Consumption of grapefruit is associated with higher nutrient intakes and diet quality among adults, and more favorable anthropometrics in women, NHANES 2003-2008

  • Mary M. Murphy Exponent, Inc.
  • Leila M. Barraj Exponent, Inc.
  • Gail C. Rampersaud University of Florida Gainesville, FL
Keywords: Nutrition epidemiology, grapefruit, juice, citrus, nutrient intake, adults, NHANES, anthropometrics, body weight, BMI

Abstract

Background: Dietary guidance recommends consumption of a nutrient-dense diet containing a variety of fruits. The purpose of this study was to estimate usual nutrient intakes and adequacy of nutrient intakes among adult grapefruit consumers and non-consumers, and to examine associations between grapefruit consumption and select health parameters.

Methods: The analysis was conducted with data collected in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2008. Respondents reporting consumption of any amount of grapefruit or 100% grapefruit juice at least once during the 2 days of dietary recall were classified as grapefruit consumers.

Results: Among adults aged 19+ years with 2 days of dietary recall (n=12,789), 2.5% of males and 2.7% of females reported consumption of 100% grapefruit juice or fresh, canned, or frozen grapefruit during the recalls. Grapefruit consumers were less likely to have usual intakes of vitamin C (males: 0% vs. 47%; females: 0% vs. 43%; P<0.001) and magnesium (P<0.05) below the estimated average requirement (EAR) compared to non-consumers, and they were more likely to meet adequate intake levels for dietary fiber (P<0.05). Potassium and β-carotene intakes were significantly higher among grapefruit consumers (P<0.001). Diet quality as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) was higher in grapefruit consumers (males: 66.2 [95% CI: 61.0–71.5] vs. 55.4 [95% CI: 54.4–56.4]; females: 71.4 [95% CI: 65.1–77.6] vs. 61.2 [95% CI: 59.8–62.6]). Among women, grapefruit consumption was associated with lower body weight, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), triglycerides, C-reactive protein (CRP), and higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (P<0.05), However, risk of being overweight/obese was not associated with grapefruit consumption.

Conclusion: Consumption of grapefruit was associated with higher intakes of vitamin C, magnesium, potassium, dietary fiber, and improved diet quality. Grapefruit may provide a healthful option for adults striving to meet fruit recommendations.

Keywords: grapefruit; juice; citrus; nutrient intake; adults; NHANES; anthropometrics; body weight; BMI

(Published: 8 May 2014)

Citation: Food & Nutrition Research 2014, 58: 22179 - http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/fnr.v58.22179

Supplementary files can be accessed here.

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Author Biographies

Mary M. Murphy, Exponent, Inc.

Chemical Regulation & Food Safety
Senior Managing Scientist

Leila M. Barraj, Exponent, Inc.

Chemical Regulation & Food Safety
Senior Managing Scientist

Gail C. Rampersaud, University of Florida Gainesville, FL

Associate in Nutrition Research and Education

Food Science and Human Nutrition Department

Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS)

Published
2014-05-08
How to Cite
Murphy, M. M., Barraj, L. M., & Rampersaud, G. C. (2014). Consumption of grapefruit is associated with higher nutrient intakes and diet quality among adults, and more favorable anthropometrics in women, NHANES 2003-2008. Food & Nutrition Research. https://doi.org/10.3402/fnr.v58.22179
Section
Original Articles

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