Factors determining household-level food insecurity during COVID-19 epidemic: a case of Wuhan, China
Background: In coping with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic, cities adopted social isolation and lockdown measures; however, little is known about the impacts of these restrictions on household food security.
Objective: This study provides a timely assessment of household food insecurity (HFI) in the Chinese city of Wuhan during the COVID-19 epidemic period and also investigates its determinant factors.
Design: We collected valid data on food insecurity from 653 households in Wuhan via an online questionnaire in March 2020. The Household Food Insecurity Access Scale Score (HFIASS) was used to measure HFI, and a multiple linear regression model was used to determine the HFIASS.
Results: The mean HFIASS in Wuhan was 9.42 (standard deviation: 5.82), with more than 50% of the households had an HFIASS < 9. Compared with normal conditions, lockdown measures had a huge negative impact on household food security. The results revealed that socio-demographic characteristics remained the underlying determinants of HFIASS during the epidemic. Households in Wuhan with local Hukou (city household registration) and self-owned property had a lower risk of food insecurity.
Discussion and conclusion: After the restriction of conventional food access channels, intermediary food purchase methods such as group purchasing, shopping with the help of neighborhood committees, property management agents, and volunteers became the most important or the only channel for residents to access food. There were similarities in the use of these intermediary channels. Based on the probability that the epidemic will continue and the probability of similar public health-related outbreaks in the future, the study calls for a more resilient and responsive sustainable food supply system by harnessing the capacity of communities, e-commerce and rapid logistics.
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