Resolvins and protectins: novel lipid mediators in anti-inflammation and resolution
AbstractA well-integrated inflammatory response and its natural resolution are essential to homeostasis. Hence, it is important to achieve a complete understanding of the molecular events that govern termination of acute inflammation. Recent studies uncovered endogenous pathways in inflammatory exudates taken from the resolution phase that actively generate new families of locally acting mediators from the essential fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. These new chemical families were coined resolvins and protectins because in animals specific members of these families control the duration and magnitude of inflammation. Hence, mapping of these resolution circuits, mediators and their target signaling pathways of these potent agonists of resolution has provided new avenues for appreciating the molecular basis of many inflammatory diseases. This overview covers recent advances on the biosynthesis and actions of these novel anti-inflammatory lipid medi ators, with a focus on the stereochemical basis of the potent actions of resolvin E1 and protectin D1. These previously unappreciated families of lipid-derived mediators were originally isolated from experimental murine models of acute inflammation captured during natural self-limited resolution. Since they have proven anti-inflammatory, proresolving, and protective properties in experimental models of disease, it follows that potential defective resolution mechanism(s) may underlie the current appreciation of inflammatory disease phenotype(s). Keywords: anti-inflammatory; aspirin; human leukocytes; lipid mediators
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