Nutrition education, farm production diversity, and commercialization on household and individual dietary diversity in Zimbabwe
Background: Nutrition education is crucial for improved nutrition outcomes. However, there are no studies to the best of our knowledge that have jointly analysed the roles of nutrition education, farm production diversity and commercialization on household, women and child dietary diversity.
Objective: This article jointly analyses the role of nutrition education, farm production diversity and commercialization on household, women and children dietary diversity in Zimbabwe. In addition, we analyze separately the roles of crop and livestock diversity and individual agricultural practices on dietary diversity.
Design: Data were collected from 2,815 households randomly selected in eight districts. Negative binomial regression was used for model estimations.
Results: Nutrition education increased household, women, and child dietary diversity by 3, 9 and 24%, respectively. Farm production diversity had a strong and positive association with household and women dietary diversity. Crop diversification led to a 4 and 5% increase in household and women dietary diversity, respectively. Furthermore, livestock diversification and market participation were positively associated with household, women, and children dietary diversity. The cultivation of pulses and fruits increased household, women, and children dietary diversity. Vegetable production and goat rearing increased household and women dietary diversity.
Conclusion: Nutrition education and improving access to markets are promising strategies to improve dietary diversity at both household and individual level. Results demonstrate the value of promoting nutrition education; farm production diversity; small livestock; pulses, vegetables and fruits; crop-livestock integration; and market access for improved nutrition.
- Hirvonen K, Hoddinott J, Minten B, Stifel D. Children’s diets, nutrition knowledge, and access to markets. World Dev 2017; 95: 303–15.
- Jones AD. Critical review of the emerging research evidence on agricultural biodiversity, diet diversity, and nutritional status in low- and middle-income countries. Nutr Rev 2017; 75(10): 769–82.
- LFSP. Livelihoods and Food Security Programme Zimbabwe. Available from: https://lfspzim.com/what-is-lfsp/background/projects/ [cited 3 March 2018].
- Saaka M, Osman SM, Hoeschle-Zeledon I. Relationship between agricultural biodiversity and dietary diversity of children aged 6–36 months in rural areas of Northern Ghana. Food Nutr Res 2017; 61: 1391668.
- Pelto GH, Martin SL, van Liere MJ, Fabrizio CS. Perspectives and reflections on the practice of behaviour change communication for infant and young child feeding. Matern Child Nutr 2016; 12: 245–61.
- Dewey KG, Adu-Afarwuah S. Systematic review of the efficacy and effectiveness of complementary feeding interventions in developing countries. Matern Child Nutr 2008; 4(Suppl 1): 24–85.
- Zimbabwe Vulnerability Assessment Committee. Zimbabwe Vulnerability Assessment Committee (ZimVAC) rural livelihoods assessment. Harare, Zimbabwe; 2016. Available from: http://www.fnc.org.zw/downloads/Bulletins/2016%20Bulletins/ZimVAC%202016%20Rural%20Livelihoods%20Assessment.pdf [cited 4 July 2017].
- Jones AD, Shrinivas A, Bezner-Kerr R. Farm production diversity is associated with greater household dietary diversity in Malawi: findings from nationally representative data. Food Policy 2014; 46: 1–12.
- Carletto G, Ruel M, Winters P, Zezza A. Farm-level pathways to improved nutritional status: introduction to the special issue. J Dev Stud 2015; 51: 945–57.
- Ruel MT, Alderman H. Nutrition-sensitive interventions and programmes: how can they help to accelerate progress in improving maternal and child nutrition? Lancet 2013; 382: 536–51.
- Arimond M, Wiesmann D, Becquey E, Carriquiry A, Daniels MC, Deitchler M, et al. Simple food group diversity indicators predict micronutrient adequacy of women’s diets in 5 diverse, resource-poor settings. J Nutr 2010; 140: 2059S–69S.
- Akaakohol MA, Aye GC. Diversification and farm household welfare in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria. Dev Stud Res. 2014; 1: 168–75.
- Carletto C, Corral P, Guelfi A. Agricultural commercialization and nutrition revisited: empirical evidence from three African countries. Food Policy 2017; 67: 106–18.
- Malapit HJL, Kadiyala S, Quisumbing AR, Cunningham K, Tyagi P. Women’s empowerment mitigates the negative effects of low production diversity on maternal and child nutrition in Nepal. J Dev Stud. 2015; 51: 1097–123.
- Pellegrini L, Tasciotti L. Crop diversification, dietary diversity and agricultural income: empirical evidence from eight developing countries. Can J Dev Stud 2014; 35: 211–27.
- Seng K. The effects of nonfarm activities on farm households’ food consumption in rural Cambodia. Dev Stud Res 2015; 2: 77–89.
- Quisumbing AR, Meinzen-Dick R, Raney TL, Croppenstedt A, Behrman JA, Peterman A. Gender in agriculture. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014.
- Sibhatu KT, Krishna VV, Qaim M. Production diversity and dietary diversity in smallholder farm households. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2015; 112: 10657–62.
- Shively G, Sununtnasuk C. Agricultural diversity and child stunting in Nepal. J Dev Stud 2015; 51: 1078–96.
- Snapp SS, Fisher M. ‘Filling the maize basket’ supports crop diversity and quality of household diet in Malawi. Food Security 2015; 7: 83–96.
- Koppmair S, Kassie M, Qaim M. Farm production, market access and dietary diversity in Malawi. Public Health Nutr 2017; 20(2): 325–35.
- Swindale A, Bilinsky P. Household dietary diversity score (HDDS) for measurement of household food access: indicator guide: indicator guide (v. 2): food and nutrition technical assistance project. FHI360/FANTA: Washington, DC; 2006.
- Swindale A, Ohri-Vachaspati P. Measuring household food consumption: a technical guide: food and nutrition technical assistance project. FHI360/FANTA: Washington, DC; 2004.
- Muhoozi GKM, Atukunda P, Mwadime R, Iversen PO, Westerberg AC. Nutritional and developmental status among 6- to 8-month-old children in southwestern Uganda: a cross-sectional study. Food Nutr Res 2016; 60: 30270.
- Kansiime MK, Watiti J, Mchana A, Jumah R, Musebe R, Rware H. Achieving scale of farmer reach with improved common bean technologies: the role of village-based advisors. J Agric Educ Extension 2018; 1071: 1–18.
- Kiptot E, Franzel S. Voluntarism as an investment in human, social and financial capital: evidence from a farmer-to-farmer extension program in Kenya. Agric Hum Values 2014; 31: 231–43.
- Romeo A, Meerman J, Demeke M, Scognamillo A, Asfaw S. Linking farm diversification to household diet diversification: evidence from a sample of Kenyan ultra-poor farmers. Food Security 2016; 8: 1069–85.
- Cameron AC, Trivedi PK. Microeconometrics using Stata. College Station, TX: Stata Press; 2010.
- Greene WH. Econometric analysis. 7th ed. Boston, MA: Prentice Hall; 2012.
- Hilbe JM. Negative binomial regression. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2011.
- Wilber ST, Fu R. Risk ratios and odds ratios for common events in cross-sectional and cohort studies. Acad Emerg Med 2010; 17: 649–51.
- Long JS, Freese J. Regression models for categorical dependent variables using Stata. [place unknown]: [publisher unknown]; 2014.
- Pauzé E, Batal M, Philizaire Y, Blanchet R, Sanou D. Determinants of diet quality among rural households in an intervention zone of Grande Anse, Haiti. Food Security 2016; 8: 1123–34.
- Galbete C, Nicolaou M, Meeks KA, de-Graft Aikins A, Addo J, Amoah SK, et al. Food consumption, nutrient intake, and dietary patterns in Ghanaian migrants in Europe and their compatriots in Ghana. Food Nutr Res 2017; 61: 1341809.
- Kabunga NS, Ghosh S, Webb P. Does ownership of improved dairy cow breeds improve child nutrition? A pathway analysis for Uganda. PLoS One 2017; 12: e0187816.
- Hirvonen K, Hoddinott J. Agricultural production and children’s diets: evidence from rural Ethiopia. Agric Econ 2017; 48: 469–80.
- Rawlins R, Pimkina S, Barrett CB, Pedersen S, Wydick B. Got milk?: the impact of Heifer International’s livestock donation programs in Rwanda on nutritional outcomes. Food Policy 2014; 44: 202–13.
- Sibhatu KT, Qaim M. Rural food security, subsistence agriculture, and seasonality. PLoS One 2017; 12: e0186406.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Authors retain copyright of their work, with first publication rights granted to SNF Swedish Nutrition Foundation.