The effect of a- or β-casein addition to waxy maize starch on postprandial levels of glucose, insulin, and incretin hormones in pigs as a model for humans
AbstractBackground: Starch is a main source of glucose and energy in the human diet. The extent to which it is digested in the gastrointestinal tract plays a major role in variations in postprandial blood glucose levels. Interactions with other biopolymers, such as dairy proteins, during processing can influence both the duration and extent of this postprandial surge. Objective: To evaluate the effect of the addition of bovine a- or β-casein to waxy maize starch on changes in postprandial blood glucose, insulin, and incretin hormones [glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1)] in 30 kg pigs used as an animal model for humans. Design: Gelatinised starch, starch gelatinised with a-casein, and starch gelatinised with β-casein were orally administered to trained pigs (n =8) at a level of 60 g of available carbohydrate. Pre- and postprandial glucose measurements were taken every 15 min for the first hour and every 30 min thereafter up to 180 min. Insulin, GIP, and GLP-1 levels were measured in plasma samples up to 90 min postprandial. Results: Starch gelatinised with a-casein had a significantly (p < 0.05) lower peak viscosity on pasting and resulted in significantly lower glucose release at 15, 30, and 90 min postprandial compared to starch gelatinised with β-casein. During the first 45-min postprandial, the area under the glucose curve (AUC) for starch gelatinised with a-casein was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than that for starch gelatinised with β-casein. There was also a significant (p < 0.05) difference at T30 in GIP levels in response to the control compared to starch gelatinised with a- or β-casein. Significant (p < 0.05) increases in several free amino acid concentrations were observed on ingestion of either a- or β-casein gelatinised with starch at 30 and 90 min postprandial compared to starch alone. In addition, plasma levels of six individual amino acids were increased on ingestion of starch gelatinised with a-casein compared to ingestion of starch gelatinised with β-casein. Conclusion: The presence of casein fractions (a- or β-casein) in gelatinised waxy maize starch affects swelling characteristics, viscosity, and subsequent in vivo digestion as determined by glucose levels in blood postprandial.
Keywords: waxy maize starch; glucose and insulin; incretin hormones; digestion
(Published: 13 April 2012)
Citation: Food & Nutrition Research 2012, 56: 7989 - DOI: 10.3402/fnr.v56i0.7989
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