Whole grain rye porridge breakfast improves satiety compared to refined wheat bread breakfast
Background: Previous studies show that dietary fibre-rich foods with low energy density have a stronger effect on satiety per calorie compared to more energy dense foods. Objective: To investigate subjective appetite and voluntary energy intake (24 h) after consumption of rye porridge breakfast and pasta lunch made from whole grain compared to iso-energetic reference meals made from refined cereals: wheat bread breakfast and wheat pasta lunch. Subjects: In all, 22 healthy subjects, 14 females and 8 males, aged 21–64 years, BMI ranging from 18.7 to 27.5 kg/m 2 , participated. Design: A randomised, crossover design was used. Appetite was rated by visual analogue scales (VAS) regularly from just before breakfast (08:00) until bedtime. An ad libitum dinner was served at 16:00. After leaving the clinic and in the morning day 2, subjects recorded foods consumed. Results: Whole grain rye porridge gave a significantly prolonged satiety, lowered hunger and desire to eat ( p <0.05 in most point estimates) up to 8 h after consumption compared to the refined wheat bread. The two pasta lunch meals did not vary in their effects on appetite ratings. There was no significant effect on ad libitum energy intake at 16:00 or self-reported energy and macronutrient intake in the evening and breakfast meal on day 2. Conclusions: Whole grain rye porridge at breakfast has prolonged satiating properties up to 8 h after consumption compared to refined wheat bread, but did not diminish subsequent food intake.
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