Thermic effect of a meal and appetite in adults: an individual participant data meta-analysis of meal-test trials
Background: Thermic effect of a meal (TEF) has previously been suggested to influence appetite.
Objective: The aim of this study was to assess whether there is an association between appetite and TEF. Second, to examine whether protein intake is associated with TEF or appetite.
Design: Individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis on studies were performed at the Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Five randomized meal-test studies, with 111 participants, were included. The included studies measured energy expenditure (EE) in respiration chambers and pre- and postprandial appetite sensations using Visual Analog Scales (VAS). The primary meta-analysis was based on a generic-inverse variance random-effects model, pooling individual study Spearman’s correlation coefficients, resulting in a combined r-value with 95% confidence interval (95% CI). The I2 value quantifies the proportion (%) of the variation in point estimates due to among-study differences.
Results: The IPD meta-analysis found no association between satiety and TEF expressed as the incremental area under the curve (TEFiAUC) (r=0.06 [95% CI −0.16 to 0.28], P=0.58; I2=15.8%). Similarly, Composite Appetite Score (CAS) was not associated with TEFiAUC (r=0.08 [95% CI −0.12 to 0.28], P=0.45; I2=0%). Posthoc analyses showed no association between satiety or CAS and TEF expressed as a percentage of energy intake (EI) (P>0.49) or TEF expressed as a percentage of baseline EE (P>0.17). When adjusting for covariates, TEFiAUC was associated with protein intake (P=0.0085).
Conclusions: This IPD meta-analysis found no evidence supporting an association between satiety or CAS and TEF at protein intakes ∼15 E% (range 11–30 E%).
Keywords: thermic effect of a meal; diet-induced thermogenesis; appetite; energy expenditure; satiety; Composite Appetite Score
(Published: 23 December 2013)
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Citation: Food & Nutrition Research 2013. 57: 19676 - http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/fnr.v57i0.19676
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