Cyclocarya paliurus ethanol leaf extracts protect against diabetic cardiomyopathy in db/db mice via regulating PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling
Background: Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a serious complication of diabetes that can lead to significant mortality. Cyclocarya paliurus is a tree, the leaves of which are often utilized to prevent and treat diabetes mellitus. Whether C. paliurus leaves can prevent or treat DCM, however, it remains to be formally assessed. The present study was therefore designed to assess the ability of C. paliurus to protect against DCM in db/db mice.
Methods: Male wild-type (WT) and db/db mice were administered C. paliurus ethanol leaf extracts (ECL) or appropriate vehicle controls daily via gavage, and levels of blood glucose in treated animals were assessed on a weekly basis. After a 10-week treatment, the levels of cardiac troponin I (cTn-I), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase MB (CK-MB), aspartate transaminase (AST), total triglycerides (TG), and total cholesterol (TC) in serum were measured. Activities of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase (CAT) and the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6 in heart tissues were detected. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Masson staining were conducted. The protein expression that related with oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction was evaluated by Western blotting.
Results: Compared with WT mice, the TG, TC, and blood glucose levels in db/db mice increased significantly, which were reduced by ECL treatment. Compared with WT mice, the levels of LDH, CK-MB, AST, and cTn-I in serum and MDA in heart tissues of db/db mice increased significantly. Activities of SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT in heart tissues of db/db mice decreased significantly. The levels of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) in heart tissues of db/db mice increased remarkably. However, ECL treatment improved the above pathological changes significantly. ECL alleviated pathological injury and fibrosis in heart tissues of mice. Western blotting showed that ECL increased Bcl-2 level and decreased Bax, cle-caspase-3, and clecaspase- 9 expression. Furthermore, ECL inhibited NF-κB nuclear translocation and increased PI3K and p-Akt expressions.
Conclusion: Our results indicate that ECL treatment can markedly reduce pathological cardiac damage in db/ db mice through antiapoptotic, antifibrotic, and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Specifically, this extract was able to suppress NF-κB activation via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Given its diverse activities and lack of significant side effects, ECL may thus have therapeutic value for the treatment of DCM.
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