Red rice koji extract alleviates hyperglycemia by increasing glucose uptake and glucose transporter type 4 levels in skeletal muscle in two diabetic mouse models

  • Takakazu Yagi Kobe Tokiwa Junior College
  • Koji Ataka Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences
  • Kai-Chun Cheng Chi-Mei Medical Center
  • Hajime Suzuki Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences
  • Keizaburo Ogata Kitasato University East Hospital
  • Yumiko Yoshizaki Kagoshima University
  • Kazunori Takamine Kagoshima University
  • Ikuo Kato Kobe Pharmaceutical University
  • Shouichi Miyawaki Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences
  • Akio Inui Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences
  • Akihiro Asakawa Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences
Keywords: red rice koji, streptozotocin, high fat diet, diabetes, GLUT 4, plasma lipids

Abstract

Background: Red rice koji (RRK), prepared by growing Monascus species on steamed rice, has been reported to lower blood glucose levels in diabetic animal models. However, the action mechanism is not yet completely understood.

Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the mechanism underlying the hypoglycemic action of RRK extract in two diabetic animal models: the insulin-deficiency mice, where the insulin deficiency was induced by streptozotocin (STZ), and insulin-resistance mice, where the insulin resistance was induced by a high-fat diet (HFD).

Design: Low (12.5 mg/kg body weight [BW]) and high (50.0 mg/kg BW) doses of RRK extract were orally administered to the mice for 10 successive days (0.25 mL/day/mouse). The protein expression levels of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) in the skeletal muscle and glucose transporter type 2 (GLUT2) in the liver were measured. Blood glucose (BG) levels of STZ-treated mice in insulin tolerance test (ITT) and BG and insulin levels of HFD-fed mice in intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) were investigated.

Results: In the STZ-treated mice, oral administration of RRK extract lowered BG levels and food intake but increased plasma 1,5-anhydroglucitol level. Moreover, the RRK extract lowered the BG levels of STZ-treated mice as measured by ITT. In the HFD-fed mice, we confirmed that the orally administered RRK extract lowered the BG and the homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance. Furthermore, the RRK extract lowered the BG and insulin levels of HFD-fed mice in IPGTT. Regarding the protein levels of GLUT, the orally administered RRK extract increased the GLUT4 level in the skeletal muscle; however, the RRK extract did not alter the GLUT2 level in the liver of either the STZ-treated or the HFD-fed mice.

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Author Biographies

Takakazu Yagi, Kobe Tokiwa Junior College

Department of Oral Health

Koji Ataka, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences

Department of Pharmacological Sciences of Herbal Medicine

Kai-Chun Cheng, Chi-Mei Medical Center

Department of Medical Research, Chi-Mei Medical Center

Hajime Suzuki, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

Yumiko Yoshizaki, Kagoshima University

Division of Shochu Fermentation Technology, Education and Research Center for Fermentation Studies, Faculty of Agriculture

Kazunori Takamine, Kagoshima University

Division of Shochu Fermentation Technology, Education and Research Center for Fermentation Studies, Faculty of Agriculture

Ikuo Kato, Kobe Pharmaceutical University

Department of Medical Biochemistry

Shouichi Miyawaki, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences

Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics

Akio Inui, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences

Department of Pharmacological Sciences of Herbal Medicine

Akihiro Asakawa, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences

Department of Psychosomatic Internal Medicine

Professor

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Published
2020-10-09
How to Cite
Yagi, T., Ataka, K., Cheng, K.-C., Suzuki, H., Ogata, K., Yoshizaki, Y., Takamine, K., Kato, I., Miyawaki, S., Inui, A., & Asakawa, A. (2020). Red rice<em> koji</em&gt; extract alleviates hyperglycemia by increasing glucose uptake and glucose transporter type 4 levels in skeletal muscle in two diabetic mouse models. Food & Nutrition Research, 64. https://doi.org/10.29219/fnr.v64.4226
Section
Original Articles