Inadequate nutrient intakes in Filipino schoolchildren and adolescents are common among those from rural areas and poor families

  • Imelda Angeles-Agdeppa
  • Liya Denney
  • Marvin B. Toledo
  • Virgillyn Anne Obligar
  • Emma F. Jacquier
  • Alicia L. Carriquiry
  • Mario V. Capanzana
Keywords: usual nutrient intakes; school-aged children; adolescents; The Philippines


Background: Adequate nutrition during childhood and adolescence is essential to promote growth and development.

Objective: This study evaluated usual energy and nutrient intakes of Filipino schoolchildren and adolescents.

Design: Food and beverage intakes were collected from a nationally representative sample of schoolchildren aged 6–9 and 10–12 years (n = 3,594 and n = 2,971, respectively) and adolescents aged 13–18 years (n = 5,447) using 24-h dietary recalls. The distributions of usual energy and nutrient intakes and the prevalence of inadequate intakes, which is defined as the percent of children with intakes less than estimated average requirements or acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges, were estimated using the Personal Computer Software for Intake Distribution Estimation (PC-SIDE) program.

Results: The results showed that the mean energy intakes were 19–35% lower than estimated energy requirement. High prevalence of inadequate intakes was found for most macro- and micronutrients. Prevalence of inadequacies was as follows: protein 12–47%, total fat (as percentage of energy) 38–52%, calcium 92–94%, iron 75–90%, vitamin C 68–96%, folate 61–93%, vitamin A 58–81%, riboflavin 58–91%, thiamin 27–75%, and phosphorus 18–91%.

Conclusions: Generally, prevalence of inadequacy of key nutrients were relatively high among adolescents and schoolchildren, especially those from poor families and rural areas. This study demonstrated that nutrient intakes of Filipino schoolchildren and adolescents were highly inadequate, particularly among the poor and those living in rural areas.


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How to Cite
Angeles-Agdeppa I, Denney L, Toledo M, Obligar VA, Jacquier E, Carriquiry A, Capanzana M. Inadequate nutrient intakes in Filipino schoolchildren and adolescents are common among those from rural areas and poor families. fnr [Internet]. 2019May16 [cited 2019May20];630. Available from:
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