Increasing doses of fiber do not influence short-term satiety or food intake and are inconsistently linked to gut hormone levels
AbstractBackground: People who eat more fiber often have a lower body weight than people who eat less fiber. The mechanism for this relationship has been explained, in part, by increased satiety, which may occur as a result of changes in appetite-suppressing gut hormone levels, and decreases in food intake at subsequent meals. Objective: We hypothesized that increasing doses of mixed fiber, consumed in muffins for breakfast, would proportionally influence satiety, gut hormone levels, and subsequent food intake. Design: This was a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. Healthy men (n=10) and women (n=10) with a BMI of 24±2 (mean±SEM) participated in this study. Fasting subjects consumed a muffin with 0, 4, 8, or 12 g of mixed fibers and approximately 500 kcal. Visual analog scales rated hunger and satiety for 3 h; blood was drawn to measure ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and peptide YY3-36 (PYY3-36) at various intervals; and food intake was measured at an ad libitum lunch. Results: Responses to satiety-related questions did not differ among treatments. However, despite lack of differences in satiety, gut hormone levels differed among treatments. Ghrelin was higher after the 12 g fiber dose than after the 4 and 8 g fiber doses. GLP-1 was higher after the 0 g fiber dose than after the 12 and 4 g fiber doses, and PYY3-36 did not differ among fiber doses. Food intake was also indistinguishable among doses. Conclusion: Satiety, gut hormone response, and food intake did not change in a dose-dependent manner after subjects consumed 0, 4, 8, and 12 g of mixed fiber in muffins for breakfast.
Keywords: fiber dose; fiber; ghrelin; GLP-1; PYY; appetite; hunger; visual analog scales
(Published: 29 June 2010)
Citation: Food & Nutrition Research 2010, 54: 5135 - DOI: 10.3402/fnr.v54i0.5135
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Authors retain copyright of their work, with first publication rights granted to SNF Swedish Nutrition Foundation.