Dietary aspects related to health and obesity in Williams syndrome, Down syndrome, and Prader - Willi syndrome
Background: Dietary aspects that might contribute to development of obesity and secondary conditions are not well documented in genetic subgroups associated with intellectual disability.
Objective: To describe the intake frequencies of selected foods in participants with Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS), Down syndrome (DS), and Williams syndrome (WS), and investigate the association with body mass index (BMI). To explore food-related autonomy and intake frequencies among persons with DS in different living arrangements.
Methods: Self-reported intake frequencies and measurement of plasma carotenoids and erythrocyte content of omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) were investigated in persons aged 16–42 years, with WS (n=21), DS (n=40), and PWS (n=20).
Results: A larger proportion of participants with PWS showed high-frequency intake of fruits (p=0.012) and vegetables (p=0.004), and had higher plasma carotenoids (p<0.001) compared to participants with DS and WS. Furthermore, a larger proportion of participants with WS were low-frequency consumers of fish (p=0.005), less likely to use omega-3 FA supplements (p=0.023), and had reduced erythrocyte concentrations of long-chain omega-3 FAs (p<0.001), compared to participants with PWS and DS. In DS, BMI was negatively associated with plasma carotenoids. Increased proportions of participants living in communities showed high-frequency intake of precooked meals (p=0.030), and a tendency toward high-frequency consumption of soft drinks (p=0.079), when compared to peers living with relatives. Participants in community residences were also more likely to participate frequently in food-related decisions and preparations.
Conclusions: Persons with WS had a less-favorable dietary pattern when compared to persons with PWS. A larger proportion of persons living in communities frequently consumed precooked meals and showed a tendency of high-frequency soft drink consumption. Otherwise, their intake frequencies of the investigated foods were similar to those living with relatives, but they participated more frequently in decisions and preparations of foods.
Keywords: diet; carotenoids; omega-3 fatty acids; obesity; intellectual disability; autonomy; developmental disability; living arrangements
Responsible Editor: Anna Ólafsdóttir, University of Iceland, Iceland.
(Published: 3 February 2015)
Citation: Food & Nutrition Research 2015, 59: 25487 - http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/fnr.v59.25487
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