Non-digestible stachyose promotes bioavailability of genistein through inhibiting intestinal degradation and first-pass metabolism of genistein in mice
This study was designed to explore the molecular mechanism of stachyose in enhancing the gastrointestinal stability and absorption of soybean genistein in mice. Male Kunming mice in each group (n = 8) were administered by intragastric gavage with saline, stachyose (250 mg/kg·bw), genistein (100 mg/kg·bw), and stachyose (50, 250, and 500 mg/kg·bw) together with genistein (100 mg/kg·bw) for 4 consecutive weeks, respectively, and then their urine, feces, blood, gut, and liver were collected. UPLC-qTOF/MS analysis showed that levels of genistein and its metabolites (dihydrogenistein, genistein 7-sulfate sodium salt, genistein 4’-β-D-glucuronide, and genistein 7-β-D-glucuronide) in serum and urine were increased with an increase in stachyose dosages in mice. Furthermore, the feces level of genistein aglycone was also elevated by co-treatment of stachyose with genistein. However, the feces concentration of dihydrogenistein, a characteristic metabolite of genistein by gut microorganism, was decreased by stachyose administration in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, the simultaneous administration with stachyose and genistein in mice could decrease intestinal SULT, UGT, P-gp, and MRP1 expression, relative to the treatment with individual stachyose or genistein. These results demonstrate that stachyose-mediated inhibition against the intestinal degradation of genistein and expression of phase II enzymes and efflux transporters can largely contribute to the elevated bioavailability of soybean genistein.
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