Inadequate nutrient intakes in Filipino schoolchildren and adolescents are common among those from rural areas and poor families

  • Imelda Angeles-Agdeppa
  • Liya Denney
  • Marvin B. Toledo
  • Virgillyn Anne Obligar
  • Emma F. Jacquier
  • Alicia L. Carriquiry
  • Mario V. Capanzana
Keywords: usual nutrient intakes; school-aged children; adolescents; The Philippines


Background: Adequate nutrition during childhood and adolescence is essential to promote growth and development.

Objective: This study evaluated usual energy and nutrient intakes of Filipino schoolchildren and adolescents.

Design: Food and beverage intakes were collected from a nationally representative sample of schoolchildren aged 6–9 and 10–12 years (n = 3,594 and n = 2,971, respectively) and adolescents aged 13–18 years (n = 5,447) using 24-h dietary recalls. The distributions of usual energy and nutrient intakes and the prevalence of inadequate intakes, which is defined as the percent of children with intakes less than estimated average requirements or acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges, were estimated using the Personal Computer Software for Intake Distribution Estimation (PC-SIDE) program.

Results: The results showed that the mean energy intakes were 19–35% lower than estimated energy requirement. High prevalence of inadequate intakes was found for most macro- and micronutrients. Prevalence of inadequacies was as follows: protein 12–47%, total fat (as percentage of energy) 38–52%, calcium 92–94%, iron 75–90%, vitamin C 68–96%, folate 61–93%, vitamin A 58–81%, riboflavin 58–91%, thiamin 27–75%, and phosphorus 18–91%.

Conclusions: Generally, prevalence of inadequacy of key nutrients were relatively high among adolescents and schoolchildren, especially those from poor families and rural areas. This study demonstrated that nutrient intakes of Filipino schoolchildren and adolescents were highly inadequate, particularly among the poor and those living in rural areas.


Download data is not yet available.


  1. United Nations Children’s Fund (US). The state of the world’s children 2011. New York: United Nations Children’s Fund; 2011, p. 148. Available from: [cited 6 January 2018].

  2. Ochola S, Masibo, PK. Dietary intake of schoolchildren and adolescents in developing countries. Ann Nutr Metab 2014; 64 Suppl 2: 24–40.doi: 10.1159/000365125

  3. Story M, Stang J. Nutrition needs of adolescents. 2005; p. 34. Available from: [cited 11 September 2018].

  4. World Health Organization (CH). WHO Discussion papers on adolescence: nutrition in adolescents-issues and challenges for the health sector. Geneva: WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data; 2005, p. 115. Available from:;jsessionid=D02E4E49AECD73195D500E426BAC4BC9?sequence=1WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data ISBN 92 4 159366 0 ISBN 92 4 159366 0 [cited 11 September 2018].

  5. Galobardes B, Shaw M, Lawlor DA, Lynch JW, Smith, GD. Indicators of socioeconomic position (part 1). J Epidemiol Community Health 2006; 60(1): 7–12. doi: 10.1136/jech.2004.023531

  6. Ranjit N, Wilkinson AV, Lytle LM, Evans AE, Saxton D, Hoelscher DM. Socioeconomic inequalities in children's diet: the role of the home food environment. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 201; 12 Suppl: S4. doi: 10.1186/1479-5868-12-S1-S4

  7. Manyanga T, Tremblay MS, Chaput JP, Katzmarzyk PT, Fogelholm M, Hu G, et al. Socioeconomic status and dietary patterns in children from around the world: different associations by levels of country human development? BMC Public Health 2017; 17(457): 1–11. doi: 10.1186/s12889-017-4383-8

  8. Casey PH, Szeto K, Lensing S, Bogle M, Weber J. Children in food-insufficient low-income families. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2001; 155(4): 508–14. doi:10.1001/archpedi.155.4.508

  9. Rodriguez-Ramirez S, Mundo-Rosas V, Shamah-Levy T, Ponce-Martinez X, Jimenez-Aguilar A, Gonzalez-de Cossio T. Energy and nutrient intake in Mexican adolescents: analysis of the Mexican national health and nutrition survey 2006. Salud Publica Mex 2009; 51 Suppl 4: S551–S561. Available from: [cited 8 August 2018].

  10. Mayen AL, Marques-vidal P, Paccaud F, Bovet P, Stringhini S. Socioeconomic determinants of dietary patterns in low-and middle-income countries: a systematic review 1–4. Am J Clin Nutr 2014; 100: 1520–31. doi:10.3945/ajcn.114.089029

  11. Philippines Statistical Authority. Philippine Statistical Yearbook. Quezon City (PH): Philippine Statistic Authority; 2017, p. 667. Available from: [cited 10 August 2018].

  12. Food and Nutrition Research Institute. Facts and figures 2013: 8th National Nutrition Survey Anthropometric Survey. Taguig, the Philippines: Department of Science and Technology; 2015.

  13. Pedro MR, Benavides RC, Barba CV. Dietary changes and their health implications in the Philippines. In: The double burden of malnutrition: case studies from six developing countries, FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 84. FAO; 2006. Available from: [cited 18 July 2018].

  14. Food and Nutrition Research Institute. Facts and figures 2013: 8th National Nutrition Survey Dietary Survey. Taguig, the Philippines: Department of Science and Technology; 2015.

  15. World Health Organization, Department of Nutrition for Health. WHO child growth standards. Geneva: WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data; 2006, p. 307. Available from: [cited 19 July 2018].

  16. Denney L, Angeles-Agdeppa I, Capanzana MV, Toledo M, Donohue, Carriquiry AL. Nutrition intakes and food sources of Filipino infants, toddlers and young children are inadequate: findings from the national nutrition survey 2013. Nutrients 2018; 10(1730): 1–19. doi: 10.2290/nu10111730

  17. Institute of Medicine (US). Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2005, p. 3313. Available from: [cited 18 September 2018].

  18. Lopez-Olmedo N, Carriquiry AL, Rodriguez-Ramirez S, Ramirez-Silva I, Espinosa-Montero J, Hernandez-Barrera L, et al. Usual intake of added sugars and saturated fats is high while dietary fiber is low in the Mexican population. J Nutr 2016;146 (9): 1856S–65S. doi: 10.3945/jn.115.218214

  19. Nusser SM, Carriquiry AL, Fuller WA. A semi parametric transformation approach to estimating usual daily intake distributions CARD Working Papers 138. J Am Stat Assoc 1992; 138: 1–33. doi: 10.1080/01621459.1996.10476712

  20. Carriquiry AL. Assessing the prevalence of nutrient inadequacy. Public Health Nutr 1999; 2(1): 23–33. doi: 10.1017/S1368980099000038

  21. Food and Nutrition Research Institute. Philippine Dietary Reference Intakes 2015. Taguig, the Philippines: Department of Science and Technology; 2015. Available from: [cited 10 March 2018].

  22. National Research Council (US). Nutrient adequacy: assessment using food consumption survey. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1986, p. 143. Available from: [cited 27 July 2018].

  23. World Bank (US). Philippines economic update: investing in the future. Washington, DC: the World Bank; 2018, p. 63. Available from: [cited 18 October 2018].

  24. Food and Nutrition Research Institute. Facts and figures 2013: 8th National Nutrition Survey Food Security Survey. Taguig, the Philippines: Department of Science and Technology; 2015.

  25. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Philippines-food and nutrition security profiles. 2014. Available from: [cited 10 May 2018].

  26. Mitchikpe CE, Dossa RA, Ategbo EA, Van Raaij JM, Kok FJ. Seasonal variation in food pattern but not in energy and nutrient intakes of rural Beninese school-aged children. Public Health Nutr 2009; 12(3): 414–22. doi: 10.1017/S1368980008002929

  27. Food and Nutrition Research Institute. Facts and figures 2013: 8th National Nutrition Survey Overview. Taguig, the Philippines: Department of Science and Technology; 2015.

  28. Brain Trust Inc (PH). Strategic review: food security and nutrition in the Philippines. An independent review commissioned by the World Food Pregame Brain Trust, Inc. Pasig City; 2017, p. 111. Available from: [cited 21 March 2018].

  29. Global Panel (GB). Urban diets and nutrition: trends, challenges and opportunities for policy action, policy brief no. 9. Global Panel on Agriculture and Food Systems for Nutrition. London; 2017, p. 32. Available from: [cited 6 August 2018].

  30. James WP, Nelson M, Ralph A, Leather S. Socioeconomic determinants of health: the contribution of nutrition to inequalities in health. BMJ 1997; 314: 1545–49. doi: 10.1136/bmj.314.7093.1545

  31. Hall JN, Moore S, Harper SB, Lynch JW. Global variability in fruit and vegetable consumption. Am J Prev Med 2009; 36(5): 402–09e5. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2009.01.029

  32. Shafiee S, Mesgarani M, Begum K. Assessment of nutritional status among adolescent boys in an urban population of South India. Glob J Health Sci 2015; 7(3): 335–44. doi: 10.5539/gjhs.v7n3p335

  33. Dapi LN, Hornell A, Janlert U, Stenlund H, Larsson C. Energy and nutrient intakes in relation to sex and socio-economic status among school adolescents in urban Cameroon, Africa. Public Health Nutr 2011; 14(5): 904–13. doi: 10.1017/S1368980010003150

  34. Richter A, Heidemann C, Schulze MB, Roosen J, Thiele S, Mensink GB. Dietary patterns of adolescents in Germany-Associations with nutrient intake and other health related lifestyle characteristics. BMC Pediatr 2012; 12(35): 1–14. doi: 10.1186/1471-2431-12-35

  35. Angeles-Agdeppa I, Gironella G, Constantino M. Evaluation of calcium intakes of young children in the Philippines as a result of the 2008 national nutrition survey. Philipp J Sci 2016; 145(2): 165–74. Available from: [cited 23 January 2018].

How to Cite
Angeles-Agdeppa I., Denney L., Toledo M. B., Obligar V. A., Jacquier E. F., Carriquiry A. L., & Capanzana M. V. (2019). Inadequate nutrient intakes in Filipino schoolchildren and adolescents are common among those from rural areas and poor families. Food & Nutrition Research, 63.
Original Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)