Evaluation of two local cowpea species for nutrient, antinutrient, and phytochemical compositions and organoleptic attributes of their wheat-based cookies
Background: Childhood and adolescent malnutrition is a function of inadequate intake. Cookies are favourite snacks of children and adolescents.
Objective: This work determined the nutrient, antinutrient, and phytochemical compositions of two local cowpea (oraludi and apama) flours and evaluated the organoleptic properties of their wheat-based cookies.
Design: The two local cowpea species were processed into flours separately and blended with wheat on a 56-g protein basis. Chemical compositions of the processed cowpea flours were analysed using standard methods. Organoleptic attributes were evaluated with a nine-point Hedonic scale. Statistical analysis, which involved mean and standard deviations, were computed by analysis of variance, and Duncan’s new multiple range tests were used to separate and compare group means of sensory evaluation data, with significance accepted at P<0.05.
Results: The results revealed that oraludi had superior percentage values compared to apama in protein (26.22 and 20.88), fat (7.98 and 6.65), and ash (3.81 and 3.13), while apama proved superior in moisture (9.76 and 7.82), crude fibre (5.49 and 4.91), and carbohydrate (54.09 and 49.26). The values were higher for oraludi than apama in iron (8.62 and 6.49 mg), zinc (1.61 and 0.95 mg), and beta-carotene (223.24 and 190.63 mg) but lower in sodium (34.79 and 56.72 mg), potassium (25.73 and 30.65 mg), phosphorus (13.35 and 18.26 mg), thiamine (5.33 and 9.41 mg), vitamin C (16.63 and 21.09 mg), and vitamin E (0.51 and 0.67 mg). Apama had 0.06 mg phytate, 0.09 mg oxalate, 15.22 mg tannins, 3.59 mg flavonoids, and 0.19 mg saponin. Oraludi had 0.03 mg phytate, 0.32 mg oxalate, 15.94 mg tannins, 3.14 mg flavonoid, and 0.13 mg saponin. Mean scores of general acceptability for wheat:apama (80:20) and wheat:oraludi:apama (60:20:20) cookies (7.71 and 7.41) were superior (P<0.05) to others.
Conclusions: Oraludi and apama proved nutrient dense. Their use improved the acceptability of some of the wheat-based cookies. Use of these local cowpeas in cookie production is, therefore, encouraged.
Keywords: childhood and adolescent malnutrition; cowpea; micronutrients; oraludi; apama
(Published: 20 January 2016)
Citation: Food & Nutrition Research 2016, 60: 29600 - http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/fnr.v60.29600
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