Wheat aleurone polyphenols increase plasma eicosapentaenoic acid in rats
Methods: These studies were designed to assess whether wheat polyphenols (mainly ferulic acid [FA]) increased the very-long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (VLC n-3) [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] in rats. Wheat aleurone (WA) was used as a dietary source of wheat polyphenols. Two experiments were performed; in the first one, the rats were fed WA or control pellets (CP) in presence of linseed oil (LO) to provide alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), the precursor of VLC n-3. In the second one, the rats were fed WA or CP in presence of control oil (CO) without ALA. The concentrations of phenolic acid metabolites in urine were also investigated.
Results: The urinary concentration of conjugated FA increased with WA ingestion (p<0.05). Plasma EPA increased by 25% (p<0.05) with WA in the CO group but not in the LO group. In contrast, there was no effect of WA on plasma DHA and omega-6 fatty acids (n-6). Finally, both n-3 and n-6 in the liver remained unchanged by the WA.
Conclusion: These results suggest that WA consumption has a significant effect on EPA in plasma without affecting n-6. Subsequent studies are required to examine whether these effects may explain partly the health benefits associated with whole wheat consumption.
Keywords: polyphenols; wheat aleurone; very-long-chain omega-3 fatty acids; plasma; liver; rats
(Published: 19 August 2014)
Citation: Food & Nutrition Research 2014, 58: 24604 - http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/fnr.v58.24604
Responsible Editor: Asim Duttaroy, Oslo University, Norway.
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