Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract supplementation affects exhaustive exercise-induced fatigue in mice

  • Liu Xianchu
  • Liu Ming
  • Liu Xiangbin
  • Zheng Lan
Keywords: GSPE, Exhaustive Exercise, Fatigue, Anti-inflammatory, Anti-oxidant, Mitochondria

Abstract

Background: Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) has been extensively reported to possess a wide range of beneficial properties in multiple tissue damage. Previous studies have shown that exhaustive exercise-induced fatigue associates with oxidative stress injury, inflammatory response, and mitochondrial dysfunction.

Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the anti-fatigue effects of GSPE in mice and explore its possible underlying mechanism.

Design: The mouse model of exhaustive exercise-induced fatigue was established by using the forced swimming test, and GSPE was orally treated for successive 28 days at 0, 1, 50 and 100 mg/kg/day of body weight, designated the control, GSPE-L, GSPE-M and GSPE-H groups, respectively.

Results: The presented results showed that treatment of GSPE at a dose of 50 and 100 mg/kg/day of body weight significantly relieved exhaustive exercise-induced fatigue, indicated by increasing the forced swimming time. In addition, treatment of GSPE significantly improved the creatine phosphokinase and lactic dehydrogenase, as well as lactic acid level in exhaustive swimming. For underlying mechanisms, treatment of GSPE had anti-fatigue effects by promoting antioxidant ability and resisting oxidative effect, as represented by increased total antioxidative capability levels, enhanced superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, and ameliorated malondialdehyde levels. Furthermore, treatment of GSPE significantly inhibited the activity of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β, which suggested that its protective effects on exhaustive exercise-induced fatigue may be attributed to inhibition of inflammatory response. Last but not the least, treatment of GSPE significantly improved succinate dehydrogenase and Na+-K+-ATPase levels to enhance mitochondrial function during exhaustive swimming-induced fatigue.

Conclusions: These results proved that treatment of GSPE possessed the beneficial properties of anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and mitochondrial protection to improve exhaustive exercise, which suggested that GSPE could be used as an effective functional food to delay fatigue.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References


  1. Mitchell J H, Blomqvist G. Maximal Oxygen Uptake. The New England Journal of Medicine. 1971; 284(18): 1018-1022.

  2. Martínez-Sánchez A, Ramos-Campo DJ, Fernández-Lobato B, Rubio-Arias JA, Alacid F, Aguayo E. Biochemical, physiological, and performance response of a functional watermelon juice enriched in L-citrulline during a half-marathon race. Food & Nutrition Research. 2017; 61(1):1330098.

  3. Roberts CK, Barnard RJ. Effects of exercise and diet on chronic disease. J Appl Physiol. 2005; 98(1):3-30.

  4. Lee I-M, Shiroma EJ, Lobelo F, Puska P, Blair SN, Katzmarzyk PT, et al. Effect of physical inactivity on major non-communicable diseases worldwide: an analysis of burden of disease and life expectancy. Lancet. 2012; 380(9838):219-229.

  5. Pedersen L, Idorn M, Olofsson GH, Lauenborg B, Nookaew I, Hansen RH, et al. Voluntary Running Suppresses Tumor Growth through Epinephrine- and IL-6-Dependent NK Cell Mobilization and Redistribution. Cell Metabolism. 2016; 23(3): 554-562.

  6. Kim KM, Yu KW, Kang DH, Koh JH, Hong BS, Suh HJ. Anti-stress and anti-fatigue effects of fermented rice bran. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry. 2001; 65(10): 2294-2296.

  7. Uehata T. Karoshi, death by overwork. Nihon Rinsho. 2005; 63, 1249-1253.

  8. Chaudhuri A, Behan PO. Fatigue in neurological disorders. The Lancet. 2004; 363(9413): 978-988.

  9. Xia F, Zhong Y, Li M, Chang Q, Liao Y, Liu X, et al. Antioxidant and Anti-Fatigue Constituents of Okra. Nutrients. 2015; 7(10): 8846-8858.

  10. Finsterer J, Mahjoub SZ. Fatigue in Healthy and Diseased Individuals. American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. 2014; 31(5): 562-575.

  11. Glaister M. Multiple Sprint Work: Physiological Responses, Mechanisms of Fatigue and the Influence of Aerobic Fitness. Sports Medicine. 2005; 35(9): 757-777.

  12. Herrlinger KA, Chirouzes DM, Ceddia MA. Supplementation with a polyphenolic blend improves post-exercise strength recovery and muscle soreness. Food & Nutrition Research. 2015; 59:30034.

  13. Wei W, Li ZP, Zhu T. Anti-Fatigue Effects of the Unique Polysaccharide Marker of Dendrobium officinale on BALB/c Mice. Molecules. 2017; 22(1).

  14. Lixia Liu, Xiuqin Wu, Bingchen Zhang, Yang W, Li D, Dong Y, et al. Protective effects of tea polyphenols on exhaustive exercise-induced fatigue, inflammation and tissue damage. Food & Nutrition Research. 2017; 61:1, 1333390.

  15. Meihong Xu, Rui Liang, Yong Li, Wang J. Anti-fatigue effects of dietary nucleotides in mice. Food & Nutrition Research. 2017; 61:1, 1334485.

  16. Shi J, Yu J, Pohorly J E, Kakuda Y. Polyphenolics in grape seeds-biochemistry and functionality. Journal of Medicinal Food. 2003; 6(4):291-299.

  17. Han F, Ju Y, Ruan X. Color, anthocyanin, and antioxidant characteristics of young wines produced from spine grapes (Vitis davidiiFoex) in China. Food & Nutrition Research. 2017; 61(1):1339552.

  18. Bagchi D, Sen CK, Ray SD, Das DK, Bagchi M, Preuss HG, et al. Molecular mechanisms of cardioprotection by a novel grape seed proanthocyanidin extract. Mutation Research. 2003; 523-524(2):87-97.

  19. Pinent M, Castell-Auví A, Inés GM, Serrano J, Casanova A, Blay M, et al. Antioxidant effects of proanthocyanidin-rich natural extracts from Grape seed and Cupuassu on gastrointestinal mucosa. Journal of the Science of Food & Agriculture. 2016; 96(1):178-182.

  20. Àngela CasanovaMartí, Serrano J, Blay MT, Terra X, Ardévol A, Pinent M. Acute selective bioactivity of grape seed proanthocyanidins on enteroendocrine secretions in the gastrointestinal tract. Food & Nutrition Research. 2017; 61(1):1321347.

  21. Long M, Zhang Y, Li P, Yang SH, Zhang WK, Han JX, et al. Intervention of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract on the Subchronic Immune Injury in Mice Induced by Aflatoxin B1. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2016; 17(4):516.

  22. Lu Z, Lu F, Zheng Y, Zeng Y, Zou C, Liu X. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract protects human umbilical vein endothelial cells from indoxyl sulfate-induced injury via ameliorating mitochondrial dysfunction. Renal Failure. 2016; 38(1):100-8.

  23. Belviranlı M, Gökbel H, Okudan N, Başaralı K. Effects of grape seed extract supplementation on exercise-induced oxidative stress in rats. British Journal of Nutrition. 2012; 108(2):249-56.

  24. Chen S, Zhu Y, Liu Z, Gao Z, Li B, Zhang D, et al. Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract Ameliorates Diabetic Bladder Dysfunction via the Activation of the Nrf2 Pathway. Plos One. 2015; 10(5):e0126457.

  25. Tan W, Yu KQ, Liu YY, Ouyang MZ, Yan MH, Luo R, et al. Anti-fatigue activity of polysaccharides extract from Radix Rehmanniae Preparata. Int J Biol Macromol. 2012; 50(1):59-62.

  26. Meltzer HM, Malterud KE. Can dietary flavonoids influence the development of coronary heart disease?. Food & Nutrition Research. 1997; 41:50-57.

  27. Ma Y, Gao W, Wu K, Bao Y. Flavonoid intake and the risk of age-related cataract in China’s Heilongjiang Province. Food & Nutrition Research. 2015, 59:29564.

  28. Belviranlı M, Gökbel H, Okudan N, Büyükbaş S. Effects of Grape Seed Polyphenols on Oxidative Damage in Liver Tissue of Acutely and Chronically Exercised Rats. Phytotherapy Research. 2013; 27(5):672-7.

  29. Xin F, Rong J, Dam J. Antifatigue effect of coenzyme Q10 in mice. Journal of Medicinal Food. 2010; 13(1):211-215.

  30. Yamakoshi J, Saito M, Kataoka S, Kikuchi M. Safety evaluation of proanthocyanidin-rich extract from grape seeds. Food & Chemical Toxicology. 2002; 40(5):599-607.

  31. Gibson H, Edwards RH. Muscular exercise and fatigue. Sports Medicine. 1985; 2(2):120-132.

  32. Kim H, Park S, Han DS, Park T. Octacosanol supplementation increases running endurance time and improves biochemical parameters after exhaustion in trained rats. J Med Food. 2003; 6(4):345-351.

  33. Coombes JS, McNaughton LR. Effects of branchedchain amino acid supplementation on serum creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase after prolonged exercise. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2000; 40(3):240-246.

  34. Barclay JK, Hansel M. Free radicals may contribute to oxidative skeletal muscle fatigue. Canadian Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology. 1991; 69(2):279-84.

  35. Bagis S, Tamer L, Sahin G, Bilgin R, Guler H, Ercan B, et al. Free radicals and antioxidants in primary fibromyalgia: an oxidative stress disorder? Rheumatology International. 2005; 25(3):188-190.

  36. Liang Y, Wang J, Gao H, Wang Q, Zhang J, Qiu J. Beneficial effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on arterial remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive rats via protecting against oxidative stress. Molecular Medicine Reports. 2016; 14(4):3711-8.

  37. Nam SY, Kim HM, Jeong HJ. Anti-fatigue effect by active dipeptides of fermented porcine placenta through inhibiting the inflammatory and oxidative reactions. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 2016; 84:51-59.

  38. Echtay KS, Roussel D, St-Pierre J, Jekabsons MB, Cadenas S, Stuart JA, et al. Superoxide activates mitochondrial uncoupling proteins. Nature. 2002; 415(6867):96-99.

  39. Nkandeu D S, Mqoco TV, Visagie MH, Stander BA, Wolmarans E, Cronje MJ, et al. In vitro changes in mitochondrial potential, aggresome formation and caspase activity by a novel 17-β-estradiol analogue in breast adenocarcinoma cells. Cell Biochemistry & Function. 2013; 31(7):566-574.

  40. Huang XP, Tan H, Chen BY, Deng CQ. Astragalus extract alleviates nerve injury after cerebral ischemia by improving energy metabolism and inhibiting apoptosis. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 2012; 35(4):449-454.

  41. Pajuelo D, Diaz S, Quesada H. Acute Administration of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract Modulates Energetic Metabolism in Skeletal Muscle and BAT Mitochondria. Journal of Agricultural & Food Chemistry. 2011; 59(8):4279-87.

Published
2018-06-06
How to Cite
1.
Xianchu L, Ming L, Xiangbin L, Lan Z. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract supplementation affects exhaustive exercise-induced fatigue in mice. Food & Nutrition Research [Internet]. 6Jun.2018 [cited 22Sep.2018];62. Available from: https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/1421
Section
Original Articles