Riksmaten Adolescents 2016–17: A national dietary survey in Sweden – design, methods, and participation
Background: Nationally representative information on food consumption data is essential to evaluate dietary habits, inform policy-making and nutritional guidelines, as well as forming a basis for risk assessment and identification of risk groups.
Objective: To describe the methods used in the Swedish national dietary survey of adolescents, Riksmaten Adolescents 2016–2017.
Design: Students in grades 5, 8, and 11 (mean ages 12, 15, and 18 years) were recruited in this school-based cross-sectional survey. A new, validated, web-based method was used to assess dietary intake. Information on physical activity, health, and socioeconomic background was collected through web questionnaires. Physical activity was also evaluated by accelerometers. Weight and height were measured in all participants, while blood and urine samples were collected in a subsample of 40% of the participants.
Results: A total of 3,477 (68%) respondents participated and 3,099 (60%) had complete dietary information. In the subsample, 1,305 (55%) respondents participated and 1,105 (46%) had complete dietary information. The participants were overall representative for the population with regard to socioeconomic background and school organization (public or independent). All types of municipalities were represented in the survey and overall, the geographic distribution corresponded to the underlying population. Some differences by school grade were observed. Sample weights were calculated for the total sample and the subsample.
Conclusion: The Riksmaten Adolescents 2016–2017 provides valuable national data on diet, physical activity, and markers of exposure in age groups where data have been lacking. The data will provide a valuable basis for risk assessment, public health policy, and in-depth analyses.
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