Antiproliferative and proapoptotic activities of anthocyanin and anthocyanidin extracts from blueberry fruits on B16-F10 melanoma cells
Background : Anthocyanins have been proven to affect multiple cancer-associated processes in different cancer cell lines. However, relatively few studies have investigated the effects of blueberry anthocyanins on metastatic melanoma. Thus, this study focuses on evaluating the chemopreventive potential of blueberry anthocyanins and their aglycones (anthocyanidins) in B16-F10 melanoma cells.
Methods : Blueberry anthocyanin and anthocyanidin extracts were prepared mainly by combined chromatography techniques. Their antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects on B16-F10 cells were evaluated by MTT assay, calcein acetoxymethyl ester/propidium iodide (calcein-AM/PI) staining, and flow cytometry of the cell cycle and apoptosis.
Results : The MTT and calcein-AM/PI staining results showed that both anthocyanin (purity of 62.5%) and anthocyanidin (75.1%) extracts could significantly inhibit the viability and proliferation of B16-F10 cells in a dose-dependent manner, while anthocyanidin extracts exhibited significantly higher ( p < 0.05) cytotoxicity than anthocyanin extracts. Furthermore, anthocyanin and anthocyanidin extracts blocked cell cycle procession at the G0/G1 phase below 400 and 200 μg/mL, and induced early apoptosis below 400 and 300 μg/mL, respectively.
Conclusions : These data suggest that both anthocyanin and anthocyanidin extracts inhibit the proliferation and trigger the apoptosis of B16-F10 cells, and anthocyanidin extracts may be a more promising candidate in preventing metastatic melanoma than anthocyanin extracts.
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