Nutritional intakes in children with Prader - Willi syndrome and non-congenital obesity
Background: Individuals with Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) have extremely regulated diets to prevent the development of morbid obesity.
Objective: This study evaluated potential deficiencies in macro and micronutrients in a cohort of youth with PWS and compared them to a group of children with non-congenital obesity and to US national recommendations.
Design: Participants were 32 youth with PWS (age=10.8±2.6 years, body fat=46.7±10.1%) and 48 children without PWS but classified as obese (age=9.7±1.2 years, body fat=43.4±5.7%). Participants’ parents completed a training session on food recording before completing a 3-day food record during a typical week including a weekend day and two weekdays, as well as a screening form indicating nutritional supplements use.
Results: Youth with PWS reported less calories (1,312±75 vs. 1,531±61 kcal, p=0.03), carbohydrate (175±10 vs. 203±8 g), and sugars (67±5 vs. 81±4 g; p=0.04 for both) than obese. Youth with PWS consumed more vegetables (1.1±0.1 vs. 0.6±0.1 cups) and more of them met the daily recommendation (p<0.01 for both). Likewise, youth with PWS consumed more calcium than obese (899±53 vs. 752±43 mg) and more of them met the recommended daily dose (p=0.04 for both). The majority of participants in this study did not meet the vitamin D recommendation.
Conclusion: Despite consuming less calories, youth with PWS had a similar proportion of macronutrients in their diet as children with obesity. Micronutrient deficiencies in calcium and vitamin D in youth with PWS were noted despite a third of youth with PWS consuming multivitamin supplements. Special attention must be paid to the diets of youth with PWS and with obesity to ensure they are meeting micronutrient needs during this period of growth and development.
Keywords: macronutrients; micronutrients; nutritional deficiencies; childhood obesity
(Published: 8 December 2015)
Citation: Food & Nutrition Research 2015, 59: 29427 - http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/fnr.v59.29427
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