Green tea (Camellia sinensis) aqueous extract alleviates postmenopausal osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats and prevents RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro
Background: Green tea (Camelliasinensis [L.] Kuntze) belongs to the plant family Theaceae and is mainly distributed in East Asia, the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia. This plant has been proven to be beneficial to human health, and green tea is the second most consumed beverage in the world after water. However, until now, the effect of green tea aqueous extract (GTE) upon postmenopausal osteoporosis has remained unclear. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of GTE on estrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis and explored the possible mechanisms in vivo and in vitro.
Materials and methods: Ovariectomized (OVX) female rats were orally administered with GTE at doses of 60,
120, and 370 mg kg−1 for 13 consecutive weeks. The biochemical parameters, bone gla protein, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, estrogen, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 in blood samples were detected, and histological change in bones was analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Meanwhile, the mechanisms of GTE on osteoclast formation were explored in RAW 264.7 cells induced by receptor activation of the nuclear
factor kappa B ligand (RANKL).
Results: The results showed that GTE could increase bone mass and inhibit trabecular bone loss in OVX
rats. Furthermore, real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis from
in vitro experiments also showed that GTE reduced the mRNA expression of osteoclast-associated genes such
as cathepsin K (cath-K), c-Fos, matrix metalloproteinase 9, nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1
(NFATc1) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. In addition, GTE caused a reduction in the protein levels of
NFATc1, c-Fos, c-src and cath-K.
Conclusion: Evidence from both animal models and in vitro experiments suggested that GTE might effectively
ameliorate the symptoms of osteoporosis in OVX rats and inhibit RANKL-induced osteoclast-specific gene and protein expression.
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