Sodium and potassium urinary excretion and their ratio in the elderly: results from the Nutrition UP 65 study

  • Pedro Moreira
  • Ana S. Sousa
  • Rita S. Guerra
  • Alejandro Santos
  • Nuno Borges
  • Cláudia Afonso
  • Teresa F. Amaral
  • Patrícia Padrão
Keywords: Sodium, potassium, sodium-to-potassium ratio, elderly, urinary excretion

Abstract

Background: We aimed to describe urinary sodium and potassium excretion and their ratio in a representative
sample of Portuguese elderly population, according to sociodemographic characteristics and weight status.

Methods: A cluster sampling approach was used, representing older Portuguese adults (≥65 years) according
to age, sex, education level, and regional area within the Nutrition UP 65 study. This cross-sectional evaluation was conducted in 2015 and 2016. From a sample size of 1,500 participants, 1,318 were eligible for the present analysis, 57.3% were women, and 23.5% were aged ≥80 years. Sodium and potassium consumption was evaluated through one 24 h urinary excretion. Inadequate sodium intake was defined as ≥2,000 mg/day,
inadequate potassium intake was considered as <3,510 mg/day, and inadequate sodium-to-potassium ratio
was defined as >1, according to the World Health Organization cutoffs.

Results: The proportion of the participants with an inadequate intake was 80.0% in women and 91.5% in
men (sodium), 96.2% of women and 79.4% of men (potassium), and 98.4% of women and 99.1% of men (sodium-to-potassium ratio). Higher sodium adequacy was observed among the older elderly, unmarried, with
lower household income, and underweight/normal weight. Higher potassium adequacy was observed in the
younger elderly, married, and with higher income.

Conclusion: The majority of the Portuguese elderly population was classified as having inadequate sodium,
potassium, and sodium-to-potassium ratio urinary excretion. Therefore, strategies for reducing
sodium and increasing potassium intake are priorities in the Portuguese elderly population.

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Published
2018-02-27
How to Cite
1.
Moreira P, Sousa A, Guerra R, Santos A, Borges N, Afonso C, Amaral T, Padrão P. Sodium and potassium urinary excretion and their ratio in the elderly: results from the Nutrition UP 65 study. fnr [Internet]. 2018Feb.27 [cited 2018Dec.19];620. Available from: https://foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/1288
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