Intake of different types of red meat, poultry, and fish and incident colorectal cancer in women and men: results from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study
Background : Colorectal cancer (CRC) is considered one of the most common forms of cancer in the Western world. High intake of red and processed meat is considered to increase CRC development.
Objective : This study examined associations between intake of red meats, poultry, and fish and incident CRC, and if weight status modifies the associations.
Design : In the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study, dietary data was collected through a modified diet history method. Via the Swedish Cancer Registry, 728 cases of CRC were identified during 428 924 person-years of follow-up of 16 944 women and 10 987 men.
Results : Beef intake was inversely associated with colon cancer. However, in men high intake of beef was associated with increased risk of rectal cancer. High intake of pork was associated with increased incidence of CRC, and colon cancer. Processed meat was associated with increased risk of CRC in men. Fish intake was inversely associated with risk of rectal cancer. No significant interactions were found between different types of meat and weight status.
Conclusions : Findings suggest that associations between meat intake and CRC differ depending on meat type, sex, and tumor location in the bowel. Weight status did not modify observed associations.
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