Effect of dietary fructose on lipid metabolism, body weight and glucose tolerance in humans
AbstractThe prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide. Increasing body weight together with decreasing physical activity is expected to increase the incidence of several diseases related to lifestyle, such as adult type diabetes and vascular atherosclerotic diseases. It has been postulated that increasing consumption of fructose may be a contributory factor in the development of obesity and the accompanying metabolic abnormalities. Most studies supporting these hypotheses, however, are animal studies, which suggest that consumption of high amounts of fructose may stimulate lipogenesis and thus alter lipid metabolism and increase body weight. This review explores the effects of dietary fructose on lipid metabolism in humans, with the conclusion that the data so far do not support any significant specific adverse effect of fructose apart from its energy content. A small amount of fructose may even improve glucose tolerance, and studies to date on diabetic subjects indic ate that isocaloric replacement of some glucose-based carbohydrates with fructose may improve metabolic control. Keywords: cholesterol; diabetes; fructose; oral glucose tolerance; triglycerides
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