Antioxidative and antidiabetic effects of germinated rough rice extract in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C57BLKS/J-db/db mice

  • Heon Sang Jeong Chungbuk National University
  • Youn Ri Lee Department of Food and Nutrition, Daejeon Health Sciences College
  • Sang Hoon Lee Department of Agrofood Resources, National Academy of Agricultural Science, Rural Development Administration
  • Gwi Yeong Jang Department of Herbal Crop Research, National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science, Rural Development Administration
  • Yoon Jeong Lee Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Chungbuk National University
  • Min Young Kim Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Chungbuk National University
  • Yun-Bae Kim College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University
  • Junsoo Lee Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Chungbuk National University
Keywords: germinated rough rice, antioxidant property, type II diabetes, glucose uptake, C57BLKS/J-db/db mice


Background: To overcome disadvantages of germinated brown rice, we germinated rough rice and tested effects of its useful ingredients on prevention of diabetes.

Objective: This study investigated the in vitro antioxidant and in vivo antidiabetic effects of rough rice (Oryza sativa L.) with hulls, before and after germination. Rough rice was germinated for 4 days and extracted with water at 120°C.

Design: This study measured antioxidants and antioxidative effects and inhibitory activities against α-amylase and α-glucosidase of rough rice before and after germination and investigated antidiabetic effects of rough rice through animal experiments.

Results: All these factors increased after germination. Also, α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition and glucose uptake by 3T3-L1 adipocytes were significantly increased after germination. Oral administration of the germinated rough rice extract for 8 weeks significantly increased insulin levels and decreased blood glucose levels in a C57BLKS/J-db/db mice model. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that germinated rough rice effectively protected against liver, kidney, and pancreatic tissue damage.

Discussion: Useful ingredients in germinated rough rice could be used to prevent diabetes.

Conclusions: These results suggest that germinated rough rice extract had a beneficial effect on diabetes by increasing the antioxidant activity and further purification studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanism of the extract’s antidiabetic activity.


Download data is not yet available.


  1. Nam H, Jung H, Karuppasamy S, Park YS, Cho YS, Lee JY, et al. Anti-diabetic effect of the soybean extract fermented by Bacillus subtilis MORI in db/db mice. Food Sci Biotechnol 2012; 21: 1669–76. doi: 10.1007/s10068-012-0222-y

  2. Del Prato S, Bianchi C, Marchetti P. β-Cell function and anti-diabetic pharmacotherapy. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2007; 23: 518–27. doi: 10.1002/dmrr.770

  3. Lee YR, Kim JY, Woo KS, Hwang IG, Kim KH, Kim JH, et al. Changes in the chemical and functional components of Korean rough rice before and after germination. Food Sci Biotechnol 2007; 16: 1006–10.

  4. Ridge I. Plant physiology. In: Ridge I, ed. The regulation of plant growth. London, UK: Hodder and Stoughton; 1991, pp. 282–333.

  5. Kim HY, Hwang IG, Woo KS, Kim KH, Kim KJ, Lee CK, et al. Chemical components changes of winter cereal crops with germination. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 2010; 39: 1700–4. doi: 10.3746/jkfn.2010.39.11.1700

  6. Lee SH, Lee YR, Hwang IG, Woo KS, Kim, KH, Kim KJ, et al. Antioxidant activities and quality characteristics of germinated rough rice tea according to roasting temperature, time and leaching condition. Korean J Food Sci Technol 2009; 41: 386–91.

  7. Kim HY, Hwang IG, Kim TM, Park DS, Kim JH, Kim DJ, et al. Changes in chemical composition of rough rice (Oryza sativa L.) according to germination period. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 2011; 40: 1265–70. doi: 10.3746/jkfn.2011.40.9.1265

  8. Woo SM, Jeong YJ. Effect of germinated brown rice concentrates on free amino acid levels and antioxidant and nitrite scavenging activity in Kimchi. Food Sci Biotechnol 2006; 15: 351–6.

  9. Lee YR, Woo KS, Kim KJ, Son JR, Jeong HS. Antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts from germinated specialty rough rice. Food Sci Biotechnol 2007; 16: 765–70.

  10. Dewant V, Xianzhong W, Liu RH. Processed sweet corn has higher antioxidant activity. J Agr Food Chem 2002; 50: 4959–64. doi: 10.1021/jf0255937

  11. Xu JG, Tian CR, Hu QP, Luo JY, Wang XD, Tian XD. Dynamic changes in phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in oats (Avena nuda L.) during steeping and germination. J Agric Food Chem 2009; 57: 10392–8. doi: 10.1021/jf902778j.

  12. Aktumsek A, Zengin G, Guler GO, Cakmak YS, Duran A. Antioxidant potentials and anticholinesterase activities of methanolic and aqueous extracts of three endemic Centaurea L. species. Food Chem Toxicol 2013; 55: 290–6. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2013.01.018.

  13. Lim CS, Li CY, Kim YM, Lee WY, Rhee HI. The inhibitory effect of Cornus walteri extract against α-amylase. J Korean Soc Appl Biol Chem 2005; 48: 103–8. doi: 10.1142/9789812701138_0004

  14. Gao H, Kawabata J. α-Glucosidase inhibition of 6-hydroxyflavones. Part 3: synthesis and evaluation of 2,3,4-trihydroxybenzoyl-containing flavonoid analogs and 6-aminoflavones as α-glucosidase inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem 2005; 13: 1661–71. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2004.12.010

  15. Lee HS, Lee HJ, Suh HJ. Silk protein hydrolysate increases glucose uptake through up-regulation of GLUT 4 and reduces the expression of leptin in 3T3-L1 fibroblast. Nutr Res 2011; 31: 937–43. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2011.09.009.

  16. Park J, Yoon YS, Ha HS, Kim YH, Ogawa Y, Park KG, et al. SIK2 is critical in the regulation of lipid homeostasis and adipogenesis in vivo. Diabetes 2014; 63: 3659–73. doi: 10.2337/db13-1423

  17. Kim HY, Hwang IG, Kim TM, Park DS, Kim JH, Kim DJ, et al. Antioxidant and angiotensin converting enzyme I inhibitory activity on different parts of germinated rough rice. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 2011; 40: 775–80. doi: 10.3746/jkfn.2011.40.6.775

  18. Kim HY, Lee SH, Hwang IG, Kim TM, Park DS, Kim JH, et al. Antioxidant activity and anticancer effects of rough rice (Oryza sativa L.) by germination periods. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 2012; 41: 14–19. doi: 10.3746/jkfn.2012.41.1.014

  19. Kim MY, Lee SH, Jang GY, Park HJ, Li M, Kim SJ, et al. Effects of high pressure treatment on antioxidant compounds and activity of germinated rough rice (Oryza sativa L.). J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 2013; 42: 1783–91. doi: 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.11.1783

  20. He D, Han C, Yao J, Shen S, Yang P. Constructing the metabolic and regulatory pathways in germinating rice seeds through proteomic approach. Proteomics 2011; 11: 2693–713. doi: 10.1002/pmic.201000598

  21. Zielinski H, Kozlowska H, Lewczuk B. Bioactive compounds in the cereal grains before and after hydrothermal processing. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol 2001; 2: 159–69. doi: 10.1016/S1466-8564(01)00040-6

  22. Rice-Evans C, Miller N, Paganga G. Antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds. Trends Plant Sci 1997; 2: 152–9. doi: 10.1016/S1360-1385(97)01018-2

  23. Hung PV, Hatcher DW, Barker W. Phenolic acid composition of sprouted wheats by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and their antioxidant activities. Food Chem 2011; 126: 1896–901. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.12.015.

  24. Kim MY, Lee SH, Jang GY, Park HJ, Li M, Kim SJ, et al. Enzyme inhibition activities of ethanol extracts from germinating rough rice (Oryza sativa L.). J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 2013; 42: 917–23. doi: 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.6.917

  25. Kim MY, Lee SH, Jang GY, Park HJ, Li M, Kim SJ, et al. The enzyme inhibitory activity of ethanol extracts derived from germinated rough rice (Oryza sativa L.) treated by high pressure. Korean J Food Sci Technol 2014; 46: 44–50. doi: 10.9721/KJFST.2014.46.1.44

  26. Pradeep PM, Sreerama YN. Impact of processing on the phenolic profiles of small millet: evaluation of their antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory properties associated with hyperglycemia. Food Chem 2015; 169: 455–63. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.08.010

  27. Donkor ON, Stojanovska L, Ginn P, Ashton J, Vasiljevic T. Germinated grains – sources of bioactive compounds. Food Chem 2012; 135: 950–9. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.05.058.

  28. Shobana S, Sreerama YN, Malleshi NG. Composition and enzyme inhibitory properties of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) seed coat phenolics: mode of inhibition of a-glucosidase and pancreatic amylase. Food Chem 2009; 115: 1268–73. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.01.042

  29. Jung EH, Ha TY, Hwang IK. Anti-hyperglycemic and antioxidative activities of phenolic acid concentrates of rice bran and hydroxycinnamic acids in cell assays. Korean J Food Nutr 2010; 23: 233–9.

  30. Lakshmi BS, Sujatha S, Anand S, Sangeetha KN, Narayanan RB, Katiyar C, et al. Cinnamic acid, from the bark of Cinnamomum cassia, regulates glucose transport via activation of GLUT4 on L6 myotubes in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-independent manner. J Diabetes 2009; 1: 99–106. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-0407.2009.00022.x.

  31. Prasad CN, Anjana T, Banerji A, Gopalakrishnapillai A. Gallic acid induces GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake activity in 3T3-L1 cells. FEBS Lett 2010; 584: 531–6. doi: 10.1016/j.febslet.2009.11.092.

  32. Lee HA, Park MH, Song YO, Jang MS, Han JS. Anti-hyperglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of Baechukimchi with Ecklonia cava in type 2 diabetic db/db mice. Food Sci Biotechnol 2015; 24: 307–14. doi: 10.1007/s10068-015-0041-z

  33. Yamanaka M, Itakura Y, Tsuchida A, Nakagawa T, Noguchi H, Taiji M. Comparison of the antidiabetic effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and thiazolidinediones in obese diabetic mice. Diabetes Obes Metab 2007; 9: 879–88. doi: 10.1111/j.1463-1326.2006.00675.x

  34. Hsu YJ, Lee TH, Chang CLT, Huang YT, Yang WC. Anti-hyperglycemic effects and mechanism of Bidens pilosa water extract. J Ethnophrmacol 2009; 122: 379–83. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2008.12.027

  35. Butler AE, Janson J, Soeller WC, Butler PC. Increased β-cell apoptosis prevents adaptive increase in β-cell mass in mouse model of type 2 diabetes: evidence for role of islet amyloid formation rather than direct action of amyloid. Diabetes 2003; 52: 2304–14. doi: 10.2337/diabetes.52.9.2304

How to Cite
Jeong H. S., Lee Y. R., Lee S. H., Jang G. Y., Lee Y. J., Kim M. Y., Kim Y.-B., & Lee J. (2019). Antioxidative and antidiabetic effects of germinated rough rice extract in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C57BLKS/J-<em>db/db</em&gt; mice. Food & Nutrition Research, 63.
Original Articles