Association of two types of dietary pattern scores with cardiovascular disease risk factors and serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D levels in Saudi Arabia

  • Najlaa Aljefree Food and Nutrition Department, Faculty of Human Sciences and Design, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  • Noha M. Almoraie Food and Nutrition Department, Faculty of Human Sciences and Design, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  • Israa M. Shatwan Food and Nutrition Department, Faculty of Human Sciences and Design, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Keywords: vitamin D deficiency, diet score, high-fat dietary pattern, Mediterranean diet, cardiovascular disease, obesity, low-density lipoprotein


Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a main cause of mortality and disability worldwide. One of the key factors in the soaring prevalence of CVD globally has been nutrition transitions and changes in dietary patterns.

Objective: This study investigated the association between two diet scores, namely, a high-fat dietary (HFD) pattern score and a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) score, and CVD risk factors (obesity, hypertension, total cholesterol, and blood glucose) and serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D (25[OH]D) levels.

Methods: Three hundred twenty-one participants were included in this study. Fasting blood tests were collected from all participants for biochemical measurements. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were also taken. A validated, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to collect data on participants’ dietary intake. Dietary scores for the HFD pattern were calculated based on recommended food groups. MedDiet scores were calculated based on a previously validated method that contains 14 questions related to MedDiet. Both diet scores were classified into tertiles. Linear regression analyses were performed to assess the statistical significance of the tertile groups.

Result: A significant association was found between HFD score and obesity when comparing the lowest tertile (27.3±4.6 kg/m2) of HFD scores with the medium tertile (29.2±5.7 kg/m2; P = 0.02). A higher HFD score was significantly associated with lower 25(OH)D levels (P = 0.02). In addition, a significant association was observed between MedDiet scores and 25(OH)D levels, with an increase in MedDiet score resulting in an increase in 25(OH)D levels (P = 0.01). Furthermore, a significant negative association between MedDiet scores and low-density lipoprotein levels was reported only in participants with CVD (P = 0.03).

Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that HFD and MedDiet scores might have a role in the development of CVD and vitamin D deficiency among the Saudi Arabian population. Further studies are required using diet scores to assess the quality of dietary patterns and their association with an increased risk of diseases in Saudi Arabians.


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How to Cite
Aljefree N., Almoraie N. M., & Shatwan I. M. (2021). Association of two types of dietary pattern scores with cardiovascular disease risk factors and serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D levels in Saudi Arabia. Food & Nutrition Research, 65.
Original Articles