normal Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats.</p> <p><strong>Subjects and methods</strong>: Six-week-old rats were assigned to four groups (<em>n</em> = 10), which were gavaged with normalsaline (Con), glucose dissolved in normal saline (Glu), saccharose-glucose dissolved in normal saline (Sac), and fructose dissolved in normal saline (Fru) for 20 weeks.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: No significant differences in body weight and blood parameters including total cholesterol (TC), total triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), lipase (LPS) and free fatty acid (FFA) among the Con, Glu, Sac and the Fru group. The fructose can significantly (<em>P</em> &lt; 0.05) decrease fasting and postprandial blood glucose increase compared to glucose, and the risk of pancreas inflammation and liver fat accumulation induced by fructose is lower than glucose in rats. We found there were no significant differences in intestinal microbial diversity. At the family level, rats in the Glu group had a relatively higher abundance of <em>Peptostreptococcaceae</em> and rats in the Fru group had a relatively higher abundance of Bacteroidaceae. Moreover, the proportions of <em>Peptostreptococcaceae romboutsia</em> and <em>Staphylococcus lentus</em> in the Glu group were significantly higher than in the Fru group, while the proportions of <em>Lachnospira; Lachnospiraceae blautia, Bacteroides</em> and <em>Cellulosilyticus</em> in the Fru group were significantly higher than in the Glu group. The concentration of isobutyric acid was relatively lower in all the sugar treated groups than in the Con. A significant decrease in isobutyric acid was found on comparing the Fru group to the Con group (<em>P</em> &lt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Fructose, glucose and sucrose made no significant changes on rats in body weight, blood indicators, organ index and bacterial diversity. Moreover, fructose can potentially attenuate fasting and postprandial blood-glucose increase, pancreas inflammation and liver-fat accumulation when compared to glucose in mild doses. The relative abundance of six kinds of bacterial genera was found significantly different between rats fed on fructose and glucose.</p> Ge Song, Wentao Qi, Yong Wang, Shaojie Pang, Yong Li Copyright (c) 2021 Ge Song, Wentao Qi, Yong Wang, Shaojie Pang, Yong Li https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5589 Tue, 18 May 2021 23:28:43 -0700 The mechanism and candidate compounds of aged citrus peel (<em>chenpi</em>) preventing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its progression to lung cancer https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7526 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an important risk factor for developing lung cancer. Aged citrus peel (chenpi) has been used as a dietary supplement for respiratory diseases in China.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To explore the mechanism and candidate compounds of chenpi preventing COPD and its progression to lung cancer.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: The active components and potential targets of chenpi were retrieved from the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology (TCMSP) database. Disease-associated targets of COPD and lung cancer were collected in the Gene Cards and TTD database. The component-target network and PPI network were constructed using the Cytoscape 3.8.0 software. David database was used for GO and KEGG enrichment analysis. The main active components were verified by using the autodock Vina 1.1.2 software. Mouse lung cancer with COPD was induced by cigarette smoking (CS) combined with urethane injection to confirm preventing the effect of hesperetin (the candidate compound of chenpi) on COPD progression to lung cancer and its underlying mechanisms.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The network analysis revealed that the key active components of chenpi (nobiletin, naringenin, hesperetin) regulate five core targets (AKT1, TP53, IL6, VEGFA, MMP9). In addition, 103 potential pathways of chenpi were identified. Chenpi can prevent COPD and its progression to lung cancer by getting involved in the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and MAPK signaling pathway. Molecular docking indicated that hesperetin had better binding activity for core targets. In mouse lung cancer with COPD, treatment with hesperetin dose-dependently improved not only lung tissue injury in COPD but also carcinoma lesions in lung cancer. Meanwhile, hesperetin could suppress the protein expression of AKT1, IL6, VEGFA, MMP9 and up-regulate the protein expression of TP53, and thus reduced the risk of COPD progression to lung cancer.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Hesperetin is a candidate compound of chenpi that helps in preventing COPD and its progression to lung cancer by regulating AKT1, IL6, VEGFA, MMP9 and TP53.</p> Lin Zhou, Wenwen Gu, Fuguang Kui, Fan Gao, Yuji Niu, Wenwen Li, Yaru Zhang, Lijuan Guo, Junru Wang, Zhenzhen Guo, Gangjun Du Copyright (c) 2021 Lin Zhou, Wenwen Gu, Fuguang Kui, Fan Gao, Yuji Niu, Wenwen Li, Yaru Zhang, Lijuan Guo, Junru Wang, Zhenzhen Guo, Gangjun Du https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7526 Mon, 17 May 2021 10:30:30 -0700 The Effects of the antimicrobial peptide WK3 on diarrhea, growth performance and intestinal health of weaned piglets challenged with enterotoxigenic <em>Escherichia coli</em> K88 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/3448 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Antibiotics are very effective for treating diarrhea in weaned pigs, but the global prohibition of antibiotics makes it urgent to find an alternative to antibiotics.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: An experiment was conducted to determine the antimicrobial activity of a linear trpzip-like β-hairpin antimicrobial peptide WK3 in vivo and to assess its effects on growth performance and intestinal health.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: Thirty-two piglets were weaned at 21 days and housed in individual metabolic cages, which were randomly divided into four groups and were maintained on a corn-soybean meal-based basal diet. Group 1 included a blank group. Groups 2, 3, and 4 were orally infected by feeding with Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K88, which was followed by saline treatment (group 2), enrofloxacin injection at a dose of 2.5 mg/ kg (group 3), and WK3 injection at a dose of 2 mg/kg (group 4). The experiment lasted for 6 days, and feed and water were provided ad libitum.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Both WK3 and enrofloxacin effectively attenuated diarrhea and improved growth performance of piglets. Compared with the control group, WK3 significantly improved the villus height in the ileum (P &lt; 0.05) but did not affect the villus height in the duodenum or jejunum. Additionally, we did not observe any obvious difference in crypt depth or villus height/crypt depth among the duodenum, jejunum and ileum (P &gt; 0.05). WK3 also reduced the numbers of Enterococcus spp (P &lt; 0.01) in the cecal contents, and the number of Enterobacterium spp tended to decrease (0.05 &lt; P &lt; 0.1). Moreover, the jejunal mucosa of the WK3 group exhibited lower interleukin-1α (IL-1a; P &lt; 0.01), toll-like receptors-4 (TLR-4; P &lt; 0.05), and myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88; P &lt; 0.01) messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression levels. The jejunum of the WK3 group also exhibited an increased antioxidant capacity, reduced concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA; P &lt; 0.05), and enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity (P &lt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: WK3 has the potential to replace antibiotics as a new generation feed additive.</p> Licong Zhang, Tao Guo, Na Zhan, Taotao Sun, Anshan Shan Copyright (c) 2021 Licong Zhang, Tao Guo, Na Zhan, Taotao Sun, Anshan Shan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/3448 Wed, 12 May 2021 04:02:26 -0700 Sesamol promotes browning of white adipocytes to ameliorate obesity by inducing mitochondrial biogenesis and inhibition mitophagy via β3-AR/PKA signaling pathway https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7577 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Obesity is defined as an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, and it is a serious risk factor of non-communicable diseases. Recently many studies have shown that promoting browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) to increase energy consumption has a great therapeutic potential for obesity. Sesamol, a lignan from sesame oil, had shown potential beneficial functions on obesity treatment.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: In this study, we used C57BL/6J mice and 3T3-L1 adipocytes to investigate the effects and the fundamental mechanisms of sesamol in enhancing the browning of white adipocytes to ameliorate obesity. Methods: Sixteen-week-old C57BL/6J male mice were fed high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks to establish the obesity models. Half of the obese mice were administered with sesamol (100 mg/kg body weight [b.w.]/day [d] by gavage for another 8 weeks. Triacylglycerol (TG) and total cholesterol assay kits were used to quantify serum TG and total cholesterol (TC). Oil red O staining was used to detect lipid droplet in vitro. Mito-Tracker Green was used to detect the mitochondrial content. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect the levels of beige-specific genes. Immunoblotting was used to detect the proteins involved in beige adipocytes formation.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Sesamol decreased the content of body fat and suppressed lipid accumulation in HFD-induced obese mice. In addition, sesamol significantly upregulated uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) protein in adipose tissue. Further research found that sesamol also significantly activated the browning program in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes, manifested by the increase in beige-specific genes and proteins. Moreover, sesamol greatly increased mitochondrial biogenesis, as proved by the upregulated protein levels of mitochondrial biogenesis, and the inhibition of the proteins associated with mitophagy. Furthermore, β3-adrenergic receptor (β3-AR), protein kinase A-C (PKA-C) and Phospho-protein kinase A (p-PKA) substrate were elevated by sesamol, and these effects were abolished by the pretreatment of antagonists β3-AR.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Sesamol promoted browning of white adipocytes by inducing mitochondrial biogenesis and inhibiting mitophagy through the β3-AR/PKA pathway. This preclinical data promised the potential to consider sesamol as a metabolic modulator of HFD-induced obesity.</p> Cui Lin, Jihua Chen, Minmin Hu, Wenya Zheng, Ziyu Song, Hong Qin Copyright (c) 2021 Cui Lin, Jihua Chen, Minmin Hu, Wenya Zheng, Ziyu Song, Hong Qin https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7577 Mon, 10 May 2021 09:20:39 -0700 Carbohydrate-dense snacks are a key feature of the nutrition transition among Ghanaian adults – findings from the RODAM study https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5435 <p><strong>Background</strong>: African populations in sub-Saharan Africa and African migrants in Europe are facing a rapid upsurge in obesity. This trend has been related to urbanization, migration and associated shifts in lifestyle, including dietary habits. Whether changes in eating patterns contribute to the rising burden of obesity among African populations is currently unknown.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: Our aims in conducting this study were to characterize eating patterns among Ghanaian adults living in their country of origin and in Europe and to explore associations of meal patterns with body mass index (BMI).</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: Within the cross-sectional RODAM (Research on Obesity and Diabetes among African Migrants) study, data of single 24-h dietary recalls from Ghanaian adults in rural Ghana (<em>n</em> = 20), urban Ghana (<em>n</em> = 42), and Europe (<em>n</em> = 172) were recorded. Eating frequencies, energy intake, and macronutrient composition of eating occasions (EOs, i.e. meals or snacks) were compared between study sites based on descriptive statistics and χ2-/Kruskal–Wallis tests.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: A rising gradient of EO frequencies from rural Ghana through urban Ghana to Europe was observed, mainly reflecting the differences in snacking frequencies (≥1 snack per day: 20 vs. 48 vs. 52%, <em>P</em> = 0.008). Meal frequencies were similar across study sites (≥3 meals per day: 30 vs. 33 vs. 38%, <em>P </em>= 0.80). Meals were rich in carbohydrates (median 54.5, interquartile range (IQR): 43.2–64.0 energy%) and total fats (median: 27.0, IQR: 19.9–34.4 energy %); their protein content was lowest in rural Ghana, followed by urban Ghana and Europe (<em>P</em> = 0.0005). Snacks mainly contained carbohydrates (median: 75.7, IQR: 61.0–89.2 energy%). In linear regression analyses, there was a non-significant trend for an inverse association between snacking frequencies and BMI.</p> <p><strong>Discussion and conclusions</strong>: The observed integration of carbohydrate-dense snacks into the diet supports the growing evidence for a nutrition transition among African populations undergoing socioeconomic development. This analysis constitutes a starting point to further investigate the nutritional implications of increased snacking frequencies on obesity and metabolic health in these African populations.</p> Frauke Assmus, Cecilia Galbete, Sven Knueppel, Matthias B. Schulze, Erik Beune, Karlijn Meeks, Mary Nicolaou, Stephen Amoah, Charles Agyemang, Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch, Silver Bahendeka, Joachim Spranger, Frank P. Mockenhaupt, Liam Smeeth, Karien Stronks, Ina Danquah Copyright (c) 2021 Frauke Assmus, Cecilia Galbete, Sven Knueppel, Matthias B. Schulze, Erik Beune, Karlijn Meeks, Mary Nicolaou, Stephen Amoah, Charles Agyemang, Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch, Silver Bahendeka, Joachim Spranger, Frank P. Mockenhaupt, Liam Smeeth, Karien Stronks, Ina Danquah https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5435 Thu, 06 May 2021 10:09:54 -0700 Clusterin levels in undernourished SH-SY5Y cells https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5709 <p>Food-related disorders are increasingly common in developed societies, and the psychological component of these disorders has been gaining increasing attention. Both overnourishment with high-fat diets and perinatal undernourishment in mice have been linked to a higher motivation toward food, resulting in an alteration in food intake. Clusterin (CLU), a multifaced protein, is overexpressed in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of overfed rats, as well as in those that suffered chronic undernutrition. Moreover, an increase of this protein was observed in the plasma of obese patients with food addiction, suggesting the implication of CLU in this eating disorder. To characterize CLU’s cellular mechanisms, in vitro experiments of undernutrition were performed using dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells. To mimic in vivo dietary conditions, cells were treated with different fetal bovine serum (FBS) concentrations, resulting in control (C group) diet (10% FBS), undernourishment (U group) diet (0.5% FBS), and undernourishment diet followed by restoration of control diet (UC group) (0.5 + 10% FBS). Undernourishment compromised cell viability and proliferation, and concomitantly increased CLU secretion as well as the cytosolic pool of the protein, while decreasing the mitochondrial level. The restoration of normal conditions tended to recover cell physiology, and the normal levels and distribution of CLU. This research study is a step forward toward the characterization of clusterin as a potential marker for food addiction and nutritional status.</p> Carmen Rodríguez-Rivera, María Dolores Pérez-Carrión, Lucía Casariego Olavarría, Luis F. Alguacil, María José Polanco Mora, Carmen González-Martín Copyright (c) 2021 Carmen Rodríguez-Rivera, María Dolores Pérez-Carrión, Lucía Casariego Olavarría, Luis F. Alguacil, María José Polanco Mora, Carmen González-Martín https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5709 Tue, 04 May 2021 13:22:09 -0700 High hydrostatic pressure extract of mulberry leaves ameliorates hypercholesterolemia via modulating hepatic microRNA-33 expression and AMPK activity in high cholesterol diet fed rats https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7587 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Mulberry leaf (<em>Morus alba L.</em>) contains multiple bioactive ingredients and has been used in the treatment of obesity, diabetes, inflammation, and atherosclerosis. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing has been developed for the extraction of bioactive compounds from plants. However, the hypocholesterolemic effect of the HHP extract from mulberry leaves and its underlying mechanism have never been investigated.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The specific aim of the present study was to investigate the hypocholesterolemic property of a novel extract obtained from mulberry leaves under HHP in rats.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into four groups and fed either a normal diet (NOR), a high cholesterol diet containing 1% cholesterol and 0.5% cholic acid (HC), an HC diet containing 0.5% mulberry leaf extract (ML), or a 1% mulberry leaf extract (MH) for 4 weeks.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: High hydrostatic pressure extract of mulberry leaves significantly reduced the HC-increased serum levels of triglyceride (TG), cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and hepatic contents of TG and TC. The HHP extraction from mulberry leaves also increased the HC-decreased fecal TC and bile acid levels without changing body weight, food intake, liver weight, and serum activities of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) (P &lt; 0.05). The mulberry leaf extract significantly enhanced the expression of hepatic genes such as cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), liver X receptor alpha (LXRα), and ATP-binding cassette transporters, ABCG5/ABCG8, involved in hepatic bile acid synthesis and cholesterol efflux (P &lt; 0.05). In addition, the HHP extraction of mulberry leaves significantly suppressed hepatic microRNA(miR)-33 expression and increased adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: These results suggest that the HHP extract of mulberry leaves lowers serum cholesterol levels by partially increasing hepatic bile acid synthesis and fecal cholesterol excretion through the modulation of miR- 33 expression and AMPK activation in the liver.</p> Eunyoung Lee, Mak-Soon Lee, Eugene Chang, Chong-Tai Kim, Ae-Jin Choi, In-Hwan Kim, Yangha Kim Copyright (c) 2021 Eunyoung Lee, Mak-Soon Lee , Eugene Chang , Chong-Tai Kim , Ae-Jin Choi , In-Hwan Kim , Yangha Kim https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7587 Mon, 03 May 2021 07:19:38 -0700 Effect of fucoidan on ethanol-induced liver injury and steatosis in mice and the underlying mechanism https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5384 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Alcoholic liver disease is caused as a result of chronic alcohol consumption. In this study, we used an alcoholic liver injury mouse model to investigate the effect of fucoidan on ethanol-induced liver injury and steatosis and the underlying mechanisms.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: All mice were randomly divided into four groups: 1) control group, 2) model group, 3) diammonium glycyrrhizinate treatment group (200 mg/kg body weight), and 4) fucoidan treatment group (300 mg/kg body weight). Administration of ethanol for 8 weeks induced liver injury and steatosis in mice.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Fucoidan treatment decreased serum alanine aminotransferase activity, serum total cholesterol levels, and hepatic triglyceride levels, and improved the morphology of hepatic cells. Fucoidan treatment upregulated the expression of AMPKα1, SIRT1, and PGC-1α and inhibited the expression of ChREBP and HNF-1α. The levels of hepatic IL-6 and IL-18 were significantly decreased in the fucoidan group. Further, the levels of cytochrome P450-2E1 (CYP2E1), glucose-regulated protein (GRP) 78, and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) in hepatic tissues were reduced in the fucoidan group as compared to the model group. Fucoidan significantly reversed the reduction of ileac Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and fibroblast growth factor 15 (FGF15) levels induced by alcohol- feeding and reduced CYP7A1 (cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase) expression and total bile acid levels in the liver tissue. In addition, fucoidan regulated the structure of gut flora, with increased abundance of <em>Prevotella</em> and decreased abundance of <em>Paraprevotella</em> and <em>Romboutsia</em> as detected by 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Fucoidan inhibited alcohol-induced steatosis and disorders of bile acid metabolism in mice through the AMPKα1/SIRT1 pathway and the gut microbiota–bile acid–liver axis and protected against alcohol- induced liver injury <em>in vivo</em>.</p> Meilan Xue, Hui Liang, Zhitong Zhou, Ying Liu, Xinjia He, Zheng Zhang, Ting Sun, Jia Yang, Yimin Qin, Kunpeng Qin Copyright (c) 2021 Meilan Xue, Hui Liang, Zhitong Zhou, Ying Liu, Xinjia He, Zheng Zhang, Ting Sun, Jia Yang, Yimin Qin, Kunpeng Qin https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5384 Tue, 20 Apr 2021 06:10:22 -0700 Commercially available kelp and seaweed products – valuable iodine source or risk of excess intake? https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7584 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Seaweeds and kelps, also known as macroalgae, have long been common in the East-Asian diet. During recent years, macroalgae have entered the global food market, and a variety of macroalgae products are now available for consumers. Some macroalgae species are known to be particularly rich in iodine, but little data regarding the iodine content of macroalgae-containing foods exists.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The aim of this research study was to analyse the iodine content in a large variety of commercially available macroalgae-containing foods and supplements and to evaluate whether such products are sources of adequate dietary iodine.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: Ninety-six different products were collected after surveying the Norwegian market for commercially available macroalgae products, collected from three categories: 1) wholefood macroalgae products (<em>n</em> = 43), 2) macroalgae-containing foods (<em>n</em> = 39), and 3) dietary supplements containing macroalgae (<em>n</em> = 14). All products were analysed for iodine content by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The iodine content in one portion of wholefood macroalgae products ranged from 128 to 62,400 μg. In macroalgae-containing foods, the iodine content ranged from 30 to 25,300 μg per portion, and in supplements it ranged from 5 to 5,600 μg per daily dose. The species with the highest analysed iodine content were oarweed, sugarkelp and kombu, with mean iodine levels of 7,800, 4,469 and 2,276 μg/g, respectively. For 54 products, the intake of one portion or dose would exceed the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for iodine.</p> <p><strong>Discussion and conclusion</strong>: The iodine content in the included products was variable and for most products high, exceeding the tolerable upper intake level (UL) if consumed as a serving or portion size. The labelling of macroalgae species included, and declaration of iodine content, were inadequate or inaccurate for several products. As macroalgae-containing products are unreliable iodine sources, inclusion of such products in the diet may pose a risk of consuming excessive amounts of iodine.</p> Inger Aakre, Dina Doblaug Solli , Maria Wik Markhus, Hanne K. Mæhre, Lisbeth Dahl, Sigrun Henjum, Jan Alexander, Patrick-Andre Korneliussen , Lise Madsen, Marian Kjellevold Copyright (c) 2021 Inger Aakre, Dina Doblaug Solli , Maria Wik Markhus, Hanne K. Mæhre, Lisbeth Dahl, Sigrun Henjum, Jan Alexander, Patrick-Andre Korneliussen , Lise Madsen, Marian Kjellevold https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7584 Tue, 30 Mar 2021 08:33:52 -0700 Antioxidant and reduced skin-ageing effects of a polyphenolenriched dietary supplement in response to air pollution: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5619 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Air pollution exposure is one of the major threats to skin health and accelerates skin ageing mainly through oxidative stress mechanisms. Since it is difficult to minimize skin exposure to air pollutants, especially in urban areas, strategies to protect the skin are needed. Plant phenolic compounds have been found to be effective in attenuating cellular oxidative stress and inflammation induced by different air pollutants and a dietary approach based on these compounds could provide an efficient protection measure.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: Here we investigated the efficacy of a commercially available polyphenol-enriched dietary supplement (Zeropollution®) in reducing pollution-induced oxidative stress and in improving different skin parameters related to skin ageing of Caucasian and Asian subjects exposed to air pollution. Zeropollution is composed of four standardized herbal extracts: <em>Olea europaea leaf, Lippia citriodora, Rosmarinus officinalis</em>, and <em>Sophora japonica</em>.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: A double-blind randomized, parallel group study was carried out on 100 outdoor workers living in a polluted urban European area (Milan) to assess the efficacy of the dietary supplement. The total antioxidant capacity on saliva (FRAP), the oxidative damage on skin (lipoperoxides content), skin moisturization (corneometer), transepidermal water loss (tewameter), skin radiance and colour (spectrophotometer), skin elasticity (cutometer), skin sebum content (sebumeter), and the skin roughness (image analysis) were measured.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Both inter-group and intra-group analysis proved that the dietary supplement improved all clinical and biochemical-monitored parameters, in both Caucasian and Asian individuals. Some of the positive effects such as decreased wrinkle depth, increased elasticity and firmness, improved skin moisturization and transepidermal water loss, and reduced dark spots pigmentation were statistically significant as early as 2 weeks of product consumption.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: The results of the study indicate reduced oxidative stress-induced skin damage in both Asian and Caucasian women living in a polluted urban area. Therefore, the oral intake of this four-plant based supplement could be considered a complementary nutrition strategy to avoid the negative effects of environmental pollution exposure.</p> Vincenzo Nobile, Irene Schiano , Ana Peral, Silvana Giardina , Eleonora Spartà, Nuria Caturla Copyright (c) 2021 Nuria Caturla, Vincenzo Nobile, Irene Schiano , Ana Peral, Eleonora Spartà, Silvana Giardina https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5619 Mon, 29 Mar 2021 00:00:00 -0700 Nutritional quality and costs of gluten-free products: a case-control study of food products on the Norwegian marked https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/6121 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Celiac disease is a chronic autoimmune disease triggered by gluten exposure in genetically predisposed individuals. A life-long intake of a gluten-free (GF) diet is required for its management. Wheat, rye and barley are eliminated in a GF diet and the nutritional adequacy of the diet has been questioned. In Norway, cereals and bread constitute a key role of the diet and are the main source of fiber intake. Gluten restrictions may therefore offer important implications for nutrient adequacy especially linked to fiber intake in people with celiac disease.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The aim of the study was to investigate the nutritional quality and price of GF products and compare with gluten-containing counterparts available at instead of in the Norwegian market.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: The macronutrient content of 423 unique GF products were compared with 337 equivalents with gluten. All products were selected from grocery stores and web-based shops, with the aim of including as many GF products as possible. Listed macronutrients content and price in 11 different food categories were compared to gluten-containing counterparts with Wilcoxon signed rank test.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The GF products contained less protein and fiber, and higher content of saturated fat, carbohydrate and salt compared to the gluten-containing products. The total amount of fat was not different between the groups. A similar pattern was found within several of the food categories. More gluten-containing products met the nutrition claim “high in fiber” (fiber &gt; 6 g/100 g) compared to the GF products. The price of the GF products was higher; ranging from 46%–443% more expensive than the gluten-containing products.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: GF products are less nutritious and have a higher price compared to equivalent gluten-containing products. Knowing that an unhealthy diet is the most important risk factor for developing non-communicable diseases, the nutritional quality of a GF diet needs to be addressed and should be improved.</p> Mari C.W. Myhrstad, Marlene Slydahl, Monica Hellmann, Lisa Garnweidner-Holme, Knut E. A. Lundin, Christine Henriksen, Vibeke H. Telle-Hansen Copyright (c) 2021 Mari C.W. Myhrstad, Marlene Slydahl, Monica Hellmann, Lisa Garnweidner-Holme, Knut E. A. Lundin, Christine Henriksen, Vibeke H. Telle-Hansen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/6121 Fri, 26 Mar 2021 08:18:18 -0700 Fisetin inhibits inflammation and induces autophagy by mediating PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/6355 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Fisetin, a natural potent flavonoid, has various beneficial, pharmacological activities. In this study, we investigated expression changes of the fisetin regulating genes in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW264.7 cells and explored the role of fisetin in inflammation and autophagy.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong> and results: Microarray analysis identified 1,071 genes that were regulated by fisetin in LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells, and these genes were mainly related to the process of immune system response. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Bio-Plex analysis indicated that fisetin decreased the expression and secretion of several inflammatory cytokines in cells administered with LPS. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence assay showed that fisetin decreased microtubule-associated protein 1 light-chain 3B (LC3B) and lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1) expression in LPS-treated cells, while the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) could partially reverse this effect. In addition, fisetin reduced the elevated expression of p-PI3K, p-AKT and p-mTOR induced by LPS in a concentration-dependent manner.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Fisetin diminished the expression and secretion of inflammatory cytokines and facilitated autophagosome- lysosome fusion and degradation in LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells via inhibition of the PI3K/ AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Overall, the results of this study provide new clues for the anti-inflammatory mechanism of fisetin and explain the crosstalk between autophagy and inflammation to some extent.</p> Yue Sun, Hong Qin, Huihui Zhang, Xiangling Feng, Lina Yang, De-Xing Hou, Jihua Chen Copyright (c) 2021 Yue Sun, Hong Qin, Huihui Zhang, Xiangling Feng, Lina Yang, De-Xing Hou, Jihua Chen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/6355 Thu, 25 Mar 2021 13:49:08 -0700 Vitamin D status and association with gestational diabetes mellitus in a pregnant cohort in Iceland https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5574 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with an increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), one of the most common pregnancy complications. The vitamin D status has never previously been studied in pregnant women in Iceland.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The aim of this research study was to evaluate the vitamin D status of an Icelandic cohort of pregnant women and the association between the vitamin D status and the GDM incidence.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: Subjects included pregnant women (n = 938) who attended their first ultrasound appointment, during gestational weeks 11–14, between October 2017 and March 2018. The use of supplements containing vitamin D over the previous 3 months, height, pre-pregnancy weight, and social status were assessed using a questionnaire, and blood samples were drawn for analyzing the serum 25‑hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentration. Information regarding the incidence of GDM later in pregnancy was collected from medical records.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The mean ± standard deviation of the serum 25OHD (S-25OHD) concentration in this cohort was 63±24 nmol/L. The proportion of women with an S-25OHD concentration of ≥ 50 nmol/L (which is considered adequate) was 70%, whereas 25% had concentrations between 30 and 49.9 nmol/L (insufficient) and 5% had concentrations &lt; 30 nmol/L (deficient). The majority of women (n = 766, 82%) used supplements containing vitamin D on a daily basis. A gradual decrease in the proportion of women diagnosed with GDM was reported with increasing S-25OHD concentrations, going from 17.8% in the group with S-25OHD concentrations &lt; 30 nmol/L to 12.8% in the group with S-25OHD concentrations ≥75 nmol/L; however, the association was not significant (P for trend = 0.11).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Approximately one-third of this cohort had S-25OHD concentrations below adequate levels (&lt; 50 nmol/L) during the first trimester of pregnancy, which may suggest that necessary action must be taken to increase their vitamin D levels. No clear association was observed between the vitamin D status and GDM in this study.</p> Kristin S. Magnusdottir, Ellen A. Tryggvadottir, Ola K. Magnusdottir, Laufey Hrolfsdottir, Thorhallur I. Halldorsson, Bryndis E. Birgisdottir, Ingibjorg T. Hreidarsdottir, Hildur Hardardottir, Ingibjörg Gunnarsdottir Copyright (c) 2021 Kristin S. Magnusdottir, Ellen A. Tryggvadottir, Ola K. Magnusdottir, Laufey Hrolfsdottir, Thorhallur I. Halldorsson, Bryndis E. Birgisdottir, Ingibjorg T. Hreidarsdottir, Hildur Hardardottir, Ingibjörg Gunnarsdottir https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5574 Tue, 23 Mar 2021 13:01:24 -0700 Resveratrol stimulates microRNA expression during differentiation of bovine primary myoblasts https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5453 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Resveratrol (RSV), a phenolic compound, is present in many human dietary sources, such as peanuts, peanut butter, grapes skin, and grape wine. RSV has been widely known for its benefits on human health. Beef from cattle skeletal muscle is one of the main sources of protein for human consumption. Previous studies have also found that pork and chicken qualities are influenced by the feed supplementation with RSV. In addition, our previous study demonstrated the RSV effects on bovine myoblast differentiation using messenger RNA (mRNA) data. In this study, we mainly focused on the influences of RSV on microRNA (miRNA) expression.</p> <p><strong>Method</strong>: We used 20 μM RSV to treat primary bovine myoblasts and extracted RNA for miRNA sequencing. After quality control and alignment for clean reads, we conducted quantification and analysis of differentially expressed (DE) miRNAs in the case (RSV-treated) group versus control (non-RSV treated) group. Next, we predicted the target genes for the DE miRNAs and analyzed them for the enrichments of Gene Ontology (GO) terms and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Finally, we identified 93 DE miRNAs (adjusted P-value &lt; 0.05), of them 44 were upregulated and 49 were downregulated. Bta-miR-34c was the most significantly upregulated miRNA. In silico, prediction results indicated 1,869 target genes for the 93 DE miRNAs. GO enrichment analysis for the genes targeted by DE miRNAs revealed two significant GO terms (adjusted P-value &lt; 0.05), in which the most significant one was stereocilium (GO:0032420). KEGG enrichment analysis showed five significant pathways, and the top significant KEGG pathway was the insulin signaling pathway (bta04910) (adjusted P-value &lt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: This study provided an improved understanding of effects of RSV on primary bovine myoblast differentiation through the miRNA modulations. The results suggested that RSV could promote differentiation of primary bovine myoblast by stimulating the miRNA expressions. The target genes of DE miRNAs were significantly enriched in the insulin signaling pathway, thus potentially contributing to improving muscle leanness by increasing the energy metabolism.</p> Dan Hao, Xiao Wang, Xiaogang Wang, Bo Thomsen, Kaixing Qu, Xianyong Lan, Yongzhen Huang, Chuzhao Lei, Bizhi Huang, Hong Chen Copyright (c) 2021 Dan Hao, Xiao Wang, Xiaogang Wang, Bo Thomsen, Kaixing Qu, Xianyong Lan, Yongzhen Huang, Chuzhao Lei, Bizhi Huang, Hong Chen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5453 Thu, 18 Mar 2021 07:19:37 -0700 Factors determining household-level food insecurity during COVID-19 epidemic: a case of Wuhan, China https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5501 <p><strong>Background</strong>: In coping with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic, cities adopted social isolation and lockdown measures; however, little is known about the impacts of these restrictions on household food security.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: This study provides a timely assessment of household food insecurity (HFI) in the Chinese city of Wuhan during the COVID-19 epidemic period and also investigates its determinant factors.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: We collected valid data on food insecurity from 653 households in Wuhan via an online questionnaire in March 2020. The Household Food Insecurity Access Scale Score (HFIASS) was used to measure HFI, and a multiple linear regression model was used to determine the HFIASS.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The mean HFIASS in Wuhan was 9.42 (standard deviation: 5.82), with more than 50% of the households had an HFIASS &lt; 9. Compared with normal conditions, lockdown measures had a huge negative impact on household food security. The results revealed that socio-demographic characteristics remained the underlying determinants of HFIASS during the epidemic. Households in Wuhan with local Hukou (city household registration) and self-owned property had a lower risk of food insecurity.</p> <p><strong>Discussion and conclusion</strong>: After the restriction of conventional food access channels, intermediary food purchase methods such as group purchasing, shopping with the help of neighborhood committees, property management agents, and volunteers became the most important or the only channel for residents to access food. There were similarities in the use of these intermediary channels. Based on the probability that the epidemic will continue and the probability of similar public health-related outbreaks in the future, the study calls for a more resilient and responsive sustainable food supply system by harnessing the capacity of communities, e-commerce and rapid logistics.</p> Yu Zhang, Kui Yang, Song Hou, Taiyang Zhong, Jonathan Crush Copyright (c) 2021 Yu Zhang, Kui Yang, Song Hou, Taiyang Zhong, Jonathan Crush https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5501 Mon, 08 Mar 2021 13:50:31 -0800 Extract of <em>Acalypha australis L. </em>inhibits lipid accumulation and ameliorates HFD-induced obesity in mice through regulating adipose differentiation by decreasing PPARγ and CEBP/α expression https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/4246 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Obesity is a principal risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Natural plants and/or foods play an important role in the management of obesity.<em> Acalypha australis L.</em> (AAL) is a kind of potherb popular among Asian populations, and it is also consumed as a food ingredient and traditional herbal medicine.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: We investigated the effects of water extract from AAL on high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obese mice and 3T3-L1 adipocytes to develop a new functional food material.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: Nine-week-old male mice were randomly divided into control (chow diet, n = 6) and HFD (n = 30) group. From 12-weeks onward, mice in the HFD group were further separated into model (saline, 6 mL/ kg), simvastatin (0.11 mg/mL, 6 mL/kg), and AAL treatment (low, middle, and high dosage: 300, 600, and 900 mg/kg) group, with 6 animals per group, while mice in the control group were treated with saline (6 mL/ kg). Food intake, body/fat weight, liver/kidney indexes, and lipid profiles were determined. Tissues were fixed with formalin for pathological examination. Western blotting and PCR were performed to evaluate the protein and mRNA expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Oil Red O staining was used to determine lipid accumulation.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: AAL administration significantly suppressed body weight gain, and reduced fat pad weight and Lee’s index in obese mice, but had no effect on liver/kidney index. AAL also reduced serum cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL-C and increased HDL-C levels. Histological analysis revealed that AAL significantly ameliorated lipid accumulation in the liver and subcutaneous adipose tissue. In vitro, Oil Red O staining showed that AAL inhibited adipose differentiation by down-regulating the gene and protein expression of PPARγ and C/EBPα. AAL also reversed HFD-induced intestinal dysbacteriosis.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: AAL water-soluble extract has a significant anti-adipogenic effect in the HFD-induced obese mice model.</p> Lang You, Fengxia Li, Yan Sun, Liang Luo, Jian Qin, Tao Wang, Yuchen Liu, Ruogu Lai, Ruohan Li, Xiaoran Guo, Qiuyan Mai, Yihang Pan, Jianrong Xu, Ningning Li Copyright (c) 2021 Lang You, Fengxia Li, Yan Sun, Liang Luo, Jian Qin, Tao Wang, Yuchen Liu, Ruogu Lai, Ruohan Li, Xiaoran Guo, Qiuyan Mai, Yihang Pan, Jianrong Xu, Ningning Li https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/4246 Mon, 01 Mar 2021 13:49:27 -0800 A comparison of meal tolerance test and oral glucose tolerance test for predicting insulin therapy in patients with gestational diabetes https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5490 <p><strong>Aims</strong>: To identify factors predicting a need for insulin therapy in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) by comparing plasma glucose (PG) levels in a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (75-g OGTT) with those in a 500-kcal meal tolerance test (MTT) containing 75 g of carbohydrate.</p> <p><strong>Subjects and methods</strong>: The MTT was performed in 61 patients who diagnosed with GDM by a 75-g OGTT (age, 33.2 ± 4.5 years; prepregnancy body mass index, 22.6 ± 4.7 kg/m2; number of gestational weeks, 25.1 ± 6.4 weeks). PG and serum insulin levels were measured before the meal and up to 180 min after the meal. The insulin secretion capacity and resistance index were calculated.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: PG levels increased from 86.8 ± 8.8 mg/dL at fasting to 132.7 ± 20.1 mg/dL at 30 min, and 137.8 ± 27.7 mg/dL at 60 min after MTT in the 35 patients with needed insulin therapy; these levels were significantly higher than those in the 26 patients, who only needed diet therapy. The patients with needed insulin therapy had significantly higher fasting PG levels in the 75-g OGTT, PG levels at fasting and 30 min after the MTT, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and a significantly lower disposition index (DI) and insulin index than patients treated by diet alone. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed for factors involved in insulin therapy, with the following cutoff values: fasting PG in the 75-g OGTT, 92 mg/dL; PG 30 min after MTT, 129 mg/dL; HOMA-IR, 1.51; DI, 3.9; HbA1c, 5.4%. Multivariate analysis revealed that the 30-min PG level after MTT and HOMA-IR predicted insulin therapy.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: PG levels at 30 min after MTT may be useful for identifying patients with GDM, who need insulin therapy.</p> Mai Hijikata, Mariko Higa, Takamasa Ichijo, Takahisa Hirose Copyright (c) 2021 Mai Hijikata, Mariko Higa, Takamasa Ichijo, Takahisa Hirose https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5490 Fri, 26 Feb 2021 07:42:12 -0800 Prevalence and risk factors for micronutrient deficiencies during pregnancy in Cayenne, French Guiana https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5268 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Involved in physical and brain development, immunity and metabolism, micronutrients have profound health effects. The nutritional status of pregnant women is a major determinant of foetal health. French Guiana has a rapid population growth. Social inequalities, cultural practices and gastrointestinal nematode infections in French Guiana could affect the prevalence of these deficiencies. The main objective of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of micronutrient deficiency among pregnant women in French Guiana. The secondary objective was to identify socio-demographic, dietary, obstetrical and neonatal risk factors associated with deficiencies.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Pregnant women over 22 weeks of pregnancy hospitalized for delivery at the Obstetrical Emergency Department of the Hospital Center in Cayenne from May 2018 to March 2019 were included. A socio-demographic and food questionnaire was administered. Medical data were collected from the medical records. Blood and urine samples were taken. The descriptive analysis used Student and chi-squared tests.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: A total of 341 women were included. The majority were born in Haiti (39%) and French Guiana (34%). At least one micronutrient deficiency was observed in 81% of women. Precarious women had a significantly greater risk of micronutrient deficiency during pregnancy compared to those with both normal and complementary health insurance.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Micronutrient deficiencies in pregnant women in French Guiana are a public health problem, a fact that was previously overlooked in the context of rising obesity. With over half the women overweight or obese, and 81% with at least 1 micronutrient deficiency, balanced nutrition should be a major focus.</p> Amandine Duclau, Fanny Abad, Antoine Adenis, Nadia Sabbah, Malika Leneuve, Mathieu Nacher Copyright (c) 2021 Amandine Duclau, Fanny Abad, Antoine Adenis, Nadia Sabbah, Malika Leneuve, Mathieu Nacher https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5268 Mon, 22 Feb 2021 13:50:01 -0800 Liking, Preference and Practical Implications of Protein and Energy Enriched In-Between-Meals Designed for Elderly People https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5635 <p><strong>Background</strong>: An adequate dietary intake, especially of protein and energy, is important for maintaining health among elderly people, especially those in care homes. One strategy to ensure nutritional intake is to customise attractive products through enrichment to match the needs of elderly people in care homes.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To evaluate liking and practical aspects of protein and energy enriched in-between meals designed for elderly people in care homes through the use of quantitative and qualitative assessments.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: A broad range of energy and protein enriched in-between meals, including both savoury and sweet products, were included. The products were evaluated by a consumer test and a focus group discussion with elderly respondents. The products were also evaluated by a second focus group discussion with care staff.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The most liked products were ice cream and cheesecake. All products achieved high scores for appearance, taste/flavour and texture. No product included in the study was extremely disliked. However, the least liked product was tomato soup, which scored above the middle of the scale except for texture. It was clear from the focus group discussions that a colourful appearance, small portion size and texture were of primary importance. The temperature had an impact on liking and swallowability.</p> <p><strong>Discussion</strong>: Most products were perceived by the elderly participants as appealing and tasting good, and possible to include in a daily diet. It was clear that the colours of the foods were of primary importance. In line with other studies, it was found that highly liked in-between meals were frozen, cold and sweet. These products were also easy to swallow.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: It is possible to produce highly liked energy and protein enriched in-between meal products designed for elderly people. The temperature had a great impact on the liking of texture, taste and flavour. In-between meals should preferably be colourful and have a small portion size.</p> Karin Wendin, Maria Biörklund-Helgesson, Kristina Andersson-Stefanovic, Anders Lareke, Olof Böök, Christina Skjöldebrand Copyright (c) 2021 Karin Wendin, Maria Biörklund-Helgesson, Kristina Andersson-Stefanovic, Anders Lareke, Olof Böök, Christina Skjöldebrand https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5635 Mon, 15 Feb 2021 02:40:58 -0800 Nutritional impact of adding a serving of mushrooms to USDA Food Patterns – a dietary modeling analysis https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5618 <p>Mushrooms are part of vegetables and are important source of nutrients and bioactive compounds. The objective was to assess the nutritional impact of adding a serving of mushrooms in USDA Food Patterns using a similar approach to that used by USDA for Dietary Guidelines.</p> <p>A composite of commonly consumed raw mushrooms (white, brown/crimini and portabella; at 1:1:1 ratio) and raw speciality mushrooms (oyster mushrooms) were used for modeling. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Data central database (<em>https://fdc.nal.usda.gov/</em>) was used to obtain nutrient profiles of mushrooms. Nutritional profiles of USDAs Food Patterns were obtained from the Scientific Report of the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, Appendix E-3 (<em>https://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/ 2015-scientific-report/15-appendix-E3/</em>) and dietary modeling was accomplished by adding nutrients from mushrooms.</p> <p>Addition of an 84 g serving of commonly consumed raw mushrooms to USDA Food Patterns resulted in about 1% increase in calories, less than 5% increase in macronutrients, 2–3% increase in fiber, 8–12% increase in potassium, 12–18% increase in riboflavin, 11–26% increase in niacin, 11–23% selenium and 16–26% increase in copper depending upon the pattern type and calorie level. Mushrooms exposed to UV light to increase vitamin D levels to 200 IU/serving also increased vitamin D by 67–90% in USDA Food Patterns. Addition of oyster mushroom also additionally increased 8–11% vitamin D and 10–16% choline in USDA Food Patterns.</p> <p>Addition of mushrooms had minimal effect on sodium (1% or less increase) and no effect on saturated fat or cholesterol in USDA Food Patterns. Based on published data, a serving of commonly consumed mushrooms would also be expected to add 2.2 mg ergothioneine and 3.5 mg glutathione to the USDA Food Patterns. Addition of mushrooms to USDA Food Patterns increased several micronutrients including shortfall nutrients (such as potassium, vitamin D and choline), and had a minimal or no impact on overall calories, sodium or saturated fat.</p> Sanjiv Agarwal, Victor L. Fulgoni III Copyright (c) 2021 Sanjiv Agarwal, Victor L. Fulgoni III https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5618 Fri, 05 Feb 2021 03:20:24 -0800 The mechanism and active compounds of semen <em>armeniacae amarum</em> treating coronavirus disease 2019 based on network pharmacology and molecular docking https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5623 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak is progressing rapidly, and poses significant threats to public health. A number of clinical practice results showed that traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) plays a significant role for COVID-19 treatment.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To explore the active components and molecular mechanism of semen<em> armeniacae amarum</em> treating COVID-19 by network pharmacology and molecular docking technology.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: The active components and potential targets of semen <em>armeniacae amarum</em> were retrieved from traditional Chinese medicine systems pharmacology (TCMSP) database. Coronavirus disease 2019-associated targets were collected in the GeneCards, TTD, OMIM and PubChem database. Compound target, compound- target pathway and medicine-ingredient-target disease networks were constructed by Cytoscape 3.8.0. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks were drawn using the STRING database and Cytoscape 3.8.0 software. David database was used for gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis. The main active components were verified by AutoDock Vina 1.1.2 software. A lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung inflammation model in Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice was constructed and treated with amygdalin to confirm effects of amygdalin on lung inflammation and its underlying mechanisms by western blot analyses and immunofluorescence.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The network analysis revealed that nine key, active components regulated eight targets (Protooncogene tyrosine-protein kinase SRC (SRC), interleukin 6 (IL6), mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1), mitogen- activated protein kinase 3 (MAPK3), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), HRAS proto-oncogene (HRAS), caspase-3 (CASP3)). Gene ontology and KEGG enrichment analysis suggested that semen armeniacae amarum plays a role in COVID- 19 by modulating 94 biological processes, 13 molecular functions, 15 cellular components and 80 potential pathways. Molecular docking indicated that amygdalin had better binding activity to key targets such as IL6, SRC, MAPK3, SARS coronavirus-2 3C-like protease (SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro) and SARS-CoV-2 angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2). Experimental validation revealed that the lung pathological injury and inflammatory injury were significantly increased in the model group and were improved in the amygdalin group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Amygdalin is a candidate compound for COVID-19 treatment by regulating IL6, SRC, MAPK1 EGFR and VEGFA to involve in PI3K-Akt signalling pathway, VEGF signalling pathway and MAPK signalling pathway. Meanwhile, amygdalin has a strong affinity for SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro and SARS-CoV-2 ACE2 and therefore prevents the virus transcription and dissemination.</p> Yuehua Wang, Wenwen Gu, Fuguang Kui, Fan Gao, Yuji Niu, Wenwen Li, Yaru Zhang, Zhenzhen Guo, Gangjun Du Copyright (c) 2021 Yuehua Wang, Wenwen Gu, Fuguang Kui, Fan Gao, Yuji Niu, Wenwen Li, Yaru Zhang, Zhenzhen Guo, Gangjun Du https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5623 Thu, 04 Feb 2021 04:03:29 -0800 Pentadecanoic acid promotes basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/4527 <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong> Saturated fatty acids (SFAs) generally have been thought to worsen insulin-resistance and increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Recently, accumulating evidence has revealed that SFAs are not a single homogeneous group, instead different SFAs are associated with T2DM in opposing directions. Pentadecanoic acid (C15:0, PA) is directly correlated with dairy products, and a negative association between circulating PA and metabolic disease risk was observed in epidemiological studies. Therefore, the role of PA in human health needs to be reinforced. Whether PA has a direct benefit on glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity needs further investigation.</p> <p><strong><em>Objective:</em></strong> The present study aimed to investigate the effect and potential mechanism of action of PA on basal and insulin stimulated glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes.</p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> Glucose uptake was determined using a 2-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl) amino)-2-deoxyglucose (2-NBDG) uptake assay. Cell membrane proteins were isolated and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) protein was detected by western blotting to examine the translocation of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane. The phosphorylation levels of proteins involved in the insulin and 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathways were examined by western blotting.</p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> We found that PA significantly promoted glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane. Mechanistically, PA had no effect on the insulin-dependent pathway involving insulin receptor substrate (Tyr632) and Akt, but increased phosphorylation of AMPK and Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160). Compound C (an AMPK inhibitor) blocked PA-induced AMPK activation and reversed PA-induced GLUT4 translocation, indicating that PA promotes glucose uptake via the AMPK pathway <em>in vitro</em>. Moreover, PA significantly promoted insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in myotubes. Under insulin stimulation, PA did not affect the insulin-dependent pathway, but still activated AMPK.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong> PA, an odd-chain saturated fatty acid, significantly stimulates glucose uptake via the AMPK-AS160 pathway and exhibits an insulin-sensitizing effect in myotubes.</p> Wen-Cheng Fu, Hai-Yan Li, Tian-Tian Li, Kuo Yang, Jia-Xiang Chen, Si-Jia Wang, Chun-Hui Liu, Wen Zhang Copyright (c) 2021 Wen-Cheng Fu, Hai-Yan Li, Tian-Tian Li, Kuo Yang, Jia-Xiang Chen, Si-Jia Wang, Chun-Hui Liu, Wen Zhang https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/4527 Fri, 22 Jan 2021 12:36:13 -0800 Anti-diabetic effects of the soluble dietary fiber from tartary buckwheat bran in diabetic mice and their potential mechanisms https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/4998 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Tartary buckwheat has beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the physiological effects of a soluble dietary fiber (SDF) from tartary buckwheat have rarely been studied, especially <em>in vivo</em>.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: This study aimed to examine the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of SDF from tartary buckwheat bran on high-fat diet/streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: The SDF of tartary buckwheat bran was collected according to the Association of Official Analytical Chemists method 991.43. Diabetic mice were treated with high-fat diets supplemented with 0.5, 1, and 2% SDF for 8 weeks. Parameters related to glucose and lipid metabolism and relevant mechanisms, including the excretion of short-chain fatty acids and the glycemic signaling pathway in the liver, were investigated. In addition, the structural characterization of a purified polysaccharide from SDF of tartary buckwheat bran was illustrated.</p> <p><strong>Result</strong>: Supplementation with SDF in the diet resulted in reduced levels of fasting blood glucose, improved oral glucose tolerance, increased levels of liver glycogen and insulin, as well as improved lipid profiles in both the serum and liver, in diabetic mice. The amelioration of glucose and lipid metabolism by SDF was accompanied by an increase in the short-chain fatty acid levels in the cecum and co-regulated by hepatic adenosine- 5′-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation. A neutral tartary buckwheat polysaccharide with an average molecular weight of 19.6 kDa was purified from the SDF, which consisted mainly of glucose with α-glycosidic bonds.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: The SDF of tartary buckwheat bran exhibits hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects in diabetic mice, contributing to the anti-diabetic mechanisms of tartary buckwheat.</p> Weijing Wu, Zaigui Li, Fei Qin, Ju Qiu Copyright (c) 2021 Weijing Wu, Zaigui Li, Fei Qin, Ju Qiu https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/4998 Fri, 08 Jan 2021 08:14:49 -0800 Iron intake among Lebanese women: sociodemographic factors, iron-rich dietary patterns, and preparation of hummus, a Mediterranean dish https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5556 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Plant-based foods such as hummus are alternative to animal protein, and when properly prepared, they help to alleviate nutritional iron deficiency that leads to anemia, a global health problem.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The objective was to assess iron intake among Lebanese women and related participant’s characteristics, discern iron-rich dietary patterns, evaluate their association with nutrients intake and participant’s sociodemographic characteristics, and identify the women preparing hummus traditionally and properly for an enhanced iron bioavailability.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: A cross-sectional study of 400 Lebanese women (18–74 years old) was conducted in Lebanon. Data from a questionnaire, including sociodemographic and health characteristics, dietary intake, and hummus preparation and consumption, were collected. Dietary data were obtained by a food frequency questionnaire and a 24-h recall. Dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis. Linear regression and binomial logistic regression models were used to explore the association between the intake of dietary iron, its patterns, and the participants’ characteristics.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: About 60% of the women had iron intake deficiency, especially with lower income (odds ratio [OR] = 1.88, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.107, 3.194). Four iron-rich dietary patterns were identified: legumes; organ/lunch meat and chicken; canned fish; and beef and hummus. The factor scores of the latter were positively correlated with protein, vitamin C, iron, folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin A with r = 0.195 and P &lt; 0.01 for all. No significant difference was shown among the women’s sociodemographic characteristics for the consumption of the hummus-related pattern. Only 9.2 and 22.7% of the women considered proper preparation of chickpea and hummus, respectively, which significantly (P &lt; 0.05) correlated with older women (66.7%).</p> <p><strong>Discussion &amp; Conclusion</strong>: The majority of the Lebanese women still have iron intake deficiency and the minority reported proper preparation of hummus. Intervention programs spreading awareness among Lebanese women are needed for encouraging adequate iron intake and considering proper steps to improve iron bioavailability from plant-based food.</p> Nour Doumani, Jacqueline Maalouly, Elias Bou-Maroun, Nicolas Sok, Philippe Cayot, Maya Tueni Copyright (c) 2021 Nour Doumani, Jacqueline Maalouly, Elias Bou-Maroun, Nicolas Sok, Philippe Cayot, Maya Tueni https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5556 Wed, 06 Jan 2021 07:45:45 -0800 Effect of lifestyle intervention on the risk of incident diabetes in individuals with impaired fasting glucose and low or high genetic risk for the development of type 2 diabetes in men: a T2D-GENE trial https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7721 <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Purpose:</em></strong>&nbsp;Genetic and lifestyle/environmental factors as well as their interplay contribute to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Several trials have shown that lifestyle intervention is effective in the prevention of T2D, but there are no trials that have taken into account the genetic risk of the participants. The aim of our T2D-GENE trial (ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT02709057) is to investigate the effects of lifestyle intervention on the prevention of T2D in participants with a high genetic risk of T2D compared with participants with a low genetic risk of T2D.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong>&nbsp;Both intervention and control groups include 300 participants with low and 300 participants with high genetic risk for T2D. Genetic risk was evaluated by genetic risk score, and these two groups were matched additionally for fasting plasma glucose concentration, age, and body mass index. Corresponding control groups (300 participants each) do not have lifestyle intervention. The inclusion criteria are impaired fasting glucose at entry with or without impaired glucose tolerance, age 50–75 years, and body mass index ≥25 kg/m<sup>2</sup>. The primary outcome is incident T2D and the intervention lasts for 3 years.</p> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong>&nbsp;If the effects of the lifestyle intervention are independent from the genetic risk of the participants, our study will be of great importance for the entire T2D research community, health care providers, and individuals at high risk for T2D. In this case, lifestyle intervention is beneficial for all individuals at risk for developing T2D, independently of genetic risk.</p> Ursula Schwab, Maria Lankinen, Markku Laakso Copyright (c) 2021 Ursula Schwab, Maria Lankinen, Markku Laakso https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7721 Thu, 23 Sep 2021 13:14:30 -0700 The mechanisms of wine phenolic compounds for preclinical anticancer therapeutics https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/6507 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Wine is one of the oldest and most popular drinks worldwide, which is rich in phenolic compounds. Epidemiological studies show that moderate consumption of wine can reduce the risk of certain diseases, and this effect is attributed to its phenolic compounds.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The objective of this review was to elaborate the effects of wine-derived phenolic compounds for preclinical anticancer therapeutics and their major mechanisms.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: In this review, we discuss the classification and content of common phenolic compounds in wine and summarize previous studies that have evaluated the anticancer properties of wine-derived phenolic compounds and their mechanisms.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Wine-derived phenolic compounds have been proven to participate in several mechanisms against cancers, including deoxyribonucleic acid damage, oxidative stress, cell proliferation, cell cycle arrest, cell apoptosis, autophagy, cell invasion and metastasis, immunity and metabolism, regulation of multiple signaling molecules, and gene expression. However, the exact anticancer mechanisms of the phenolic compounds in wine need to be further investigated.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Wine-derived phenolic compounds are promising chemoprotective and chemotherapeutic agents for cancer.</p> Jing Duan, Hua Guo, Yulin Fang, Guangbiao Zhou Copyright (c) 2021 Jing Duan, Hua Guo, Yulin Fang, Guangbiao Zhou https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/6507 Mon, 23 Aug 2021 00:00:00 -0700 Unlocking the potential for achievement of the UN Sustainable Development Goal 2 – ‘Zero Hunger’ – in Africa: targets, strategies, synergies and challenges https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7686 <p><strong>Background</strong>: The UN Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 2 (‘Zero Hunger’) aims to end all forms of hunger and malnutrition by 2030. Thus, a range of different strategies are needed to facilitate the achievement of SDG 2 to overcome challenges and enable synergies between various SDG targets.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The aim of this review is to highlight Africa’s progress toward SDG 2, including targets, strategies, synergies and challenges.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: We scrutinized published research articles in peer-reviewed journals, UN reports and in-country Africa reports (between 2015 and 2020) that were relevant to the current topic.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Several hunger indicators are showing slow progress or even deterioration in Africa. The prevalence of undernourishment in the general population was 19.1% in 2019 and is expected to increase to 25.7% by 2030. Improvements in child stunting in several regions in Africa are slow, especially in sub-Saharan Africa where about 34% of under-fives were stunted in 2012 and 31% in 2019. In Eastern Africa, stunting prevalence decreased from 38% in 2012 to 34% in 2019. Major drivers of hunger are poor governance and state fragility, war and conflicts, increasing inequality, weak economic development, climate change, biodegradation – and now lately the Covid 19 pandemic – factors that all increase food insecurity.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Africa is off track to reach SDG – ‘Zero Hunger’ – by 2030. Current efforts and progress are insufficient. Africa must champion the SDG agenda on a national, regional and global level to facilitate synergies to unlock the potential for reaching ‘Zero Hunger’ throughout the continent.</p> Prudence Atukunda, Wenche Barth Eide, Kristin R. Kardel, Per Ole Iversen, Ane C. Westerberg Copyright (c) 2021 Prudence Atukunda, Wenche Barth Eide, Kristin R. Kardel, Per Ole Iversen, Ane C. Westerberg https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/7686 Tue, 25 May 2021 22:15:03 -0700