Antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiproliferative activitybased comparative study of peel and flesh polyphenols from Actinidia chinensis

  • Aamina Alim
  • Ting LI
  • Tanzeela Nisar
  • Daoyuan Ren
  • Xichuan Zhai
  • Yaxing Pang
  • Xingbin Yang
Keywords: Kiwifruit peel, Kiwifruit flesh, Polyphenols, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, Antiproliferative activity.

Abstract

Background: Kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) peel has been always considered as useless because of the harsh taste. To promote the full utilization of kiwifruit resources it is essential to explore the nutritional benefits of kiwifruit peel.

Objective: Our studies explored the difference in polyphenolic composition and biological activity including antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiproliferative activity of the flesh and peel of kiwifruit.

Design: Antioxidant activity of the extracted polyphenols of the peel and flesh of A. chinensis was checked by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2’-azino-bis3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS), hydroxyl ion reduction, and ion chelating ability. Antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus and antiproliferative activity against HepG2 was tested in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) chromatogram of the peel and flesh further differentiated the phenolic acid profile.

Results: The pericarp of kiwifruit was found to be more abundant in polyphenols and flavonoids than the flesh, with contents of 12.8 mg/g and 2.7 mg/g, respectively. LC/MS analysis revealed that the catachin, quercetin and epigallocatechin content (the main polyphenols in kiwifruit) in the peel was significantly higher than in the flesh (P < 0.05). The antioxidant and antibacterial activity of the peel was significantly higher when compared to the flesh. Moreover, the proliferation of HepG2 cells was time- and dose-dependently inhibited by kiwifruit polyphenols, with IC50 values of 170 μg/mL and 291 μg/mL for peel and flesh polyphenols after 72 h of treatment time, respectively.

Conclusion: Kiwifruit peel, with higher content of phenolics and flavonoids, exerts more potent antioxidant, antibacterial, and anticancer activity than the flesh. Our study provides scientific evidence for the development of kiwifruit, especially peel-based, novel natural products with excellent bioactivity.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References


  1. Liu J, Huang S, Niu X, Chen D, Chen Q, Tian L, et al. Genome-wide identification and validation of new reference genes for transcript normalization in developmental and post-harvested fruits of Actinidia chinensis. Gene 2018;645:1–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2017.12.012

  2. Garcia CV, Quek SY, Stevenson RJ, Winz RA. Kiwifruit flavour: a review. Trends Food Sci Technol 2012;24 (2):82–91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2011.08.012

  3. Huang H, Ferguson AR. Kiwifruit (Actinidia chinesis and A. deliciosa) plantings and production in China. N Z J Crop Hortic Sci 2003;31(3):197–202. https://doi.org/10.1080/01140671.2003.9514253

  4. Huang H, Ferguson AR. Review: kiwifruit in China. N Z J Crop Hortic Sci 2001;29 (1):1–14. https://doi.org/10.1080/01140671.2001.9514154

  5. Montefiori M, Tony KM, Costa G, Ferguson AR. Pigments in the fruit of red-fleshed kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis and Actinidia deliciosa). J Agric Food Chem 2005;53:9526–9530. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf051629u

  6. Huang S, Ding J, Deng D, Tang, W, Sun H, Liu D, et al. Draft genome of the kiwifruit Actinidia chinensis. Nature Commun 2013;4:2640. https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms3640

  7. Kwanhong P, ByungSeon L, JinSu L, Lee JS, Park HJ, Choi MH. Effect of 1-MCP and temperature on the quality of red-fleshed kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis). Korean J Hortic Sci 2017;35 (2):199–209. https://doi.org/10.12972/kjhst.20170023

  8. Zhang, L, Zhang W, Wang Q, Wang D, Dong D, Mu H, et al. Purification, antioxidant and immunological activities of polysaccharides from Actinidia Chinensis roots. Int J Biol Macromol 2015;72:975–983. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2014.09.056

  9. Sun-Waterhouse D, Wen I, Wibisono R, Melton MD, Wadhwa S. Evaluation of the extraction efficiency for polyphenol extracts from by-products of green kiwifruit juicing. Int J Food Sci Technol 2009;44: 2644–2652. https://doi.org/10.17113/ftb.54.04.16.4497

  10. Pinelli P, Romani A, Fierini E, Remorini D, Agati G. Characterisation of the polyphenol content in the kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) exocarp for the calibration of a fruit-sorting optical sensor. Phytochem Analy 2013;24(5):460–466. https://doi.org/10.1002/pca.2443

  11. Kichaoi AE, El-Hindi M, Mosleh F, Elbashiti TA. The antimicrobial effects of the fruit extracts of Punica granatum, Actinidia deliciosa and Citrus maxima on some human pathogenic microorganisms. Am Int J Biol 2015;3(2):63–75. https://doi.org/10.15640/aijb.v3n2a5

  12. Fattouch S, Caboni P, Coroneo V, Tuberoso C, Angioni A, Dessiet S, et al. Comparative analysis of polyphenolic profiles and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Tunisian pome fruit pulp and peel aqueous acetone extracts. J Agri Food Chem 2008;56:1084–1090. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf072409e

  13. Dawes HM, Keene JB. Phenolic composition of kiwifruit juice. J Agri Food Chem 1999;47(6):2398–2403. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf9810261

  14. Kim J, Beppu G, Kataoka K. Varietal differences in phenolic content and astringency in skin and flesh of hardy kiwifruit resources in Japan. Sci Hortic 2009;120(4):551–554. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2008.11.032

  15. Gorinstein S, Haruenkit R, Poovarodom S, Park Y, Vearasilp S, Suhaj M, et al. The comparative characteristics of snake and kiwi fruits. Food Chem Toxicol 2009;47(8):1884–1891. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2009.04.047

  16. Aboshora W, Lianfu Z, Dahir M, Qingren M, Qingrui S, Al-Haj NQM, et al. Effect of extraction method and solvent power on polyphenol and flavonoid levels in Hyphaene Thebaica L Mart (Arecaceae) (Doum) fruit, and its antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Trop J Pharm Res 2015;13(12):2057. https://doi.org/10.4314/tjpr.v13i12.16

  17. Hwang J, Cho-Chi H, Baik M, Park SK, Heo HJ, Cho YS, et al. Effects of freeze-drying on antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities in various cultivars of kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.). Food Sci Biotechnol 2017;26(1):221–228. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10068-017-0030-5

  18. Jayaprakasha GK, Singh RP, Sakariah KK. Antioxidant activity of grape seed (Vitis vinifera) extracts on peroxidation models in vitro. Food Chem 2001;73 (3):275–290. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(00)00298-3

  19. Yong, SP, Soon TJ, Seong GK, Heo BG, Arancibia-Avila P, Toledo F, et al. Antioxidants and proteins in ethylene-treated kiwifruits. Food Chem 2008;107(2):640–648. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.08.070

  20. Brandwilliams W, Cuvelier ME, Berset C. Use of a free-radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. Food Sci Tech 1995;28:25–30. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0023-6438(95)80008-5

  21. Re R, Pellegrini N, Proteggente A, pannala A, Yang M, Rice-Evans A. Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radic Biol Med 1999;26(10):1231–1237. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0891-5849(98)00315-3

  22. Sminoff N, Cumbes QJ. Hyroxyl radical scavenging activity of compatible solutes. Phytochem 1989;28:1057–1060. https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-9422(89)80182-7

  23. Gülçin ˙I, Kirecci E, Akkemik E, Topal F, Hisar O. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of anaquatic plant: duckweed (Lemna minor L.). Turk J Biol 2010;34:175–188. https://doi.org/10.3906/biy-0806-7

  24. He N, Shi X, Zhao Y, Tian L, Wang D, Yang XB. Inhibitory effects and molecular mechanisms of selenium-containing tea polysaccharides on human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. J Agri. Food Chem 2013;61(3):579–588. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf3036929

  25. Lu Y, Lin D, Li W, Yang XB. Non-digestible stachyose promotes bioavailability of genistein through inhibiting intestinal degradation and first-pass metabolism of genistein in mice. Food Nutr Res 2017;61(1):1369343. https://doi.org/10.1080/16546628.2017.1369343

  26. Taubert D, Breitenbach T, Lazar A, Censarek P, Harlfinger S, Klaus W, et al. Reaction rate constants of superoxide scavenging by plant antioxidants. Radic Biol Med 2003;35:1599−1607. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2003.09.005

  27. Davis JM, Murphy EA, Carmichael MD, Devis B. Quercetin increases brain and muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and exercise tolerance. J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2009;296:1071−1077. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.90925.2008

  28. Jan AT, Kamli MR, Murtaza I, Singh JB, Ali A, Haq QMR. Dietary flavonoid quercetin and associated health benefits—an overview. Food Rev Int 2010;26(3):302–317. https://doi.org/10.1080/87559129.2010.484285

  29. Moridani MY, Pourahmad J, Bui H, Siraki A, O’Brein PJ. Dietary flavonoid iron complexes as cytoprotective superoxide radical scavengers. Free Radic Biol Med 2003;34:243−253. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0891-5849(02)01241-8

  30. Du G, Li M, Ma F, Liang D. Antioxidant capacity and the relationship with polyphenol and vitamin C in actinidia fruits. Food Chem 2009;113(2):557–562. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.08.025

  31. Jang HD, Chang KS, Huang YS, Hsu CL, Lee SH, Su MS. Principal phenolic phytochemicals and antioxidant activities of three Chinese medicinal plants. Food Chem 2007;103:749−756. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.09.026

  32. Gülçin İ, Elmastas M, Aboul-Enein HY. Determination of antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of basil (Ocimum basilicum) L. Family Lamiaceae) assayed by different methodologies. Pytother Res 2007;21:354−361. https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.2069

  33. Halliwell B. Reactive oxygen species in living systems: source, biochemistry, and role in human disease. Am J Med 1991;91: 14–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/0002-9343(91)90279-7

  34. Fisher K, Phillips C. Potential antimicrobial uses of essential oils in food: is citrus the answer? Trends Food Sci Technol 2008;19(3):156–164. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2007.11.006

  35. Loizzo MR, Said A, Tundis R, Rasheed K, Minichini F, Frega NG, et al. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of Diospyros lotus L. extract and isolated compounds. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 2009;64(4):264–270. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11130-009-0133-0

  36. Kim H, Moon JY, Kim H, Lee DS, Cho M, Choi HK, et al. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of mango (Mangifera indica L.) flesh and peel. Food Chem 2010;121(2):429–436. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.12.060

  37. Reagan-Shaw S, Eggert D, Mukhtar H, Ahmad N. Antiproliferative effects of apple peel extract against cancer cells. Nutr Cancer 2010;62(4):517–524. https://doi.org/10.1080/01635580903441253

  38. Li T, Zhu J, Guo L, Shi X, Liu Y, Yang XB. Differential effects of polyphenols-enriched extracts from hawthorn fruit peels and fleshes on cell cycle and apoptosis in human MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells. Food Chem 2013;141(2):1008–1018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.04.050

Published
2019-04-26
How to Cite
1.
Alim A, LI T, Nisar T, Ren D, Zhai X, Pang Y, Yang X. Antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiproliferative activitybased comparative study of peel and flesh polyphenols from <em>Actinidia chinensis</em&gt;. fnr [Internet]. 2019Apr.26 [cited 2019Oct.19];630. Available from: https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/1577
Section
Original Articles