Contribution of a manually coded part in an optically readable, precoded sevenday food record for the intake of energy, nutrients and foods
AbstractObjective: This study investigated the contribution of a manually coded part (MP) in a precoded 7 day food record for the intake of energy, nutrients and foods. Design: The dietary intake was assessed in a cross-sectional study using an optically readable precoded 7 day food record. Biological markers for the intakes of protein, sodium and potassium were measured in 24 h urine samples. Underreporters were identified according to the Goldberg cut-off for energy intake:basal metabolic rate. The study setting was an outpatient clinic at Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. The subjects were 301 healthy men aged 63 years. Results: The MP represented 20% of the energy intake. Intakes recorded as free text were foods commonly eaten between meals, especially in the evening and were, with the exception of fruits, characterized as less healthy. The agreement between using the food record with and without the MP, respectively, was low for energy, carbohydrates, a-tocophe rol and vitamin C, and high for retinol, vitamin D and vitamin B12. Underreporters recorded their food intake as free text to a lesser degree than did non-underreporters. When the MP was included in the food record, the percentage of energy from fat and carbohydrates increased and the percentage of energy from protein decreased. The biological markers for protein, sodium and potassium confirmed an improved validity of the dietary data when the MP was included. Conclusions: Inclusion of the food consumption recorded in free text influenced the dietary quality and indicated improved validity of the optically readable precoded food record. To increase the possibility of catching underreporting in dietary surveys, these findings emphasize the importance of the recording/ reporting of between-meal eating. Keywords: biological markers; dietary assessment; in-between meals; precoded food record; underreporting
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