The Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2022 – principles and methodologies

  • Jacob Juel Christensen Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Familial Hypercholesterolemia, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, and Department of Nutrition, University of Oslo, Norway
  • Erik Kristoffer Arnesen Department of Nutrition, University of Oslo, Norway
  • Rikke Andersen National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
  • Hanna Eneroth The Swedish Food Agency, Uppsala, Sweden
  • Maijaliisa Erkkola Department of Food and Nutrition, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
  • Anne Høyer The Norwegian Directorate of Health, Oslo, Norway
  • Eva Warensjö Lemming The Swedish Food Agency, Uppsala, Sweden
  • Helle Margrete Meltzer Department of Environmental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway
  • Þórhallur Ingi Þórhallsson School of Health Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland
  • Inga Þórsdóttir School of Health Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland
  • Ursula Schwab Department of Medicine, Endocrinology and Clinical Nutrition, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, and Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio Campus, Kuopio, Finland
  • Ellen Trolle National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
  • Rune Blomhoff Department of Nutrition, University of Oslo, Norway; The Norwegian Directorate of Health, Oslo, and Division of Cancer Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Norway
Keywords: Dietary reference values, food-based dietary guidelines, systematic reviews, Nordic countries, the Baltics, national food and health authorities, evidence-based nutrition, nutrient recommendations

Abstract

Background: The Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNRs) constitute the scientific basis for national dietary reference values (DRVs) and food-based dietary guidelines (FBDGs) in the Nordic and Baltic countries.

Objective: To define principles and methodologies for the sixth edition of NNR to be published in 2022 (NNR2022).

Design: The principles and methodologies of the previous edition of NNR were used as a starting point. Recent nutrition recommendations commissioned by other national food and health authorities or international food and health organizations were examined and dissected. Updated principles and methodologies were agreed by the NNR2022 Committee in a consensus-driven process.

Results: An organizational model with ‘checks and balances’ was developed to minimize the influence of subjective biases of the committee members and experts. Individual chapters on all included nutrients and food groups will be updated as scoping reviews. Systematic reviews (SRs), which are the main basis for evaluating causal effects of nutrients or food groups on health outcomes, will be embedded in each chapter. A NNR SR Centre will be established for performing de novo SRs on prioritized topics. To avoid duplication and optimize the use of resources, qualified SRs commissioned by other national and international organizations and health authorities will also inform DRVs and FBDGs in NNR2022.

Discussion: The evidence-based methods defined in the NNR2022 project are compatible with most contemporary methods used by leading national food and health authorities. Global harmonization of methodological approaches to nutrition recommendations is strongly encouraged.

Conclusion: Evidence-informed principles and methodologies underpinned by SRs will ensure that DRVs and FBDGs defined in the NNR2022 project are based on the best available evidence and as far as possible free from overt bias.

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Published
2020-06-18
How to Cite
Juel Christensen, J., Arnesen, E. K., Andersen, R., Eneroth, H., Erkkola, M., Høyer, A., Warensjö Lemming, E., Meltzer, H. M., Þórhallsson, Þórhallur I., Þórsdóttir, I., Schwab, U., Trolle, E., & Blomhoff, R. (2020). The Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2022 – principles and methodologies. Food & Nutrition Research, 64. https://doi.org/10.29219/fnr.v64.4402
Section
Review Articles

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