Ethnic disparities among food sources of energy and nutrients of public health concern and nutrients to limit in adults in the United States: NHANES 2003-2006
Background: Identification of current food sources of energy and nutrients among US non-Hispanic whites (NHW), non-Hispanic blacks (NHB), and Mexican American (MA) adults is needed to help with public health efforts in implementing culturally sensitive and feasible dietary recommendations.
Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the food sources of energy and nutrients to limit [saturated fatty acids (SFA), added sugars, and sodium] and nutrients of public health concern (dietary fiber, vitamin D, calcium, and potassium) by NHW, NHB, and MA adults.
Design: This was a cross-sectional analysis of a nationally representative sample of NWH (n=4,811), NHB (2,062), and MA (n=1,950) adults 19+ years. The 2003–2006 NHANES 24-h recall (Day 1) dietary intake data were analyzed. An updated USDA Dietary Source Nutrient Database was developed using current food composition databases. Food grouping included ingredients from disaggregated mixtures. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from food sources were sample-weighted. Percentages of total dietary intake contributed from food sources were ranked.
Results: Multiple differences in intake among ethnic groups were seen for energy and all nutrients examined. For example, energy intake was higher in MA as compared to NHB; SFA, added sugars, and sodium intakes were higher in NHW than NHB; dietary fiber was highest in MA and lowest in NHB; vitamin D was highest in NHW; calcium was lowest in NHB; and potassium was higher in NHW as compared to NHB. Food sources of these nutrients also varied.
Conclusion: Identification of intake of nutrients to limit and of public health concern can help health professionals implement appropriate dietary recommendations and plan interventions that are ethnically appropriate.
Keywords: NHANES; energy intake; nutrients to limit; nutrients of public health concern; food sources; diverse ethnicities
(Published: 18 November 2014)
Citation: Food & Nutrition Research 2014, 58: 15784 - http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/fnr.v58.15784
Authors retain copyright of their work, with first publication rights granted to SNF Swedish Nutrition Foundation. Read the full Copyright- and Licensing Statement.