Nutritional impact of adding a serving of mushrooms to USDA Food Patterns – a dietary modeling analysis
Mushrooms are part of vegetables and are important source of nutrients and bioactive compounds. The objective was to assess the nutritional impact of adding a serving of mushrooms in USDA Food Patterns using a similar approach to that used by USDA for Dietary Guidelines.
A composite of commonly consumed raw mushrooms (white, brown/crimini and portabella; at 1:1:1 ratio) and raw speciality mushrooms (oyster mushrooms) were used for modeling. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Data central database (https://fdc.nal.usda.gov/) was used to obtain nutrient profiles of mushrooms. Nutritional profiles of USDAs Food Patterns were obtained from the Scientific Report of the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, Appendix E-3 (https://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/ 2015-scientific-report/15-appendix-E3/) and dietary modeling was accomplished by adding nutrients from mushrooms.
Addition of an 84 g serving of commonly consumed raw mushrooms to USDA Food Patterns resulted in about 1% increase in calories, less than 5% increase in macronutrients, 2–3% increase in fiber, 8–12% increase in potassium, 12–18% increase in riboflavin, 11–26% increase in niacin, 11–23% selenium and 16–26% increase in copper depending upon the pattern type and calorie level. Mushrooms exposed to UV light to increase vitamin D levels to 200 IU/serving also increased vitamin D by 67–90% in USDA Food Patterns. Addition of oyster mushroom also additionally increased 8–11% vitamin D and 10–16% choline in USDA Food Patterns.
Addition of mushrooms had minimal effect on sodium (1% or less increase) and no effect on saturated fat or cholesterol in USDA Food Patterns. Based on published data, a serving of commonly consumed mushrooms would also be expected to add 2.2 mg ergothioneine and 3.5 mg glutathione to the USDA Food Patterns. Addition of mushrooms to USDA Food Patterns increased several micronutrients including shortfall nutrients (such as potassium, vitamin D and choline), and had a minimal or no impact on overall calories, sodium or saturated fat.
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