Vitamins and minerals: issues associated with too low and too high population intakes

  • Janneke Verkaik-Kloosterman National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), PO Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven
  • Mary T. McCann University of Ulster
  • Jeljer Hoekstra National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), PO Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven
  • Hans Verhagen National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), PO Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven
Keywords: vitamins, minerals, micronutrient, fortification, tolerable upper intake level, safe addition, benefit risk assessment

Abstract

There is an ongoing increase in the availability of foods fortified with micronutrients and dietary supplements. This may result in differing intakes of micronutrients within the population and perhaps larger differences in intakes. Insight into population micronutrient intakes and evaluation of too low or too high intakes is required to see whether there are potential problems regarding inadequacy or excessive intakes. Too low population intakes are evaluated against an estimated average requirement; potential too high population intakes are evaluated against a tolerable upper intake level (UL). Additional health effects, seriousness, and incidence of these health effects are not considered but these can be taken into account in a benefit-risk assessment. Furthermore, authorities would like to regulate food fortification and supplementation in such a way that most of the population is not at risk of potentially high intakes. Several models are available for estimating maximum levels of micronutrients for food fortification and dietary supplements. Policy makers and risk managers need to decide how to divide the ‘free space’ between food fortification and/or dietary supplements, while protecting populations from adverse health effects.

Keywords: vitamins; minerals; intake; inadequate; excessive

(Published: 2 April 2012)

Citation: Food & Nutrition Research 2012, 56: 5728 - DOI: 10.3402/fnr.v56i0.5728

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Published
2012-04-02
How to Cite
1.
Verkaik-Kloosterman J, McCann M, Hoekstra J, Verhagen H. Vitamins and minerals: issues associated with too low and too high population intakes. fnr [Internet]. 2012Apr.2 [cited 2019Jun.25];00. Available from: https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/512
Section
Vitamin Supplement