Antenatal care follow-up was significantly associated with a higher probability of high dietary diversity score among pregnant women in okra-producing areas of western Ethiopia: proportional odds model

  • Efrem Negash Kushi Department of Public Health, Mettu University
  • Tefera Belachew Departments of Nutrition and Dietetics, Public Health Institute, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia
  • Dessalegn Tamiru Departments of Nutrition and Dietetics, Public Health Institute, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia
Keywords: dietary modification, okra consumption, maternal nutrition, ordinal logistic regression, Ethiopia


Background: Dietary diversity is important for pregnant women since it has been associated with nutrient adequacy. It is very crucial to ensure optimal fetal health and development. There is no evidence at the community level on the magnitude of dietary diversity and its predictors among pregnant women in okra-producing areas of western Ethiopia.

Objective: This study aimed to assess the level of dietary diversity and its associated factors among pregnant women.

Design: A community-based cross-sectional study was employed among randomly selected 224 pregnant women in western Ethiopia. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. The qualitative open 24-h recall was used to assess the level of dietary diversity. Ordinal logistic regression analyses were used by SPSS version 25. An adjusted proportional odds ratio along with a 95% confidence interval [CI] was computed to measure the strengths of the association at a P ≤ 0.05.

Result: This study revealed that more than one-fourth, 64 (28.6%), of the respondents were found to have high dietary diversity scores. Antenatal Care [ANC] visits (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 2.10, [95% CI: 1.13, 3.90], P = 0.01), changing food intake (AOR = 2.97, [95% CI: 1.16, 3.67], P = 0.002), and being food secure household (AOR = 2.63, [95% CI: 1.38, 5.00], P = 0.003) were significantly associated with a higher probability of having high dietary diversity score. However, lack of formal education (AOR = 0.34, [95% CI: 0.61, 0.89]) was inversely associated with the probability of having high dietary diversity.

Conclusion: More than half of pregnant women in western Ethiopia were found to have low dietary diversity. Therefore, ANC follow-up, dietary modification, and promotion of frequent use of wild edible plants (okra) to maintain household food security were very crucial.


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How to Cite
Negash Kushi E., Belachew T., & Tamiru D. (2023). Antenatal care follow-up was significantly associated with a higher probability of high dietary diversity score among pregnant women in okra-producing areas of western Ethiopia: proportional odds model. Food & Nutrition Research, 67.
Original Articles