Glycemic index and glycemic load are associated with some cardiovascular risk factors among the PREMIER study participants

  • Pao-Hwa Lin Duke University Medical Center
  • Chuhe Chen Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research, Portland, OR
  • Deborah R. Young University of Maryland School of Public Health, College Park, MD
  • Diane Mitchell Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA
  • Patricia Elmer Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research, Portland, OR
  • Yanfang Wang Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, China.
  • Bryan Batch Endocrinology Division, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC
  • Catherine Champagne Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge, LA
Keywords: glycemic index, glycemic load, CVD risk factor, diet, human nutrition

Abstract

Background: The clinical significance of glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) is inconclusive. Objective: This study was conducted to examine the association of GI and GL with clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors including body weight, blood pressure (BP), serum lipids, fasting glucose, insulin and homocysteine over time among the PREMIER participants. Design: PREMIER was an 18-month randomized lifestyle intervention trial, conducted from 2000 to 2002, designed to help participants reduce BP by following the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern, losing weight, reducing sodium and increasing physical activity. GI and GL were estimated from 24 h diet recall data at baseline, 6 and 18 months after intervention. PROC MIXED model was used to examine the association of changes in GI or GL with changes in CVD risk factors. Results: A total of 756 randomized participants, 62% females and 34% African Americans and who averaged 50.0±0.3 years old and 95.3±0.7 kg, were included in this report. Neither GI nor GL changes was associated with changes in any risk factors at 6 months. At 18 months, however, the GI change was significantly and positively associated with total cholesterol (TC) change only (p<0.05, B = 23.80±12.11 mg/dL or 0.62±0.31 mmol/L) with a significant age interaction. The GL change was significantly associated with TC (p=0.02, B = 0.28±0.15 mg/dL or 0.01±0.00 mmol/L) positively and with low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) changes negatively (p=0.03, B = − 0.01±0.00 mg/dL or −0.00±0.00 mmol/L), and significant age interactions were observed for both. Conclusion: GI and GL was associated with TC and LDL-C after controlling for energy, fat and fiber intake and other potential confounders and the associations were modified by age. Further investigation into this relationship is important because of its potential clinical impact.

Keywords: glycemic index; glycemic load; diet; cardiovascular risk

(Published: 4 June 2012)

Citation: Food & Nutrition Research 2012. 56: 9464 - http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/fnr.v56i0.9464 

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Pao-Hwa Lin, Duke University Medical Center

Associate Research Professor

Department of Medicine

 

Chuhe Chen, Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research, Portland, OR
Research Associate
Deborah R. Young, University of Maryland School of Public Health, College Park, MD

Professor

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics

Diane Mitchell, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA

Coordinator, The Diet Assessment Center

Patricia Elmer, Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research, Portland, OR

Senior Scientist

Yanfang Wang, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, China.

Assitant Director, Clinical Research Institute

Bryan Batch, Endocrinology Division, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC

Medical Instructor, Department of Medicine

Catherine Champagne, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge, LA

Professor

Published
2012-06-04
How to Cite
Lin, P.-H., Chen, C., Young, D. R., Mitchell, D., Elmer, P., Wang, Y., Batch, B., & Champagne, C. (2012). Glycemic index and glycemic load are associated with some cardiovascular risk factors among the PREMIER study participants. Food & Nutrition Research. https://doi.org/10.3402/fnr.v56i0.9464
Section
Original Articles

Similar Articles

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 > >> 

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.