Aronia berry extract inhibits TNF-α-induced vascular endothelial inflammation through the regulation of STAT3
Background: Inflammation in endothelial cells induces production of inflammatory cytokines and monocytes adhesion, which are crucial events in the initiation of atherosclerosis. Aronia berry (Aronia meranocalpa), also called black chokeberry, contains abundant anthocyanins that have received considerable interest for their possible relations to vascular health.
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether an anthocyanin-rich extract obtained from aronia berry can attenuate inflammatory responses in vascular endothelial cells.
Methods: As a model of vascular endothelial inflammation, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) pretreated with aronia berry extract were stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). The expression levels of cytokines and adhesion molecules were analyzed. To investigate the effects of aronia berry extract on the adhesion of THP-1 monocytic cell, the static adhesion assay was carried out. The possible molecular mechanisms by which aronia berry extract regulated vascular inflammatory responses were explored.
Results: The mRNA expressions of interleukins (IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) upregulated by TNF-α were significantly suppressed by pretreatment with aronia berry extract. Aronia berry extract decreased TNF-α-induced monocyte/endothelial adhesion and suppressed vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression, but did not affect intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression. Moreover, aronia berry extract decreased the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and the nuclear levels of STAT3 and interferon regulatory transcription factor-1 (IRF1). The nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) was not inhibited by aronia berry extract.
Conclusion: Aronia berry extract could exert anti-atherosclerotic effects on TNF-α-induced inflammation through inhibition of STAT3/IRF1 pathway in vascular endothelial cells.
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