Fatty acid composition in relation to the metabolic syndrome and associated cardiovascular risk factors
AbstractFatty acid metabolism is important in relation to the development of insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. Elevated total non-esterified fatty acid concentrations predispose to an atherogenic lipoprotein profile, but the individual properties of specific fatty acids are also of importance for the development of the metabolic syndrome. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationships between fatty acid composition and selected cardiovascular risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome [small, dense low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles and oxidative stress], and to investigate estimates of adipose tissue D9-desaturase activity. A cohort of approximately 300 healthy Swedish men (aged 62-64 years), extensively characterized in relation to components of the metabolic syndrome, was investigated cross-sectionally. Increases in fatty acids typical of milk products were associated with reduced numbers of potentially atherogenic small, dense LDL particles, and n-3 fatty acids were independent (negative) predictors of oxidative stress. D9-Desaturase activity in human adipose tissue needs more detailed investigation in relation to the metabolic syndrome. In conclusion, the quality of dietary fat is of importance in relation to the development of cardiovascular risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome. Keywords: insulin resistance; LDL particle size; oxidative stress; stearoyl CoA desaturase
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