Neuroprotective effects of chloroform and aqueous fractions of noni juice against t-Butyl hydroperoxide-induced oxidative damage in SH-SY5Y cells
Oxidative stress is more likely to cause damage to neuronal cells and mediates some neurodegenerative disorders. It is well known that natural antioxidants can prevent oxidative stress damage and become a potential therapeutic strategy. Noni juice obtained from the fruit of the tree Morinda citrifolia, as a folk medicine, has been used for over two thousand years. In the current study, the neuroprotective effect and mechanism of noni juice extracts against tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP)-induced SH-SY5Y cell damage were investigated. The results demonstrated that chloroform fraction (CF) and aqueous fraction (AF) of noni juice protected SH-SY5Y cells against TBHP-induced oxidative stress and the associated apoptosis effectively. CF and AF treatment significantly weakened the TBHP-induced cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species generation, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, and apoptotic features. CF and AF restored cellular antioxidant enzyme activity; upregulated expression of heme oxygenase-1, catalase, and superoxide dismutase-1; and increased the nuclear accumulation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2). The antioxidant and neuroprotection potential of CF may account for its high total phenolic and flavonoid content, while AF may be rich in polysaccharides. These results suggest that CF and AF exhibit antioxidant defense through the upregulation of Nrf2 along with endogenous antioxidants and reduce apoptosis via inhibiting the mitochondrial pathway to protect SH-SY5Y cells damaged by TBHP. CF and AF might be developed as agents for neurodegeneration prevention or therapy.
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