Establishment of comprehensive quality evaluation model of fresh instant rice

  • Qinghong Meng Harbin University of Commerce
  • Shouwen Zhang
  • Song Yan
  • Zhihong Zhang
  • Liqun Wang
  • Yinglei Zhang
  • Haitao Guan
Keywords: Japonica rice, quality index, analytic hierarchy process, evaluation model


Background: Although the rice processing characteristics and processing quality evaluation technologies have been studied for many years in China, there have been few reports on the evaluation index system and evaluation method of fresh instant rice processing quality.

Objective: The aim of this study was to establish a comprehensive quality evaluation model of fresh instant rice to achieve the effective quantitative quality analysis.

Methods: A total of 108 japonica rice varieties were selected as the test samples, followed by the production of fresh instant rice. The color value, physicochemical quality, texture characteristic, and sensory quality of fresh instant rice were systematically analyzed. Difference analysis, correlation analysis, factor analysis, and cluster analysis were used to determine the representative quality indexes of fresh instant rice. Through initialization, forward, and normalization, the standardized indexes (0≤ Xi ≤1) were obtained. The discriminant matrix of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was used to confirm the weight (Wi) of each representative quality index, establishing the comprehensive quality evaluation model.

Results: The variable coefficients of 12 out of 17 quality indexes were more than 10%. There were 136 correlation coefficients, including 15 cases with a significant difference at the level of α = 0.05 and 52 cases with a significant difference at the level of α = 0.01. Five representative quality indexes of fresh instant rice were selected by factor analysis and cluster analysis, including palatability, adhesiveness, b* value, resilience, and iodine color value. And the comprehensive quality evaluation model of fresh instant rice integrating representative indexes was obtained: Y = 0.5650 × palatability + 0.2294 × adhesiveness + 0.0328 × resilience + 0.1175 × b* value + 0.0533 × iodine color value.

Conclusion: The AHP combined with factor analysis and cluster analysis can convert a number of quality indexes into a comprehensive quality index, and thus establish the comprehensive quality evaluation model of fresh instant rice, effectively performing the quantitative quality analysis. This model not only provided a scientific basis for the accurate evaluation of fresh instant rice quality, but also laid the foundation for the formulation of fresh instant rice standards in the future.


Download data is not yet available.


  1. Chen X, Qian P, Zhang XJ, Liu FN, Lu RR. Improving instant rice quality by novel combined drying. Drying Technol 2014; 32(12): 1448–56.

  2. Kwak HS, Kim HG, Kim HS, Ahn YS, Jung K, Jeong HY, et al. Sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance of frozen cooked rice by a rapid freezing process compared to homemade and aseptic packaged cooked rice. Prev Nutr Food Sci 2013; 18(1): 67–75.

  3. Roy P, Ijiri T, Nei D, Orikasa T, Okadome H, Nakamura N, et al. Life cycle inventory (LCI) of different forms of rice consumed in households in Japan. J Food Eng 2009; 91(1): 49–55.

  4. Ma LL, He GP. Study on the technology of instant rice in soft package. In The 11th Annual Meeting of Chinese Institute of Food Science and Technology was was held in Hangzhou, China on November 5, 2014.

  5. Zhou W, Xing M, Li YZ. Optimization of cooking process for instant rice by response surface method. Sci Technol Food Ind 2014; 35(12): 287–90.

  6. Deng LQ. Sterile rice grains to facilitate process optimization and shelf-life testing. Cereals & Oils 2014; 5: 58–60.

  7. Cao J, Zhao JW, Tian YQ, Zhou X, Li ZF, Jin ZY. Effects of extrusion process on the quality of fresh instant rice. J Food Sci Biotechnol 2014; 33(4): 381–6.

  8. Wang JP, An HZ, Jin ZY, Xie ZJ, Zhuang HN, Kim JM. Emulsifiers and thickeners on extrusion-cooked instant rice product. J Food Sci Technol 2013; 50(4): 655–66.

  9. Zhou W, Li ZY. The study on aging properties of instant rice. Modern Food Sci Technol 2012; 28(5): 505–7.

  10. Shu Y, Zhao D, Liu MY, Zhao GH. Study on the anti-retrogradation of ready-to-eat rice by complex enzymes. Sci Technol Food Ind 2012; 33(8): 277–80.

  11. Wang CG, Ju RH, Ma CL, Liu XF, Duan LL. Difference cooking methods affect the quality of instant rice. Food Ind 2015;2: 118–21.

  12. Huang MH, He GQ. Study on the quality evaluation method and material adaptability for quick-frozen instant rice. J Chinese Inst Food Sci Technol 2013; 13(12): 210–6.

  13. Choi EJ, Park JD, Kim CH, Kim YB, Kum JS, Jeong Y. Effect of stored rice on quality characteristics of instant rice noodles. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 2015; 44(9): 1356–63.

  14. Yu L, Turner MS, Fitzgerald M, Stokes JR, Witt T. Review of the effects of different processing technologies on cooked and convenience rice quality. Trends Food Sci Technol 2017; 59: 124–38.

  15. Duan XM, Zhang B, Feng XQ, Dong F, Cai XT, Fan LL. Quality change in cooked rice from different pressures treated rice during cold storage. Modern Food Sci Technol 2015;1: 179–85.

  16. Xu K. Study on the production technology and quality characterstics of frozen cooked rice. Zhejiang Gongshang University; Hangzhou, China, 2011.

  17. Zhuang HN, Xia Z, Li JD, Jin ZY. Studies of relationship between radial expansion ratio and rehydration ratio/gelatinization degree of extruded instant rice. Modern Food Sci Technol 2010; 26(10): 1057–62, 1075.

  18. Wu W, Li T, Cai YJ, Lin QL. Comparison of cooking quality of three kind of rice during storage. Food Mach 2014;30(3): 122–6.

  19. Tran TU, Suzuki K, Okadome H, Ikezaki H, Homma S, Ohtsubo K. Detection of changes in taste of japonica and indica brown and milled rice (Oryza sativa L.) during storage using physicochemical analyses and a taste sensing system. J Agric Food Chem 2005; 53(4): 1108–18.

  20. Xiong SB, Zhao SM, Li JL, Tan RC. Study on the correlations between physicochemical properties and sensory qualities of cooked rice. J Huazhong Agric 2002; 21(1): 83–7.

  21. Xiong SB, Zhao SM, Yao M, Huang HX. A study on the gelatinization properties of rice starch. Cereal Feed Ind 2001;5: 14–16.

  22. Xiong YQ, Determination of starch gelatinization (cooking degree) in feed. Feed Ind 2000; 21(3): 30–31.

  23. Zhan XM, Zheng TS, Tao JH. Study on application of texture analyzer in quality evaluation of rice. Food Sci. 2007; 28(9): 62–65.

  24. Jiang N. Study on measurement methods and techniques of texture properties of rice. Yangzhou University; Yangzhou, China, 2010.

  25. Zhou XQ, Wang XF, Zhang YR, Deng F, Yu SP, Hao W. Comparison of determinations of cooked rice texture and selection of the parameters. Sci Technol Cereals Oils Foods 2013; 21(6): 6–10.

  26. Mao GW, Dong DL, Yang RZ, Zhang GD, Liu JW. A atudy on determination of texture characteristics of the cooked rice (I) – production and determination of the cooked rice. J Chinese Cereals Oils Assoc 2012; 27(3): 1–5.

  27. Zhan Y. Effect of high pressure treatment on the physical quality of brown rice. Zhejiang University; Hangzhou, China, 2014.

  28. Mao GW, Dong DL, Yang RZ, Zhang GD, Liu JW. A study on determination of texture characteristics of the cooked rice(III) – optimum conditions for determination of texture characteristics of the cooked rice. J Chinese Cereals Oils Assoc 2013; 28(9): 6–10.

  29. Liu JW, Yang ZR, Mao GW, Dong GW, Dong DL, Zhang GD. Study on determination of texture characteristics of the cooked rice (II) – impact of storage time and environmental temperature on the cooked rice hardness. J Chinese Cereals Oils Assoc 2012; 27(4): 1–4, 24.

  30. Wang YZ, Lin WF, Chen Z, Wang H. The effect of polysaccharides food additives on the texture of steamed rice. China Food Addit 2012;(3): 82–7.

  31. Meng QH, Meng CL, Yan S, Zhang ZH, Wang LQ, Zhang YL, et al. Optimization of rice texture properties determination by three grains method. Food Sci Technol 2017;42(5): 157–64.

  32. Deng JK, Liu X, Wu XY, Bi JF, Jiao Y, Zhong YG. Quality evaluation of apple (Substandard) juice from different cultivars based on analytic hierarchy process and grey interconnect degree analysis. J Chinese Inst Food Sci Technol 2017; 17(4): 197–208.

  33. Meng QH, Sun YJ, Motonobu K, Li ZY, Lu SW, Wang CL, Lu SW, et al. Evaluation results of Sino-Japanese Japonica rice varieties with better palatability. North Rice; 2016, 46(3): 1–5.

  34. Zhang MX, Chen RJ. Japonica rice quality evaluation and cluster analysis based on principal component analysis. J Henan Inst Sci Technol (Natural Sciences Edition) 2016; 44(5): 1–6.

  35. Wang CZ. The comparison and selection of the common factors extraction method in factor analysis. J Inner Mongolia Univ Finance Econ 2014; 12(1): 90–4.

  36. Wang WB, Chen XZ. Comparison of principal component analysis with factor analysis in comprehensive multi-indicators scoring. Stat Inform Forum 2006; 21(5): 19–22.

  37. Li XR. Compare and application of principal component analysis, factor analysis and clustering analysis. J Shandong Educ Inst 2007; 22(6): 23–6.

  38. Hofstetter H, Dusseldorp E, van Empelen P, Paulussen TW. A primer on the use of cluster analysis or factor analysis to assess co-occurrence of risk behaviors. Prev Med 2014; 67: 141–6.

  39. Reedy J, Wirfalt E, Flood A, Mitrou PN, Krebs-Smith SM, Kipnis V, et al. Comparing 3 dietary pattern methods--cluster analysis, factor analysis, and index analysis – with colorectal cancer risk: the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Am J Epidemiol 2010; 171(4): 479–87.

  40. Li YS, Chuang YC. Neighborhood effects on an individual’s health using neighborhood measurements developed by factor analysis and cluster analysis. J Urban Health 2009; 86(1): 5–18.

  41. Li C, Yao XH, Wang KL, Gu XR. A study on simplifying the indices of the clone fruit characters of Carva illinoemis. Acta Agriculturae Universitatis Jiangxiensis (Natural Sciences Edition) 2011; 33(4): 696–700.

  42. Li XM, Zhang JC, Xu YM. Liquor index evaluation system based on AHP – taken Nongxiang Baijiu(Liquor) as example. Liquor-Making Sci Technol 2015; (10): 70–3.

  43. Liu CH, Zhang H, Li ZJ, Sensory evaluation of steamed bread base on AHP and comprehensive fuzzy evaluation. J. Henan Univ Technol (Natural Science Edition). 2013; 34(4):22-6.

How to Cite
Meng Q, Zhang S, Yan S, Zhang Z, Wang L, Zhang Y, Guan H. Establishment of comprehensive quality evaluation model of fresh instant rice. fnr [Internet]. 2019Jul.22 [cited 2019Aug.19];630. Available from:
Original Articles